Chapter 26 : Probiotics in Veterinary Medicine

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Probiotics in Veterinary Medicine, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap26-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815462/9781555814038_Chap26-2.gif


Probiotic therapy is becoming increasingly popular in veterinary medicine, both for therapeutic uses and for growth promotion. Probiotics may be used in food animal species to prevent or treat disease, but this is typically focused on the herd, not individual animal, level. Other objectives include increasing growth rate, improving feed conversion, stimulating the immune system, and decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. The two main areas of emphasis in poultry research include enteropathogen control and immune stimulation. Consistent with other probiotics, the two most commonly represented genera in poultry probiotics are spp. and spp. Although undefined probiotics may be more efficacious than defined probiotics, their use is restricted in some countries because of the potential risks associated with the presence of pathogenic or antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Importantly, infection of chickens was associated with the production of proinflammatory and Th1 cytokines, such as IFN-γ. Probiotic therapy has received attention in cattle from many different perspectives, including increased production, decreased gastrointestinal disease, and decreased shedding of zoonotic enteropathogens. Probiotics are used in pigs for two main reasons: increased feed utilization efficiency with consequent weight gain and reduced frequency of diarrhea. Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular for treatment and prevention of diseases in companion animals, particularly horses, dogs, and cats. Probiotic therapy remains a promising option as parallel pressures to reduce antimicrobial use in animals, produce safe food cost-effectively, reduce environmental contamination with zoonotic pathogens, and maintain health in companion animals continue to be important priorities.

Citation: Weese J, Sharif S, Rodriguez-Palacios A. 2008. Probiotics in Veterinary Medicine, p 341-356. In Versalovic J, Wilson M (ed), Therapeutic Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815462.ch26
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abe, F.,, N. Ishibashi, and, S. Shimamura. 1995. Effect of administration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria to newborn calves and piglets. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 28382846.
2. Agarwal,, N.,, D. N. Kamra,, L. C. Chaudhary,, I. Agarwal,, A. Sahoo, and, N. N. Pathak. 2002. Microbial status and rumen enzyme profile of crossbred calves fed on different microbial feed additives. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34: 329336.
3. Aleman,, M. M.,, D. R. Stein,, D. T. Allen,, E. Perry,, K. V. Lehloenya,, T. G. Rehberger,, K. J. Mertz,, D. A. Jones, and, L. J. Spicer. 2007. Effects of feeding two levels of propionibacteria to dairy cows on plasma hormones and metabolites. J. Dairy Res. 74: 146153.
4. Alexopoulos,, C.,, I. E. Georgoulakis,, A. Tzivara,, S. K. Kritas,, A. Siochu, and, S. C. Kyriakis. 2004. Field evaluation of the efficacy of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spores, on the health status and performance of sows and their litters. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berlin) 88: 381392.
5. Alexopoulos,, C.,, A. Karagiannidis,, S. K. Kritas,, C. Boscos,, I. E. Georgoulakis, and, S. C. Kyriakis. 2001. Field evaluation of a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus spores on health status and performance of sows and their litters. J. Vet. Med. A 48: 137145.
6. Amezcua, R. 2006. Post-weaning diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli: prevalence, antibiotic resistance, investigation of risk factors and control methods. Ph. D. thesis. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
7. Amit-Romach, E.,, D. Sklan, and, Z. Uni. 2004. Microflora ecology of the chicken intestine using 16S ribosomal DNA primers. Poult. Sci. 83: 10931098.
8. Art,, T.,, D. Votion,, K. McEntee,, H. Amory,, A. Linden,, R. Close, and, P. Lekeux. 1994. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training. Vet. Res. 25: 361370.
9. Arthur,, T. M.,, G. A. Barkocy-Gallagher,, M. Rivera-Betancourt, and, M. Koohmaraie. 2002. Prevalence and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on carcasses in commercial beef cattle processing plants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 48474852.
10. Bailey,, J. S.,, N. J. Stern, and, N. A. Cox. 2000. Commercial field trial evaluation of mucosal starter culture to reduce Salmonella incidence in processed broiler carcasses. J. Food Prot. 63: 867870.
11. Baillon,, M. L.,, Z. V., Marshall-Jones, and, R. F. Butterwick. 2004. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 65: 338343.
12. Beal,, R. K.,, C. Powers,, P. Wigley,, P. A. Barrow, and, A. L. Smith. 2004. Temporal dynamics of the cellular, humoral and cytokine responses in chickens during primary and secondary infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Avian Pathol. 33: 2533.
13. Beauchemin,, K. A.,, W. Z. Yang,, D. P. Morgavi,, G. R. Ghorbani,, W. Kautz, and, J. A. Leedle. 2003. Effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials and yeast on site and extent of digestion, blood chemistry, and subclinical ruminal acidosis in feedlot cattle. J. Anim Sci. 81: 16281640.
14. Befus,, A. D.,, N. Johnston,, G. A. Leslie,, and J. Bienenstock. 1980. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the chicken. I. Morphology, ontogeny, and some functional characteristics of Peyer’s patches. J. Immunol. 125: 26262632.
15. Benoit, P. 1993. Clinical trial of a probiotic. Clinical and nutritional follow-up of 17 horses. Pract. Vet. Equine 25: 6164.
16. Benyacoub,, J.,, G. L. Czarnecki-Maulden,, C. Cavadini,, T. Sauthier,, R. E. Anderson,, E. J. Schiffrin, and, T. von der Weid. 2003. Supplementation of food with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) stimulates immune functions in young dogs. J. Nutr. 133: 11581162.
17. Berland, R., and, H. H. Wortis. 2002. Origins and functions of B-1 cells with notes on the role of CD5. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20: 253300.
18. Biagi, G.,, I. Cipollini,, A. Pompei,, G. Zaghini, and, D. Matteuzzi. 2007. Effect of a Lactobacillus animalis strain on composition and metabolism of the intestinal microflora in adult dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 124: 160165.
19. Biourge,, V.,, C. Vallet,, A. Levesque,, R. Sergheraert,, S. Chevalier, and, J. L. Roberton. 1998. The use of probiotics in the diet of dogs. J. Nutr. 128:2730S–2732S.
20. Bohmer,, B. M.,, W. Kramer, and, D. A. Roth-Maier. 2006. Dietary probiotic supplementation and resulting effects on performance, health status, and microbial characteristics of primiparous sows. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berlin) 90: 309315.
21. Brashears,, M. M.,, M. L. Galyean,, G. H. Loneragan,, J. E. Mann, and, K. Killinger-Mann. 2003. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and performance by beef feedlot cattle given Lactobacillus direct-fed microbials. J. Food Prot. 66: 748754.
22. Brisbin,, J. T.,, H. Zhou,, J. Gong,, P. Sabour,, M. R. Akbari,, H. R. Haghighi,, H. Yu,, A. Clarke,, A. J. Sarson, and, S. Sharif. 2008. Gene expression profiling of chicken lymphoid cells after treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus cellular components. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 32: 563574.
23. Broom,, L. J.,, H. M. Miller,, K. G. Kerr, and, J. S. Knapp. 2006. Effects of zinc oxide and Enterococcus faecium SF68 dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal microbiota and immune status of weaned piglets. Res. Vet. Sci. 80: 4554.
24. Callaway,, T. R.,, R. C. Anderson,, T. S. Edrington,, K. J. Genovese,, R. B. Harvey,, T. L. Poole, and, D. J. Nisbet. 2004. Recent pre-harvest supplementation strategies to reduce carriage and shedding of zoonotic enteric bacterial pathogens in food animals. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 5: 3547.
25. Cameron,, D. M., and, J. N. Carter. 1992. Evaluation of the efficacy of Broilact in preventing infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella enteritidis PT4. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15: 319326.
26. Chang,, Y. H.,, J. K. Kim,, H. J. Kim,, W. Y. Kim,, Y. B. Kim, and, Y. H. Park. 2001. Selection of a potential probiotic Lactobacillus strain and subsequent in vivo studies. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 80: 193199.
27. Christensen,, H. R.,, H. Frokiaer, and, J. J. Pestka. 2002. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 168: 171178.
28. Craven,, S. E.,, N. J. Stern,, N. A. Cox,, J. S. Bailey, and, M. Ber-rang. 1999. Cecal carriage of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens given Mucosal Starter Culture. Avian Dis. 43: 484490.
29. Dalloul,, R. A.,, H. S. Lillehoj,, N. M. Tamim,, T. A. Shellem, and, J. A. Doerr. 2005. Induction of local protective immunity to Eimeria acervulina by a Lactobacillus-based probiotic. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28: 351361.
30. Dann,, H. M.,, J. K. Drackley,, G. C. McCoy,, M. F. Hutjens, and, J. E. Garrett. 2000. Effects of yeast culture ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on prepartum intake and postpartum intake and milk production of Jersey cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83: 123127.
31. De Cupere, F.,, P. Deprez,, D. Demeulenaere, and, E. Muylle. 1992. Evaluation of the effect of 3 probiotics on experimental Escherichia coli enterotoxaemia in weaned piglets. Zentrbl. Veterinarmed. B 39: 277284.
32. Desrochers,, A. M.,, B. A. Dolente,, M. F. Roy,, R. Boston, and, S. Carlisle. 2005. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii for treatment of horses with acute enterocolitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 227: 954959.
33. Elam,, N. A.,, J. F. Gleghorn,, J. D. Rivera,, M. L. Galyean,, P. J. Defoor,, M. M. Brashears, and, S. M. Younts-Dahl. 2003. Effects of live cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus (strains NP45 and NP51) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii on performance, carcass, and intestinal characteristics, and Escherichia coli strain O157 shedding of finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 26862698.
34. Ewaschuk,, J. B.,, J. M. Naylor,, M. Chirino-Trejo, and, G. A. Zello. 2004. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves. Can. J. Vet. Res. 68: 249253.
35. Ewaschuk,, J. B.,, G. A. Zello, and, J. M. Naylor. 2006. Lactobacillus GG does not affect D-lactic acidosis in diarrheic calves, in a clinical setting. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 20: 614619.
36. Farnell,, M. B.,, A. M. Donoghue,, F. S. de Los Santos,, P. J. Blore,, B. M. Hargis,, G. Tellez, and, D. J. Donoghue. 2006. Upregulation of oxidative burst and degranulation in chicken heterophils stimulated with probiotic bacteria. Poult. Sci. 85: 19001906.
37. Ferreira,, A. J.,, C. S. Ferreira,, T. Knobl,, A. M. Moreno,, M. R. Bacarro,, M. Chen,, M. Robach, and, G. C. Mead. 2003. Comparison of three commercial competitive-exclusion products for controlling Salmonella colonization of broilers in Brazil. J. Food Prot. 66: 490492.
38. Francisco,, C. C.,, C. S. Chamberlain,, D. N. Waldner,, R. P. Wettemann, and, L. J. Spicer. 2002. Propionibacteria fed to dairy cows: effects on energy balance, plasma metabolites and hormones, and reproduction. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 17381751.
39. Genovese,, K. J.,, R. C. Anderson,, R. B. Harvey, and, D. J. Nisbet. 2000. Competitive exclusion treatment reduces the mortality and fecal shedding associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in nursery-raised neonatal pigs. Can. J. Vet. Res. 64: 204207.
40. Ghorbani,, G. R.,, D. P. Morgavi,, K. A. Beauchemin, and, J. A. Leedle. 2002. Effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials on ruminal fermentation, blood variables, and the microbial populations of feedlot cattle. J. Anim Sci. 80: 19771985.
41. Goldin,, B. R.,, S. L. Gorbach,, M. Saxelin,, S. Barakat,, L. Gualtieri, and, S. Salminen. 1992. Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract. Dig. Dis. Sci. 37: 121128.
42. Grabig,, A.,, D. Paclik,, C. Guzy,, A. Dankof,, D. C. Baumgart,, J. Erckenbrecht,, B. Raupach,, U. Sonnenborn,, J. Eckert,, R. R. Schumann,, B. Wiedenmann,, A. U. Dignass, and, A. Sturm. 2006. Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 ameliorates experimental colitis via toll-like receptor 2- and toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathways. Infect. Immun. 74: 40754082.
43. Guo, X.,, D. Li,, W. Lu,, X. Piao, and, X. Chen. 2006. Screening of Bacillus strains as potential probiotics and subsequent confirmation of the in vivo effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis MA139 in pigs. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 90: 139146.
44. Haghighi,, H. R.,, M. F. Abdul-Careem,, R. A. Dara,, J. R. Chambers, and, S. Sharif. 2008. Cytokine gene expression in chicken cecal tonsils following treatment with probiotics and Salmonella infection. Vet. Microbiol. 126: 225233.
45. Haghighi,, H. R.,, J. Gong,, C. L. Gyles,, M. A. Hayes,, B. Sanei,, P. Parvizi,, H. Gisavi,, J. R. Chambers, and, S. Sharif. 2005. Modulation of antibody-mediated immune response by probiotics in chickens. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12: 13871392.
46. Haghighi,, H. R.,, J. Gong,, C. L. Gyles,, M. A. Hayes,, H. Zhou,, B. Sanei,, J. R. Chambers, and, S. Sharif. 2006. Probiotics stimulate production of natural antibodies in chickens. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13: 975980.
47. Hakkinen, M., and, C. Schneitz. 1999. Efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product against Campylobacter jejuni. Br. Poult. Sci. 40: 619621.
48. Harp,, J. A.,, P. Jardon,, E. R. Atwill,, M. Zylstra,, S. Checel,, J. P. Goff, and, C. De Simone. 1996. Field testing of prophylactic measures against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in calves in a California dairy herd. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57: 15861588.
49. Higginbotham,, G. E.,, C. A. Collar,, M. S. Aseltine, and, D. L. Bath. 1994. Effect of yeast culture and Aspergillus oryzae extract on milk yield in a commercial dairy herd. J. Dairy Sci. 77: 343348.
50. Hofacre,, C. L.,, R. Froyman,, B. Gautrias,, B. George,, M. A. Goodwin, and, J. Brown. 1998. Use of Aviguard and other intestinal bioproducts in experimental Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotizing enteritis in broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 42: 579584.
51. Hojberg, O.,, N. Canibe,, B. Knudsen, and, B. B. Jensen. 2003. Potential rates of fermentation in digesta from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs: effect of feeding fermented liquid feed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 408418.
52. Huang,, M. K.,, Y. J. Choi,, R. Houde,, J. W. Lee,, B. Lee, and, X. Zhao. 2004. Effects of Lactobacilli and an acidophilic fungus on the production performance and immune responses in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 83: 788795.
53. Huber,, J. T.,, G. Higginbotham,, R. A. Gomez-Alarcon,, R. B. Taylor,, K. H. Chen,, S. C. Chan, and, Z. Wu. 1994. Heat stress interactions with protein, supplemental fat, and fungal cultures. J. Dairy Sci. 77: 20802090.
54. Janssens, S., and, R. Beyaert. 2003. Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 637646.
55. Jiang,, H. Q.,, M. C. Thurnheer,, A. W. Zuercher,, N. V. Boiko,, N. A. Bos, and, J. J. Cebra. 2004. Interactions of commensal gut microbes with subsets of B- and T-cells in the murine host. Vaccine 22: 805811.
56. Jouany,, J. P. 2006. Optimizing rumen functions in the close-up transition period and early lactation to drive dry matter intake and energy balance in cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 96: 250264.
57. Khaitsa,, M. L.,, D. R. Smith,, J. A. Stoner,, A. M. Parkhurst,, S. Hinkley,, T. J. Klopfenstein, and, R. A. Moxley. 2003. Incidence, duration, and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding by feedlot cattle during the finishing period. J. Food Prot. 66: 19721977.
58. Khuntia,, M. L., and, L. C. Chaudhary. 2002. Performance of male crossbred calves as influenced by substitution of grain by wheat bran and the addition of lactic acid bacteria to the diet. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sic. 15: 188194.
59. Kim,, L.,, P. S. Morley,, J. L. Traub-Dargatz,, M. D. Salman, and, C. Gentry-Weeks. 2001. Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 218: 740748.
60. Klose, V.,, M. Mohnl,, R. Plail,, G. Schatzmayr, and, A. P. Loibner. 2006. Development of a competitive exclusion product for poultry meeting the regulatory requirements for registration in the European Union. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 50: 563571.
61. Koenen,, M. E.,, J. Kramer,, R. van der Hulst,, L. Heres,, S. H. Jeurissen, and, W. J. Boersma. 2004. Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer- and meat-type chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 45: 355366.
62. Kritas,, S. K., and, R. B. Morrison. 2005. Evaluation of probiotics as a substitute for antibiotics in a large pig nursery. Vet. Rec. 156: 447448.
63. Kroese,, F. G.,, R. de Waard, and, N. A. Bos. 1996. B-1 cells and their reactivity with the murine intestinal microflora. Semin. Immunol. 8: 1118.
64. Kung,, L.,, Jr., C. C. Taylor,, M. P. Lynch,, and J. M. Neylon. 2003. The effect of treating alfalfa with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 336343.
65. Kyriakis,, S. C.,, V. K. Tsiloyiannis,, J. Vlemmas,, K. Sarris,, A. C. Tsinas,, C. Alexopoulos, and, L. Jansegers. 1999. The effect of probiotic LSP 122 on the control of post-weaning diarrhoea syndrome of piglets. Res. Vet. Sci. 67: 223228.
66. Lammers,, K. M.,, P. Brigidi,, B. Vitali,, P. Gionchetti,, F. Rizzello,, E. Caramelli,, D. Matteuzzi, and, M. Campieri. 2003. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotic bacteria DNA: IL-1 and IL-10 response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 38: 165172.
67. Lawlor,, P. G.,, P. B. Lynch,, G. E. Gardiner,, P. J. Caffrey, and, J. V. O’Doherty. 2002. Effect of liquid feeding weaned pigs on growth performance to harvest. J. Anim. Sci. 80: 17251735.
68. Lebeer,, S.,, S. C. De Keersmaecker,, T. L. Verhoeven,, A. A. Fadda,, K. Marchal, and, J. Vanderleyden. 2007. Functional analysis of luxS in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals a central metabolic role important for growth and biofilm formation. J. Bacteriol. 189: 860871.
69. LeJeune,, J. T., and, A. N. Wetzel. 2007. Preharvest control of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85:E73–E80.
70. Lillehoj,, H. S., and, J. M. Trout. 1996. Avian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and intestinal immune responses to Eimeria parasites. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 349360.
71. Lindecrona,, R. H.,, T. K. Jensen, and, K. Moller. 2004. Influence of diet on the experimental infection of pigs with Brachyspira pilosicoli. Vet. Rec. 154: 264267.
72. Macpherson,, A. J.,, D. Gatto,, E. Sainsbury,, G. R. Harriman,, H. Hengartner, and, R. M. Zinkernagel. 2000. A primitive T cell-independent mechanism of intestinal mucosal IgA responses to commensal bacteria. Science 288: 22222226.
73. Manninen,, T. J.,, M. L. Rinkinen,, S. S. Beasley, and, P. E. Saris. 2006. Alteration of the canine small-intestinal lactic acid bacterium microbiota by feeding of potential probiotics. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 65396543.
74. Marshall-Jones,, Z. V.,, M. L. Baillon,, J. M. Croft, and, R. F. Butterwick. 2006. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM13241 as a probiotic in healthy adult cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 67: 10051012.
75. Mathieu,, F.,, J. P. Jouany,, J. Senaud,, J. Bohatier,, G. Bertin, and, M. Mercier. 1996. The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on fermentation in the rumen of faunated and defaunated sheep; protozoal and probiotic interactions. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 36: 271287.
76. McGilliard,, M. L., and, C. C. Stallings. 1998. Increase in milk yield of commercial dairy herds fed a microbial and enzyme supplement. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 13531357.
77. Mead,, G. C. 2000. Prospects for ‘competitive exclusion’ treatment to control salmonellas and other foodborne pathogens in poultry. Vet. J. 159: 111123.
78. Methner, U.,, P. A. Barrow,, G. Martin, and, H. Meyer. 1997. Comparative study of the protective effect against Salmonella colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens using live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, wild-type Salmonella strains or a competitive exclusion product. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 35: 223230.
79. Morrill,, J. L.,, J. M. Morrill,, A. M. Feyerherm, and, J. F. Laster. 1995. Plasma proteins and a probiotic as ingredients in milk replacer. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 902907.
80. Muir,, W. I.,, W. L. Bryden, and, A. J. Husband. 2000. Immunity, vaccination and the avian intestinal tract. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 24: 325342.
81. Nakamura,, A.,, Y. Ota,, A. Mizukami,, T. Ito,, Y. B. Ngwai, and, Y. Adachi. 2002. Evaluation of Aviguard, a commercial competitive exclusion product for efficacy and after-effect on the antibody response of chicks to Salmonella. Poult. Sci. 81: 16531660.
82. Nisbet, D. 2002. Defined competitive exclusion cultures in the prevention of enteropathogen colonisation in poultry and swine. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 81: 481486.
83. Nocek,, J. E., and, W. P. Kautz. 2006. Direct-fed microbial supplementation on ruminal digestion, health, and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 260266.
84. Nocek,, J. E.,, W. P. Kautz,, J. A. Leedle, and, J. G. Allman. 2002. Ruminal supplementation of direct-fed microbials on diurnal pH variation and in situ digestion in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 429433.
85. Nocek,, J. E.,, W. P. Kautz,, J. A. Leedle, and, E. Block. 2003. Direct-fed microbial supplementation on the performance of dairy cattle during the transition period. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 331335.
86. Nuotio, L.,, C. Schneitz,, U. Halonen, and, E. Nurmi. 1992. Use of competitive exclusion to protect newly-hatched chicks against intestinal colonisation and invasion by Salmonella enteritidis PT4. Br. Poult. Sci. 33: 775779.
87. Nurmi, E., and, M. Rantala. 1973. New aspects of Salmonella infection in broiler production. Nature 241: 210211.
88. Oetzel,, G. R.,, K. M. Emery,, W. P. Kautz, and, J. E. Nocek. 2007. Direct-fed microbial supplementation and health and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle: a field trial. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 20582068.
89. O’Hara,, A. M.,, P. O’Regan,, A. Fanning,, C. O’Mahony,, J. Macsharry,, A. Lyons,, J. Bienenstock,, L. O’Mahony, and, F. Shanahan. 2006. Functional modulation of human intestinal epithelial cell responses by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus salivarius. Immunology 118: 202215.
90. Ohya, T.,, T. Marubashi, and, H. Ito. 2000. Significance of fecal volatile fatty acids in shedding of Escherichia coli O157 from calves: experimental infection and preliminary use of a probiotic product. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62: 11511155.
91. Palmu, L., and, I. Camelin. 1997. The use of competitive exclusion in broilers to reduce the level of Salmonella contamination on the farm and at the processing plant. Poult. Sci. 76: 15011505.
92. Parraga,, M. E.,, S. J. Spier,, M. Thurmond, and, D. Hirsh. 1997. A clinical trial of probiotic administration for prevention of Salmonella shedding in the postoperative period in horses with colic. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 11: 3641.
93. Pasupathy, K.,, A. Sahoo, and, N. N. Pathak. 2001. Effect of lactobacillus supplementation on growth and nutrient utilization in mongrel pups. Arch. Tierernahr. 55: 243253.
94. Peterson,, R. E.,, T. J. Klopfenstein,, G. E. Erickson,, J. Folmer,, S. Hinkley,, R. A. Moxley, and, D. R. Smith. 2007. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 on Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding and finishing performance in beef feedlot cattle. J. Food Prot. 70: 287291.
95. Rachmilewitz,, D.,, K. Katakura,, F. Karmeli,, T. Hayashi,, C. Reinus,, B. Rudensky,, S. Akira,, K. Takeda,, J. Lee,, K. Takabayashi, and, E. Raz. 2004. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis. Gastroenterology 126: 520528.
96. Rakoff-Nahoum, S.,, J. Paglino,, F. Eslami-Varzaneh,, S. Edberg, and, R. Medzhitov. 2004. Recognition of commensal micro-flora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis. Cell 118: 229241.
97. Ratajczak,, C.,, C. Duez,, C. Grangette,, P. Pochard,, A. B. Tonnel, and, J. Pestel. 2007. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on dendritic cells from allergic patients in an experimental model of intestinal epithelium. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2007:71921.
98. Rescigno,, M.,, M. Urbano,, B. Valzasina,, M. Francolini,, G. Rotta,, R. Bonasio,, F. Granucci,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl, and, P. Ricciardi-Castagnoli. 2001. Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat. Immunol. 2: 361367.
99. Revolledo, L.,, A. J. Ferreira, and, G. C. Mead. 2006. Prospects of Salmonella control: competitive exclusion, probiotics, and enhancement of avian intestinal immunity. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 15: 341351.
100. Rhee,, K. J.,, P. Sethupathi,, A. Driks,, D. K. Lanning, and, K. L. Knight. 2004. Role of commensal bacteria in development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and preimmune antibody repertoire. J. Immunol. 172: 11181124.
101. Rinkinen, M.,, K. Jalava,, E. Westermarck,, S. Salminen, and, A. C. Ouwehand. 2003. Interaction between probiotic lactic acid bacteria and canine enteric pathogens: a risk factor for intestinal Enterococcus faecium colonization? Vet. Micro-biol. 92: 111119.
102. Rodriguez-Palacios, A.,, J. S. Weese,, T. Duffield, and, H. R. Staempfli. 2004. Effect of oral probiotics on calf diarrhea: clinical trials published between 1973-2003. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 18: 395396.
103. Santosa, S.,, E. Farnworth, and, P. J. Jones. 2006. Probiotics and their potential health claims. Nutr. Rev. 64: 265274.
104. Sauter,, S. N.,, J. Benyacoub,, K. Allenspach,, F. Gaschen,, E. Ontsouka,, G. Reuteler,, C. Cavadini,, R. Knorr, and, J. W. Blum. 2006. Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berlin) 90: 269277.
105. Schamberger,, G. P., and, F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2002. Selection of recently isolated colicinogenic Escherichia coli strains inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 65: 13811387.
106. Schamberger,, G. P.,, R. L. Phillips,, J. L. Jacobs, and, F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2004. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in cattle by addition of colicin E7-producing E. coli to feed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 60536060.
107. Schroeder,, B.,, S. Duncker,, S. Barth,, R. Bauerfeind,, A. D. Gruber,, S. Deppenmeier, and, G. Breves. 2006. Preventive effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on acute secretory diarrhea in a pig model of intestinal infection. Dig. Dis. Sci. 51: 724731.
108. Shu, Q.,, F. Qu, and, H. S. Gill. 2001. Probiotic treatment using Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces weanling diarrhea associated with rotavirus and Escherichia coli infection in a piglet model. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 33: 171177.
109. Silva,, A. M.,, F. H. Barbosa,, R. Duarte,, L. Q. Vieira,, R. M. Arantes, and, J. R. Nicoli. 2004. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum ingestion on experimental salmonellosis in mice. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 2937.
110. Smits,, H. H.,, A. Engering,, D. van der Kleij,, E. C. de Jong,, K. Schipper,, T. M. van Capel,, B. A. Zaat,, M. Yazdanbakhsh,, E. A. Wierenga,, Y. van Kooyk, and, M. L. Kapsenberg. 2005. Selective probiotic bacteria induce IL-10-producing regulatory T cells in vitro by modulating dendritic cell function through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115: 12601267.
111. Soder,, K. J., and, L. A. Holden. 1999. Dry matter intake and milk yield and composition of cows fed yeast prepartum and postpartum. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 605610.
112. Stavric, S., and, J.-Y. D’Aoust. 1993. Undefined and defined bacterial preparations for the competitive exclusion of Salmonella in poultry— a review. J. Food Prot. 56: 173180.
113. Stephens,, T. P.,, G. H. Loneragan,, L. M. Chichester, and, M. M. Brashears. 2007. Prevalence and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in steers receiving various strains of Lactobacillus-based direct-fed microbials. J. Food Prot. 70: 12521255.
114. Strompfova, V.,, M. Marcinakova,, M. Simonova,, B. BogovicMatijasic, and, A. Laukova. 2006a. Application of potential probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum AD1 strain in healthy dogs. Anaerobe 12: 7579.
115. Strompfova,, V.,, M. Marcinakova,, M. Simonova,, S. Gancarcikova,, Z. Jonecova,, L. Scirankova,, J. Koscova,, V. Buleca,, K. Cobanova, and, A. Laukova. 2006b. Enterococcus faecium EK13—an enterocin a-producing strain with probiotic character and its effect in piglets. Anaerobe 12: 242248.
116. Taras, D.,, W. Vahjen,, M. Macha, and, O. Simon. 2005. Response of performance characteristics and fecal consistency to long-lasting dietary supplementation with the probiotic strain Bacillus cereus var. toyoi to sows and piglets. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 59: 405417.
117. Timmerman,, H. M.,, L. Mulder,, H. Everts,, D. C. van Espen,, E. van der Wal,, G. Klaassen,, S. M. Rouwers,, R. Hartemink,, F. M. Rombouts, and, A. C. Beynen. 2005. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 21542165.
118. Tkalcic,, S.,, T. Zhao,, B. G. Harmon,, M. P. Doyle,, C. A. Brown, and, P. Zhao. 2003. Fecal shedding of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in weaned calves following treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 66: 11841189.
119. van der Wolf,, P. J.,, W. B. Wolbers,, A. R. Elbers,, H. M. van der Heijden,, J. M. Koppen,, W. A. Hunneman,, F. W. van Schie, and, M. J. Tielen. 2001. Herd level husbandry factors associated with the serological Salmonella prevalence in finishing pig herds in The Netherlands. Vet. Microbiol. 78: 205219.
120. van Winsen,, R. L.,, D. Keuzenkamp,, B. A. Urlings,, L. J. Lipman,, J. A. Snijders,, J. H. Verheijden, and, F. van Knapen. 2002. Effect of fermented feed on shedding of Enterobacteriaceae by fattening pigs. Vet. Microbiol. 87: 267276.
121. van Winsen,, R. L.,, B. A. Urlings,, L. J. Lipman,, J. M. Snijders,, D. Keuzenkamp,, J. H. Verheijden, and, F. van Knapen. 2001. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 30713076.
122. Weese,, J. S. 2002. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 220: 794797.
123. Weese,, J. S. 2003. Evaluation of deficiencies in labeling of commercial probiotics. Can. Vet. J. 44: 982983.
124. Weese,, J. S., and, M. E. Anderson. 2002. Preliminary evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a potential probiotic in dogs. Can. Vet. J. 43: 771774.
125. Weese,, J. S.,, M. E. Anderson,, A. Lowe, and, G. J. Monteith. 2003. Preliminary investigation of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in horses: fecal recovery following oral administration and safety. Can. Vet. J. 44: 299302.
126. Weese,, J. S.,, M. E. Anderson,, A. Lowe,, R. Penno,, T. M. da Costa,, L. Button, and, K. C. Goth. 2004a. Screening of the equine intestinal microflora for potential probiotic organisms. Equine Vet. J. 36: 351355.
127. Weese,, J. S., and, L. Arroyo. 2003. Bacteriological evaluation of dog and cat diets that claim to contain probiotics. Can. Vet. J. 44: 212216.
128. Weese,, J. S., and, J. Rousseau. 2005. Evaluation of Lactobacillus pentosus WE7 for prevention of diarrhea in neonatal foals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 226: 20312034.
129. Weese,, J. S.,, H. E. Weese,, L. Yuricek, and, J. Rousseau. 2004b. Oxalate degradation by intestinal lactic acid bacteria in dogs and cats. Vet. Microbiol. 101: 161166.
130. Williams,, P. E.,, C. A. Tait,, G. M. Innes, and, C. J. Newbold. 1991. Effects of the inclusion of yeast culture ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium) in the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and forage degradation and fermentation patterns in the rumen of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 30163026.
131. Withanage,, G. S.,, P. Kaiser,, P. Wigley,, C. Powers,, P. Mastroeni,, H. Brooks,, P. Barrow,, A. Smith,, D. Maskell, and, I. McConnell. 2004. Rapid expression of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines in newly hatched chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 72: 21522159.
132. Withanage,, G. S.,, P. Wigley,, P. Kaiser,, P. Mastroeni,, H. Brooks,, C. Powers,, R. Beal,, P. Barrow,, D. Maskell, and, I. McConnell. 2005. Cytokine and chemokine responses associated with clearance of a primary Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in the chicken and in protective immunity to rechallenge. Infect. Immun. 73: 51735182.
133. Yasuda, K., and, T. Fukata. 2004. Mixed feed containing dextran improves milk production of Holstein dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 66: 12871288.
134. Yasuda,, K.,, S. Hashikawa,, H. Sakamoto,, Y. Tomita,, S. Shibata, and, T. Fukata. 2007. A new synbiotic consisting of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and dextran improves milk production in Holstein dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 69: 205208.
135. Yoon,, I. K., and, M. D. Stern. 1995. Influence of direct-fed microbials on ruminal microbial fermentation and performance of ruminants: a review. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 8: 533555.
136. Younts-Dahl,, S. M.,, M. L. Galyean,, G. H. Loneragan,, N. A. Elam, and, M. M. Brashears. 2004. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus- and Propionibacterium-based direct-fed microbials and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in beef feedlot cattle and on hides at harvest. J. Food Prot. 67: 889893.
137. Younts-Dahl,, S. M.,, G. D. Osborn,, M. L. Galyean,, J. D. Rivera,, G. H. Loneragan, and, M. M. Brashears. 2005. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157 in finishing beef cattle by various doses of Lactobacillus acidophilus in direct-fed microbials. J. Food Prot. 68: 610.
138. Yu,, P.,, J. T. Huber,, C. B. Theurer,, K. H. Chen,, L. G. Nussio, and, Z. Wu. 1997. Effect of steam-flaked or steam-rolled corn with or without Aspergillus oryzae in the diet on performance of dairy cows fed during hot weather. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 32933297.
139. Zeyner, A., and, E. Boldt. 2006. Effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain supplemented from birth to weaning on diarrhoea patterns and performance of piglets. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berlin) 90: 2531.
140. Zhao,, T.,, M. P. Doyle,, B. G. Harmon,, C. A. Brown,, P. O. Mueller, and, A. H. Parks. 1998. Reduction of carriage of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle by inoculation with probiotic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 641647.
141. Zhao,, T.,, S. Tkalcic,, M. P. Doyle,, B. G. Harmon,, C. A. Brown, and, P. Zhao. 2003. Pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in neonatal calves and evaluation of fecal shedding by treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 66: 924930.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error