Chapter 11 : Yeasts

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The number of yeast species documented to cause invasive infections in humans has increased. Several uncommon species have now been described to cause invasive infection in humans. A case of cryptococcosis due to the Vancouver Island strain of acquired in Washington State was also recently reported. Other species are also increasingly being recognized as causes of invasive disease among immunocompromised hosts. A list of ascomycetous yeasts such as , and reported to cause human disease have been discussed in the chapter. Compared to ascomycetes, yeasts of the phylum Basidiomycota are generally less frequently implicated in human disease. and are some of the basidiomycetous yeasts that have been discussed in the chapter. Culture methods remain the most frequently utilized laboratory tools for the diagnosis of invasive yeast infections. Various diagnostic approaches including chromogenic media, rapid biochemical assays, commercial biochemical panels, in vitro susceptibility testing, and molecular identification techniques are analyzed in the chapter.

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11

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TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Central Nervous System Diseases
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Flow chart of host-yeast () interactions and types of infection or colonization.

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Algorithm for direct detection, with or without direct identification, of yeasts in clinical specimens.

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Algorithm for definitive identification of yeasts recovered from clinical specimens.

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
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Table 1.

Ascomycetous yeasts reported to cause human disease

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
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Table 2.

Culture-dependent diagnostic assays

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Non-culture-dependent diagnostic assays

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 4.

American clinical trials investigating the BDG assay for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Clinical studies evaluating the detection of nucleic acid from clinical specimens in >50 patients

Citation: Bishop J, Merz W. 2009. Yeasts, p 221-251. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch11