Chapter 4 : Enteric Pathogens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Enteric Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap04-2.gif


The most common agents causing acute bacterial gastroenteritis are species (2.5 million cases annually), nontyphoidal species (1.4 million), species (0.45 million), species (0.27 million), (0.25 million), staphylococcal food poisoning (0.19 million), and (0.1 million). Among the complications of bacterial gastroenteritis are persistent diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic bacterial carriage, gall bladder carcinoma, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Guillain-Barrė syndrome (GBS), autoimmune thyroid disease, reactive arthritides (including Reiter’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis [AS]), atrophic rhinitis, and rhinoscleroma. The toxins produced by gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens may be classified as neurotoxins, enterotoxins, and cytotoxins. The majority of these are due to sonnei; the remaining 15% are caused by , , and . In many cases, the relative risk posed by the various enteric pathogens and the mechanism through which these syndromes arise require further elucidation. Laboratory-based surveillance programs monitoring bacterial enteric infections have recently identified substantial changes in the incidences of infections caused by the major pathogens. These programs provide an ideal platform for research to track chronic sequelae of these infections. Such studies inform more accurately about the burden of chronic diseases associated with these infections, the effects on susceptibility of the now widely used proton pump inhibitors (PPI), and whether antibiotic use for acute enteritis influences the risk and severity of the long-term complications.

Citation: Rees J. 2009. Enteric Pathogens, p 53-68. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch4
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Reference deleted.
2. Abalkhail, A.,, M. B. Satti,, M. A. Uthman,, F. Al Hilli,, A. Darwish, and, A. Satir. 2007. Rhinoscleroma: a clinicopathological study from the Gulf region. Singapore Med. J. 48: 148151.
3. Andrews, P. I.,, G. Kainer,, L. C. Yong,, V. H. Tobias, and, A. R. Rosenberg. 1989. Glomerulonephritis, pulmonary hemorrhage and anemia associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection. Aust. N. Z. J. Med. 19: 721723.
4. Archer, D. L.,, and F. E. Young. 1988. Contemporary issues: diseases with a food vector. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1: 377398.
5. Ardizzone, S.,, and G. Bianchi Porro. 2002. Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment. J. Intern. Med. 252: 475496.
6. Autschbach, F.,, S. Eisold,, U. Hinz,, S. Zinser,, M. Linnebacher,, T. Giese,, T. Loffler,, M. W. Buchler, and, J. Schmidt. 2005. High prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis IS900 DNA in gut tissues from individuals with Crohn’s disease. Gut 54: 944949.
7. Baravelli, M.,, C. Fantoni,, A. Rossi,, P. Cattaneo, and, C. Anza. 2008. Guillain-Barre syndrome as a neurological complication of infective endocarditis. Is it really so rare and how often do we recognise it? Int. J. Cardiol. [Epub ahead of print.] doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.11.033.
8. Baravelli, M.,, A. Rossi,, A. Picozzi,, A. Gavazzi,, D. Imperiale,, P. Dario,, C. Fantoni,, S. Borghi, and, C. Anza. 2007. A case of Guillain-Barre syndrome following Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Int. J. Cardiol. 114: E53E55.
9. Bauer, W.,, and E. P. Engeleman. 1942. A syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis (so-called Reiter’s disease). Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 57: 307513.
10. Berg, R. D. 1996. The indigenous gastrointestinal microflora. Trends Microbiol. 4: 430435.
11. Bogdanovic, R.,, M. Cobeljic,, M. Markovic,, V. Nikolic,, M. Ognjanovic,, L. Sarjanovic, and, D. Makic. 1991. Haemolyticuraemic syndrome associated with Aeromonas hydrophila enterocolitis. Pediatr. Nephrol. 5: 293295.
12. Bonetti, B.,, S. Monaco,, S. Ferrari,, F. Tezzon, and, N. Rizzuto. 1991. Demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis following Coxiella burnetti infection (Q fever). Ital. J. Neurol. Sci. 12: 415417.
13. Borody, T. J.,, S. Bilkey,, A. R. Wettstein,, S. Leis,, G. Pang, and, S. Tye. 2007. Anti-mycobacterial therapy in Crohn’s disease heals mucosa with longitudinal scars. Dig. Liver Dis. 39: 438444.
14. Borody, T. J.,, S. Leis,, E. F. Warren, and, R. Surace. 2002. Treatment of severe Crohn’s disease using antimycobacterial triple therapy—approaching a cure? Dig. Liver Dis. 34: 2938.
15. Braun, J.,, and J. Sieper. 1999. Rheumatologic manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 11: 6874.
16. Carnoy, C.,, H. Muller-Alouf,, P. Desreumaux,, C. Mullet,, C. Grangette, and, M. Simonet. 2000. The superantigenic toxin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: a novel virulence factor? Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290: 477482.
17. Carter, J. D. 2006. Reactive arthritis: defined etiologies, emerging pathophysiology, and unresolved treatment. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 20: 827847.
18. CDC. 1998. Incidence of foodborne illnesses—FoodNet, 1997. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47: 782786.
19. CDC. 2007. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—10 states, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56: 336339.
20. Reference deleted.
21. Chaudhury, N. A.,, and S. C. Truelove. 1962. The irritable colon syndrome. A study of the clinical features, predisposing causes, and prognosis in 130 cases. Q. J. Med. 31: 307322.
22. Chen, J. H.,, D. H. Kono,, Z. Yong,, M. S. Park,, M. M. Oldstone, and, D. T. Yu. 1987. A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis protein which cross-reacts with HLA-B27. J. Immunol. 139: 30033011.
23. Chiba, A.,, S. Kusunoki,, T. Shimizu, and, I. Kanazawa. 1992. Serum IgG antibody to ganglioside GQ1b is a possible marker of Miller Fisher syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 31: 677679.
24. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, R. S. Merkal,, W. R. Thayer, Jr., and, J. A. Coutu. 1984. Characteristics of an unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 966971.
25. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, W. R. Thayer,, J. A. Coutu, and, R. S. Merkal. 1984. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of a Mycobacterium sp. isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26: 930932.
26. Chiodini, R. J.,, H. J. Van Kruiningen,, W. R. Thayer,, R. S. Merkal, and, J. A. Coutu. 1984. Possible role of mycobacteria in inflammatory bowel disease. I. An unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 29: 10731079.
27. Collins, S. M. 1992. Is the irritable gut an inflamed gut? Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 192: 102105.
28. Crohn, B. B.,, L. Ginzburg, and, G. D. Oppenheimer. 1932. Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity. JAMA 99: 13231329.
29. Drenick, E. J.,, and J. J. Roslyn. 1990. Cure of arthritis-dermatitis syndrome due to intestinal bypass by resection of nonfunctional segment of blind loop. Dig. Dis. Sci. 35: 656660.
30. Dunlop, S. P.,, D. Jenkins, and, R. C. Spiller. 2003. Distinctive clinical, psychological, and histological features of postinfective irritable bowel syndrome. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 98: 15781583.
31. Dutt, S. N.,, and M. Kameswaran. 2005. The aetiology and management of atrophic rhinitis. J. Laryngol. Otol. 119: 843852.
32. Fabia, R.,, A. Ar’Rajab,, M. L. Johansson,, R. Andersson,, R. Willen,, B. Jeppsson,, G. Molin, and, S. Bengmark. 1993. Impairment of bacterial flora in human ulcerative colitis and experimental colitis in the rat. Digestion 54: 248255.
33. Feldman, R. A.,, and N. Banatvala. 1994. The frequency of culturing stools from adults with diarrhoea in Great Britain. Epidemiol. Infect. 113: 4144.
34. Feller, M.,, K. Huwiler,, R. Stephan,, E. Altpeter,, A. Shang,, H. Furrer,, G. E. Pfyffer,, T. Jemmi,, A. Baumgartner, and, M. Egger. 2007. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7: 607613.
35. Fisher, M. 1956. An unusual variant of acute idiopathic polyneuritis (syndrome of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia). N. Engl. J. Med. 255: 5765.
36. Forsberg, A.,, R. Press,, U. Einarsson,, J. de Pedro-Cuesta, and, L. W. Holmqvist. 2005. Disability and health-related quality of life in Guillain-Barre syndrome during the first two years after onset: a prospective study. Clin. Rehábil. 19: 900909.
37. Garcia Rodriguez, L. A.,, A. Ruigomez, and, J. Panes. 2007. Use of acid-suppressing drugs and the risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5: 14181423.
38. Gaston, J. S.,, C. Cox, and, K. Granfors. 1999. Clinical and experimental evidence for persistent Yersinia infection in reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 42: 22392242.
39. Gordon, J. I.,, L. V. Hooper,, M. S. McNevin,, M. Wong, and, L. Bry. 1997. Epithelial cell growth and differentiation. III. Promoting diversity in the intestine: conversations between the microflora, epithelium, and diffuse GALT. Am. J. Physiol. 273: G565G570.
40. Govoni, V.,, and E. Granieri. 2001. Epidemiology of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 14: 605613.
41. Graves, R. J. 1835. New observed affection of the thyroid gland in females. (Clinical lectures) London Med. Surg. J. 7: 516517.
42. Guillain, G.,, J. A. Barré, and, A. Strohl. 1916. Sur un syndrome de radiculonebrite avec hyperalbuminose du liquide cephalo-rachidien sans reaction cellulaire. Remarques sur les caracteres cliniques et graphiques des reflexes tendineux. Bull. Soc. Med. Hop. Paris 40: 1462.
43. Gwee, K. A. 1996. Irritable bowel syndrome: psychology, biology, and warfare between false dichotomies. Lancet 347: 1267.
44. Gwee, K. A. 1999. The many faces of irritable bowel syndrome. Singapore Med. J. 40: 441442.
45. Gwee, K. A.,, S. M. Collins,, N. W. Read,, A. Rajnakova,, Y. Deng,, J. C. Graham,, M. W. McKendrick, and, S. M. Moochhala. 2003. Increased rectal mucosal expression of interleukin 1beta in recently acquired post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 52: 523526.
46. Gwee, K. A.,, J. C. Graham,, M. W. McKendrick,, S. M. Collins,, J. S. Marshall,, S. J. Walters, and, N. W. Read. 1996. Psychometric scores and persistence of irritable bowel after infectious diarrhoea. Lancet 347: 150153.
47. Gwee, K. A.,, Y. L. Leong,, C. Graham,, M. W. McKendrick,, S. M. Collins,, S. J. Walters,, J. E. Underwood, and, N. W. Read. 1999. The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction. Gut 44: 400406.
48. Hadden, R. D.,, H. Karch,, H. P. Hartung,, J. Zielasek,, B. Weissbrich,, J. Schubert,, A. Weishaupt,, D. R. Cornblath,, A. V. Swan,, R. A. Hughes, and, K. V. Toyka. 2001. Preceding infections, immune factors, and outcome in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neurology 56: 758765.
49. Hannu, T.,, L. Mattila,, J. P. Nuorti,, P. Ruutu,, J. Mikkola,, A. Siitonen, and, M. Leirisalo-Repo. 2003. Reactive arthritis after an outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 infection. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 62: 866869.
50. Hansen, P. S.,, B. E. Wenzel,, T. H. Brix, and, L. Hegedus. 2006. Yersinia enterocolitica infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies: evidence from a Danish twin study. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 146: 3238.
51. Helmick, C. G.,, D. T. Felson,, R. C. Lawrence,, S. Gabriel,, R. Hirsch,, C. K. Kwoh,, M. H. Liang,, H. M. Kremers,, M. D. Mayes,, P. A. Merkel,, S. R. Pillemer,, J. D. Reveille, and, J. H. Stone. 2008. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part I. Arthritis Rheum. 58: 1525.
52. Hiatt, R. B.,, and L. Katz. 1962. Mast cells in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 37: 541545.
53. Holmberg, S. D.,, and J. J. Farmer, 3rd. 1984. Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides as causes of intestinal infections. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6: 633639.
54. Holmberg, S. D.,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, P. A. Blake, and, J. J. Farmer III. 1986. Plesiomonas enteric infections in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med. 105: 690694.
55. Hughes, R. A.,, and D. R. Cornblath. 2005. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet 366: 16531666.
56. Hugot, J. P.,, M. Chamaillard,, H. Zouali,, S. Lesage,, J. P. Cezard,, J. Belaiche,, S. Almer,, C. Tysk,, C. A. O’Morain,, M. Gassull,, V. Binder,, Y. Finkel,, A. Cortot,, R. Modigliani,, P. Laurent-Puig,, C. Gower-Rousseau,, J. Macry,, J. F. Colombel,, M. Sahbatou, and, G. Thomas. 2001. Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. Nature 411: 599603.
57. Ilnyckyj, A.,, B. Balachandra,, L. Elliott,, S. Choudhri, and, D. R. Duerksen. 2003. Post-traveler’s diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 98: 596599.
58. The Italian Guillain-Barre Study Group. 1996. The prognosis and main prognostic indicators of Guillain-Barre syndrome. A multicentre prospective study of 297 patients. Brain 119: 20532061.
59. Ji, S.,, H. Park,, D. Lee,, Y. K. Song,, J. P. Choi, and, S. I. Lee. 2005. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome in patients with Shigella infection. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 20: 381386.
60. Jones, R.,, and S. Lydeard. 1992. Irritable bowel syndrome in the general population. Br. Med. J. 304: 8790.
61. Kain, K. C.,, and M. T. Kelly. 1989. Clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of Plesiomonas shigelloides diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 9981001.
62. Kay, L.,, and T. Jorgensen. 1996. Redefining abdominal syndromes. Results of a population-based study. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 31: 469475.
63. Keat, A. 1983. Reiter’s syndrome and reactive arthritis in perspective. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 16061615.
64. Khan, M. A. 1995. HLA-B27 and its subtypes in world populations. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 7: 263269.
65. Kim, T. H.,, W. S. Uhm, and, R. D. Inman. 2005. Pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 17: 400405.
66. Kuroki, S.,, T. Saida,, M. Nukina,, T. Haruta,, M. Yoshioka,, Y. Kobayashi, and, H. Nakanishi. 1993. Campylobacter jejuni strains from patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome belong mostly to Penner serogroup 19 and contain beta- N-acetylglucosamine residues. Ann. Neurol. 33: 243247.
67. Landry, O. 1855. Memoire sur la paralysie du sentiment d’activite musculaire. Gaz. Hop. Civ. Mil. 28: 269271.
68. Lee, S. D.,, and C. M. Surawicz. 2001. Infectious causes of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 30: 679692.
69. Lee, W.,, J. D. Reveille,, J. C. Davis, Jr.,, T. J. Learch,, M. M. Ward, and, M. H. Weisman. 2007. Are there gender differences in severity of ankylosing spondylitis? Results from the PSOAS cohort. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 66: 633638.
70. Lim, A.,, A. Lydia,, H. Rim,, J. Dowling, and, P. Kerr. 2007. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Campylobacter enteritis. Intern. Med. J. 37: 724728.
71. Locht, H.,, E. Kihlstrom, and, F. D. Lindstrom. 1993. Reactive arthritis after Salmonella among medical doctors—study of an outbreak. J. Rheumatol. 20: 845848.
72. Locht, H.,, and K. A. Krogfelt. 2002. Comparison of rheumatological and gastrointestinal symptoms after infection with Campylobacter jejuni/coli and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61: 448452.
73. Longstreth, G. F.,, W. G. Thompson,, W. D. Chey,, L. A. Houghton,, F. Mearin, and, R. C. Spiller. 2006. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 130: 14801491.
74. Lu, J. L.,, K. A. Sheikh,, H. S. Wu,, J. Zhang,, Z. F. Jiang,, D. R. Cornblath,, G. M. McKhann,, A. K. Asbury,, J. W. Griffin, and, T. W. Ho. 2000. Physiologic-pathologic correlation in Guillain-Barre syndrome in children. Neurology 54: 3339.
75. Luo, G.,, G. S. Seetharamaiah,, D. W. Niesel,, H. Zhang,, J. W. Peterson,, B. S. Prabhakar, and, G. R. Klimpel. 1994. Purification and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica envelope proteins which induce antibodies that react with human thyrotropin receptor. J. Immunol. 152: 25552561.
76. Mandell, G. L.,, J. E. Bennett, and, R. Dolin (ed.). 2005. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed., vol. 1. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
77. Manning, A. P.,, W. G. Thompson,, K. W. Heaton, and, A. F. Morris. 1978. Towards positive diagnosis of the irritable bowel. Br. Med. J. 2: 653654.
78. Martinez, A.,, C. Pacheco-Tena,, J. Vazquez-Mellado, and, R. Burgos-Vargas. 2004. Relationship between disease activity and infection in patients with spondyloarthropathies. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63: 13381340.
79. Mattila, L.,, M. Leirisalo-Repo,, P. Pelkonen,, S. Koskimies,, K. Granfors, and, A. Siitonen. 1998. Reactive arthritis following an outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans infection. J. Infect. 36: 289295.
80. McCarthy, N.,, and J. Giesecke. 2001. Incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Am. J. Epidemiol. 153: 610614.
81. McKendrick, M. W.,, and N. W. Read. 1994. Irritable bowel syndrome—post salmonella infection. J. Infect. 29: 13.
82. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 607625.
83. Mearin, F.,, X. Badia,, A. Balboa,, E. Baro,, E. Caldwell,, M. Cucala,, M. Diaz-Rubio,, A. Fueyo,, J. Ponce,, M. Roset, and, N. J. Talley. 2001. Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence varies enormously depending on the employed diagnostic criteria: comparison of Rome II versus previous criteria in a general population. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 36: 11551161.
84. Milde, A. M.,, and R. Murison. 2002. A study of the effects of restraint stress on colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in singly housed rats. Integr. Physiol. Behav. Sci. 37: 140150.
85. Mori, M.,, S. Kuwabara,, M. Miyake,, M. Noda,, H. Kuroki,, H. Kanno,, K. Ogawara, and, T. Hattori. 2000. Haemophilus influenzae infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Brain 123: 21712178.
86. Musher, D. M.,, and A. D. Rubenstein. 1973. Permanent carriers of nontyphosa salmonellae. Arch. Intern. Med. 132: 869872.
87. Muzyka, M. M.,, and K. M. Gubina. 1971. Problems of the epidemiology of scleroma. I. Geographical distribution of scleroma. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 15: 233242.
88. Neal, K. R.,, J. Hebden, and, R. Spiller. 1997. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms six months after bacterial gastroenteritis and risk factors for development of the irritable bowel syndrome: postal survey of patients. Br. Med. J. 314: 779782.
89. Nikkari, S.,, R. Merilahti-Palo,, R. Saario,, K. O. Soderstrom,, K. Granfors,, M. Skurnik, and, P. Toivanen. 1992. Yersinia-triggered reactive arthritis. Use of polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical staining in the detection of bacterial components from synovial specimens. Arthritis Rheum. 35: 682687.
90. Ogura, Y.,, D. K. Bonen,, N. Inohara,, D. L. Nicolae,, F. F. Chen,, R. Ramos,, H. Britton,, T. Moran,, R. Karaliuskas,, R. H. Duerr,, J. P. Achkar,, S. R. Brant,, T. M. Bayless,, B. S. Kirschner,, S. B. Hanauer,, G. Nunez, and, J. H. Cho. 2001. A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. Nature 411: 603606.
91. Pandey, M.,, R. A. Vishwakarma,, A. K. Khatri,, S. K. Roy, and, V. K. Shukla. 1995. Bile, bacteria, and gallbladder carcinogenesis. J. Surg. Oncol. 58: 282283.
92. Parry, S. D.,, J. R. Barton, and, M. R. Welfare. 2005. Factors associated with the development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal diseases: does smoking play a role? Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17: 10711075.
93. Parry, S. D.,, R. Stansfield,, D. Jelley,, W. Gregory,, E. Phillips,, J. R. Barton, and, M. R. Welfare. 2003. Does bacterial gastroenteritis predispose people to functional gastrointestinal disorders? A prospective, community-based, case-control study. 2003. Current perspective on the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease and ophthalmopathy. Endocr. Rev. 24: 802835.
94. Reference deleted.
95. Press, N.,, M. Fyfe,, W. Bowie, and, M. Kelly. 2001. Clinical and microbiological follow-up of an outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype Ib. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33: 523526.
96. Ramos, M.,, and J. A. Lopez de Castro. 2002. HLA-B27 and the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. Tissue Antigens 60: 191205.
97. Randi, G.,, S. Franceschi, and, C. La Vecchia. 2006. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. Int. J. Cancer 118: 15911602.
98. Rashid, T.,, and A. Ebringer. 2007. Ankylosing spondylitis is linked to Klebsiella—the evidence. Clin. Rheumatol. 26: 858864.
99. Rees, J. H.,, S. E. Soudain,, N. A. Gregson, and, R. A. Hughes. 1995. Campylobacter jejuni infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 13741379.
100. Rees, J. H.,, R. D. Thompson,, N. C. Smeeton, and, R. A. Hughes. 1998. Epidemiological study of Guillain-Barre syndrome in south east England. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 64: 7477.
101. Rees, J. H.,, R. W. Vaughan,, E. Kondeatis, and, R. A. Hughes. 1995. HLA-class II alleles in Guillain-Barre syndrome and Miller Fisher syndrome and their association with preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection. J. Neuroimmunol. 62: 5357.
102. Rees, J. R.,, M. A. Pannier,, A. McNees,, S. Shallow,, F. J. Angulo, and, D. J. Vugia. 2004. Persistent diarrhea, arthritis, and other complications of enteric infections: a pilot survey based on California FoodNet surveillance, 1998-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38 (Suppl. 3) : S311S317.
103. Rodriguez, L. A.,, and A. Ruigomez. 1999. Increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome after bacterial gastroenteritis: cohort study. Br. Med. J. 318: 565566.
104. Ropper, A. H. 1992. The Guillain-Barre syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 326: 11301136.
105. Ross, C. B.,, H. W. Scott, and, T. Pincus. 1989. Jejunoileal bypass arthritis. Baillières Clin. Rheumatol. 3: 339355.
106. Rudwaleit, M.,, S. Richter,, J. Braun, and, J. Sieper. 2001. Low incidence of reactive arthritis in children following a salmonella outbreak. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 60: 10551057.
107. Ruigomez, A.,, L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, and, J. Panes. 2007. Risk of irritable bowel syndrome after an episode of bacterial gastroenteritis in general practice: influence of comorbidities. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5: 465469.
108. Saida, T.,, S. Kuroki,, Q. Hao,, M. Nishimura,, M. Nukina, and, H. Obayashi. 1997. Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Japanese patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 176 (Suppl. 2) : S129S134.
109. Sanderson, J. D.,, M. T. Moss,, M. L. Tizard, and, J. Hermon-Taylor. 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in Crohn’s disease tissue. Gut 33: 890896.
110. Sartor, R. B. 2005. Does Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis cause Crohn’s disease? Gut 54: 896898.
111. Sartor, R. B. 2006. Microbial and dietary factors in the pathogenesis of chronic, immune-mediated intestinal inflammation. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 579: 3554.
112. Schwerer, B. 2002. Antibodies against gangliosides: a link between preceding infection and immunopathogenesis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Microbes Infect. 4: 373384.
113. Scofield, R. H.,, B. Kurien,, T. Gross,, W. L. Warren, and, J. B. Harley. 1995. HLA-B27 binding of peptide from its own sequence and similar peptides from bacteria: implications for spondyloarthropathies. Lancet 345: 15421544.
114. Selby, W.,, P. Pavli,, B. Crotty,, T. Florin,, G. Radford-Smith,, P. Gibson,, B. Mitchell,, W. Connell,, R. Read,, M. Merrett,, H. Ee, and, D. Hetzel. 2007. Two-year combination antibiotic therapy with clarithromycin, rifabutin, and clofazimine for Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 132: 23132319.
115. Shafran, I.,, L. Kugler,, F. A. El-Zaatari,, S. A. Naser, and, J. Sandoval. 2002. Open clinical trial of rifabutin and clarithromycin therapy in Crohn’s disease. Dig. Liver Dis. 34: 2228.
116. Shanahan, F. 2000. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease: is there a scientific rationale? Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 6: 107115.
117. Sharma, V.,, V. S. Chauhan,, G. Nath,, A. Kumar, and, V. K. Shukla. 2007. Role of bile bacteria in gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 54: 16221625.
118. Sheikh, K. A.,, T. W. Ho,, I. Nachamkin,, C. Y. Li,, D. R. Cornblath,, A. K. Asbury,, J. W. Griffin, and, G. M. McKhann. 1998. Molecular mimicry in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 845: 307221.
119. Sheikh, K. A.,, I. Nachamkin,, T. W. Ho,, H. J. Willison,, J. Veitch,, H. Ung,, M. Nicholson,, C. Y. Li,, H. S. Wu,, B. Q. Shen,, D. R. Cornblath,, A. K. Asbury,, G. M. McKhann, and, J. W. Griffin. 1998. Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides in Guillain-Barre syndrome: molecular mimicry and host susceptibility. Neurology 51: 371378.
120. Sheldon, P. 1985. Specific cell-mediated responses to bacterial antigens and clinical correlations in reactive arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis. Immunol. Rev. 86: 525.
121. Shukla, V. K.,, H. Singh,, M. Pandey,, S. K. Upadhyay, and, G. Nath. 2000. Carcinoma of the gallbladder—is it a sequel of typhoid? Dig. Dis. Sci. 45: 900903.
122. Shukla, V. K.,, S. C. Tiwari, and, S. K. Roy. 1993. Biliary bile acids in cholelithiasis and carcinoma of the gall bladder. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 2: 155160.
123. Soper, G. 1939. The curious career of Typhoid Mary. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 15: 698712.
124. Spiller, R. C.,, D. Jenkins,, J. P. Thornley,, J. M. Hebden,, T. Wright,, M. Skinner, and, K. R. Neal. 2000. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 47: 804811.
125. Stone, M. A.,, U. Payne,, C. Schentag,, P. Rahman,, C. Pacheco-Tena, and, R. D. Inman. 2004. Comparative immune responses to candidate arthritogenic bacteria do not confirm a dominant role for Klebsiella pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of familial ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 43: 148155.
126. Stuart, P. M.,, and J. G. Woodward. 1992. Yersinia enterocolitica produces superantigenic activity. J. Immunol. 148: 225233.
127. Tache, Y.,, V. Martinez,, M. Million, and, L. Wang. 2001. Stress and the gastrointestinal tract III. Stress-related alterations of gut motor function: role of brain corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 280: G173G177.
128. Talley, N. J.,, S. E. Gabriel,, W. S. Harmsen,, A. R. Zinsmeister, and, R. W. Evans. 1995. Medical costs in community subjects with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 109: 17361741.
129. Talley, N. J.,, A. R. Zinsmeister,, C. Van Dyke, and, L. J. Melton, 3rd. 1991. Epidemiology of colonic symptoms and the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 101: 927934.
130. Targownik, L. E.,, C. Metge,, L. Roos, and, S. Leung. 2007. The prevalence of and the clinical and demographic characteristics associated with high-intensity proton pump inhibitor use. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102: 942950.
131. Taurog, J. D.,, J. A. Richardson,, J. T. Croft,, W. A. Simmons,, M. Zhou,, J. L. Fernandez-Sueiro,, E. Balish, and, R. E. Hammer. 1994. The germfree state prevents development of gut and joint inflammatory disease in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. J. Exp. Med. 180: 23592364.
132. Thompson, W. G.,, G. Dotevall,, D. A. Drossman,, K. W. Heaton, and, W. Kruis. 1989. Irritable bowel syndrome: guidelines for the diagnosis. Gastroenterol. Int. 2: 9295.
133. Thompson, W. G.,, K. W. Heaton,, G. T. Smyth, and, C. Smyth. 2000. Irritable bowel syndrome in general practice: prevalence, characteristics, and referral. Gut 46: 7882.
134. Thompson, W. G.,, G. F. Longstreth,, D. A. Drossman,, K. W. Heaton,, E. J. Irvine, and, S. A. Muller-Lissner. 1999. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain. Gut 45 (Suppl. 2) : II43II47.
135. Thompson, W. G.,, G. L. Longstreth,, D. A. Drossman,, K. W. Heaton,, E. J. Irvin, and, S. A. Muller-Lissner. 2000. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain. In D. A. Drossman,, E. Corazziari,, N. J. Talley,, W. C. Thomson, and, W. E. Whitehead (ed.), Rome II: the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Diagnosis, Pathophysiology and Treatment. A Multinational Consensus, 2nd ed. Degnon Associates, McLean, VA.
136. Thomson, G. T.,, D. A. DeRubeis,, M. A. Hodge,, C. Rajanayagam, and, R. D. Inman. 1995. Post- Salmonella reactive arthritis: late clinical sequelae in a point source cohort. Am. J. Med. 98: 1321.
137. Uchiyama, T. 1995. A novel superantigenic exotoxin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and its position in the classification of the entire bacterial toxins. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 13: 191194.
138. Uchiyama, T.,, T. Miyoshi-Akiyama,, H. Kato,, W. Fujimaki,, K. Imanishi, and, X. J. Yan. 1993. Superantigenic properties of a novel mitogenic substance produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from patients manifesting acute and systemic symptoms. J. Immunol. 151: 44074413.
139. Viitanen, A. M.,, T. P. Arstila,, R. Lahesmaa,, K. Granfors,, M. Skurnik, and, P. Toivanen. 1991. Application of the polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence techniques to the detection of bacteria in Yersinia-triggered reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 34: 8996.
140. Voetsch, A. C.,, T. J. Van Gilder,, F. J. Angulo,, M. M. Farley,, S. Shallow,, R. Marcus,, P. R. Cieslak,, V. C. Deneen, and, R. V. Tauxe. 2004. FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38 (Suppl. 3) : S127S134.
141. Wang, L. H.,, X. C. Fang, and, G. Z. Pan. 2004. Bacillary dysentery as a causative factor of irritable bowel syndrome and its pathogenesis. Gut 53: 10961101.
142. Wells, N. E.,, B. A. Hahn, and, P. J. Whorwell. 1997. Clinical economics review: irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 11: 10191030.
143. Welsh, K.,, P. Hunter,, J. Colston,, J. Rhodes,, J. Sanderson, and, J. Bower. 2003. The Report of the NACC Expert Review Group into the evidence linking Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn’s disease. National Association for Colitis and Crohn’s Disease, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
144. Willison, H. J.,, J. Veitch,, G. Paterson, and, P. G. Kennedy. 1993. Miller Fisher syndrome is associated with serum antibodies to GQ1b ganglioside. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 56: 204206.
145. Willoughby, J. M.,, A. F. Rahman, and, M. M. Gregory. 1989. Chronic colitis after Aeromonas infection. Gut 30: 686690.
146. Wilpart, M. 1991. Co-mutagenicity of bile acids: structure-activity relations. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 1 (Suppl. 2) : 4548.
147. Wolf, M. W.,, T. Misaki,, K. Bech,, M. Tvede,, J. E. Silva, and, S. H. Ingbar. 1991. Immunoglobulins of patients recovering from Yersinia enterocolitica infections exhibit Graves’ disease-like activity in human thyroid membranes. Thyroid 1: 315320.
148. Yu, R. K.,, S. Usuki, and, T. Ariga. 2006. Ganglioside molecular mimicry and its pathological roles in Guillain-Barre syndrome and related diseases. Infect. Immun. 74: 65176527.
149. Zhang, Y.,, A. Toivanen, and, P. Toivanen. 1997. Experimental Yersinia-triggered reactive arthritis: effect of a 3-week course of ciprofloxacin. Br. J. Rheumatol. 36: 541546.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error