Chapter 13 : Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens

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This chapter focuses on the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) phenotypes among selected food-borne bacteria, with emphasis on isolates recovered from foods of animal origin and the potential public health consequences. Once an AMR determinant becomes widely disseminated in different ecosystems, it is difficult to conduct trace studies to identify particular origins. It may be possible, however, to track the spread of resistant organisms after the introduction of a new animal antimicrobial drug. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility/ resistance profiles in food-borne pathogens is needed in order to identify important trends that signify a need to amend antimicrobial use practices. Bacterial isolates recovered from ill people are sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases in Atlanta, GA, by participating state and local health departments. Enterococci were readily isolated from all retail meats tested, ranging, on average, from 88%of pork chops to 98% of all chicken breasts sampled, which is consistent with other studies from the United States. The enteric habitat of in animals provides an easy source of contamination for animal-derived meats at slaughter and at points downstream in the food production process. Transmission of resistance genes from normally nonpathogenic species to more virulent organisms within the animal or human intestinal tract may be an important mechanism for acquiring clinically relevant AMR organisms. The evolution and propagation of transmissible plasmids in and carrying resistance to eight or more antimicrobials are particularly worrisome.

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 1

Routes of dissemination of AMR bacteria and determinants. Adapted from reference .

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 2

Circular representation of the IncA/C backbone (inner circle) and laterally acquired regions (outer circles) on R plasmids from and serovar Newport. Printed with permission of W. Florian Fricke, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 3

AMR among isolates from NARMS retail meats, 2002 to 2005. AMI, amikacin; GEN, gentamicin; KAN, kanamycin; STR, streptomycin; AMP, ampicillin; AMC, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; TIO, ceftiofur; AXO, ceftriaxone; FOX, cefoxitin; FIS, sulfisoxazole; COT, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; CHL, chloramphenicol; CIP, ciprofloxacin; NAL, nalidixic acid; TET, tetracycline.

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 4

AMR among isolates from NARMS retail meats, 2002 to 2005. For abbreviations, see legend to Fig. 3 .

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13
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Examples of antimicrobials approved for use in animals in the United States

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13
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Number and percentage of retail meats positive for and from NARMS, 2002 to 2006

Citation: White D, McDermott P. 2009. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Borne Pathogens, p 231-265. In Jaykus L, Wang H, Schlesinger L (ed), Food-Borne Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815479.ch13

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