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Recent taxonomic analysis using the 16S and 23S rRNA genes have found that the order contains at least four distinct groups at the family level and that within the order are two distinct lineages. Chlamydiae also share a group-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen and utilize host adenosine triphosphate for the synthesis of chlamydial protein. Beatty and coworkers demonstrated that the addition of 0.2 ng/ml of IFN-γ inhibited intracellular growth of in HeLa cells by induction of the indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase, leading to a persistent state. The development of large aberrant reticulate body (RB) forms combined with the absence of elementary bodies (EBs) was characteristic of persistent infection. is a common human respiratory pathogen, affecting all ages with a worldwide distribution. While appears to be clearly associated with asthma exacerbations, it has also been hypothesized to have a role in asthma pathogenesis. The presence of anti- immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies or IgG titer has been correlated, but not consistently, with markers of asthma severity and/or wheezing. It has been hypothesized that an inadequate or delayed clearance of the pathogen may lead to the establishment of a latent or persistent infection, which fuels a low-grade chronic immune response that causes tissue damage. Recognition of chlamydial antigens by the cytosolic NOD1 receptor appeared to be of limited biological significance in a mouse study using and , which could be explained by insufficient peptidoglycan (PGN) production by .

Citation: Hammerschlag M, Kohlhoff S, Darville T. 2009. and , p 27-52. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch3
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Figure 1.

Life cycle of chlamydiae in epithelial cells.

Citation: Hammerschlag M, Kohlhoff S, Darville T. 2009. and , p 27-52. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch3
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Table 1.

Association of persistent infection with chronic disease in humans

Citation: Hammerschlag M, Kohlhoff S, Darville T. 2009. and , p 27-52. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch3
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Table 2.

Summary of clinical studies of the role of in asthma

Citation: Hammerschlag M, Kohlhoff S, Darville T. 2009. and , p 27-52. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch3

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