Chapter 8 : Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics

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The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and natural ways of suppressing the growth of pathogens has contributed to the growth of probiotic foods and nutraceuticals. Probiotic bacteria not only compete and suppress “unhealthy fermentation” in the human intestine but also produce a number of beneficial health effects of their own. The viability of probiotics has been both a marketing and a technological challenge for many processing industries. Viability during the shelf life of the product and survival in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to populate the human gut are two important issues in health benefit provision by probiotics. Additionally, factors related to the technological and sensory aspects of probiotic food production are of importance since only by satisfying the demands of consumers can the food industry succeed in promoting the consumption of functional probiotic products in the future. In the past, microorganisms were immobilized or entrapped in polymer matrices for use in food and biotechnological applications. As the technique of immobilization or entrapment became refined, the immobilized cell technology has evolved into encapsulation of cells. Compared to immobilization/entrapment techniques, microencapsulation (ME) has many advantages. There are several methods of ME. However, technologies applied to probiotics are generally limited to gelling, spray-drying, spray-cooling, extrusion, and emulsions. Controlled release of bacteria is a critical benefit of ME. As clinical evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics accumulates, the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries will formulate new and innovative probiotic-based therapeutic products.

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Figure 1

Principle of encapsulation: membrane barrier isolates cells from the host immune system while allowing transport of metabolites and extracellular nutrients. Membrane with size-selective pores (30 to 70 kDa) ( ).

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Figure 2

Section of alginate microcapsules showing the starch granules in the cavities (a), (b), and (c) ( ).

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Figure 3

Release of encapsulated bacteria in ex vivo GI contents ( ).

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Figure 4

Release of encapsulated bacteria ( GFP K-12 strain) in porcine intestinal contents ( ).

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Figure 5

Release of encapsulated bacteria ( Shirota) in porcine intestinal contents ( ).

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Table 1

Encapsulation of lactic acid and probiotic bacteria

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8
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Table 2

Release profile of strain Shirota from chitosan-coated alginate-starch capsules in mouse GI tract at different time intervals

Citation: Kailasapathy K. 2008. Formulation, Administration, and Delivery of Probiotics, p 97-118. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch8

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