Chapter 19 : Latent Viral Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Latent Viral Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap19-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap19-2.gif


Virus pathogens that establish latent infections have double-stranded DNA genomes that are replicated in the host nucleus and include herpesvirus, polyomavirus, papillomavirus, and adenovirus. All viruses that form latent infections have evolved one or many methods to avoid elimination by the host immune system. The chapter discusses some of the many mechanisms employed by human cytomegalovirus (CMV) to circumvent host cell immunity. The molecular aspects of herpes simplex genome organization and its regulation of gene expression are described in greater detail than the other herpesviruses. Viral DNA synthesis initiated on circular molecules relies on viral proteins, including DNA polymerase, its processivity factor, an origin-binding protein, the single-stranded DNA binding protein, and a helicase-primase complex of three proteins, as well as unidentified host factors. Genital disease is different from the oropharyngeal form, in that the primary infection causes the most severe disease, while the recurrent form is the mildest. Live attenuated varicella vaccine, the first human herpesvirus vaccine licensed for clinical use and offering protection against disease in 85 to 95% of exposures, is recommended for routine vaccination in childhood and for susceptible older children and adults. Results from studies based on guinea pig cells support a role for adenovirus infection in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in which expression of the viral E1A enhances the inflammatory response of lung epithelial cells to noxious stimuli, be they cigarette smoke products, bacterial products, or environmental pollutants.

Citation: Hayashi S, Hegele R, Hogg J. 2009. Latent Viral Infections, p 339-369. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch19
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

In situ hybridization with an EBV probe in tumor tissue from a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Scattered EBV-positive single cells and groups of cells are evidence of a lytic infection. Magnification, ×40. (Courtesy of Joan A. Barbera.)

Citation: Hayashi S, Hegele R, Hogg J. 2009. Latent Viral Infections, p 339-369. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abiko, Y.,, M. Ikeda, and, R. Hondo. 2002. Secretion and dynamics of herpes simplex virus in tears and saliva of patients with Bell’s palsy. Otol. Neurotol. 23: 779783.
2. Ablashi, D. V.,, H. B. Eastman,, C. B. Owen,, M. M. Roman,, J. Friedman,, J. B. Zabriskie,, D. L. Peterson,, G. R. Pearson, and, J. E. Whitman. 2000. Frequent HHV-6 reactivation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. J. Clin. Virol. 16: 179191.
3. Adams, H. G.,, E. A. Benson,, E. R. Alexander,, L. A. Vontver,, M. A. Remington, and, K. K. Holmes. 1976. Genital herpetic infection in men and women: clinical course and effect of topical application of adenine arabinoside. J. Infect. Dis. 133 (Suppl) : A151A159.
4. Adler, S. P. 1988. Cytomegalovirus transmission among children in day care, their mothers and caretakers. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J 7: 279285.
5. Allander, T.,, K. Andreasson,, S. Gupta,, A. Bjerkner,, G. Bogdanovic,, M. A. A. Persson,, T. Dallianis,, T. Ramqvist, and, B. Andersson. 2007. Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J. Virol. 81: 41304136.
6. Al-Shehri, M. A.,, A. Sadeq, and, K. Quli. 2005. Bronchiolitis in Abha, Southwest Saudi Arabia: viral etiology and predictors for hospital admission. West Afr. J. Med. 24: 299304.
7. Andiman, W. A.,, R. Eastman,, K. Martin,, B. Z. Katz,, A. Rubinstein,, J. Pitt,, S. Pahwa, and, G. Miller. 1985. Opportunistic lymphoproliferations associated with Epstein-Barr viral DNA in infants and children with AIDS. Lancet ii: 13901393.
8. Apperley, J. F.,, S. J. Rice,, J. A. Bishop,, Y. C. Chia,, T. Krausz,, S. D. Gardner, and, J. M. Goldman. 1987. Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis associated with urinary excretion of polyomaviruses after bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 43: 108112.
9. Arvin, A. M. 2001. Varicella-zoster virus, p. 2731–2767. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadephia, PA.
10. Badger, G. F.,, C. Curtiss,, J. H. Dingle,, H. S. Ginsberg,, E. Gold, and, W. S. Jordan, Jr. 1956. A study of illness in a group of Cleveland families. X. The occurrence of adenovirus infections. Am. J. Hyg. 64: 336348.
11. Barbanti-Brodano, G.,, F. Martini,, M. De Mattei,, L. Lazzarin,, A. Corallini, and, M. Tognon. 1998. BK and JC human polyomaviruses and simian virus 40: natural history of infection in humans, experimental oncogenicity, and association with human tumors. Adv. Virus. Res. 50: 6999.
12. Barbera, J. A.,, S. Hayashi,, R. G. Hegele, and, J. C. Hogg. 1992. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia by in situ hybridization. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145: 940946.
13. Becroft, D. 1967. Histopathology of adenovirus infection of the respiratory tract in young children. J. Clin. Pathol. 20: 561569.
14. Behzad, A. R.,, K. Morimoto,, J. Gosselink,, J. Green,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 2006. Induction of mesenchymal cell phenotypes in lung epithelial cells by adenovirus E1A. Eur. Respir. J. 28: 11061116.
15. Beral, V.,, T. Peterman,, R. Berkelman, and, H. Jaffe. 1991. AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet 337: 805809.
16. Boldorini, R.,, R. Caldarelli-Stefano,, G. Monga,, M. Zocchi,, M. Mediati,, A. Tosoni, and, P. Ferrante. 1998. PCR detection of JC virus DNA in the brain tissue of a 9-year-old child with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. J. Neurovirol. 4: 242245.
17. Bosch, F. X.,, M. M. Manos,, N. Munoz,, M. Sherman,, A. M. Jansen,, J. Peto,, M. H. Schiffman,, V. Moreno,, R. Kurman, and, K. V. Shah. 1995. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87: 796802.
18. Boyle, M. J.,, W. A. Sewell,, T. B. Sculley,, A. Apolloni,, J. J. Turner,, C. E. Swanson,, R. Penny, and, D. A. Cooper. 1991. Subtypes of Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 78: 30043011.
19. Brandt, C. D.,, H. W. Kim,, A. J. Vargosko,, B. C. Jeffries,, J. O. Arrobio,, B. Rindge,, R. H. Parrott, and, R. M. Chanock. 1969. Infections in 18,000 infants and children in a controlled study of respiratory tract disease. I. Adenovirus pathogenicity in relation to serologic type and illness syndrome. Am. J. Epidemiol. 90: 484500.
20. Bray, F.,, R. Sankila,, J. Ferlay, and, D. M. Parkin. 2002. Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 1995. Eur. J. Cancer 38: 99166.
21. Breitburd, F.,, N. Ramoz,, J. Salmon, and, G. Orth. 1996. HLA control in the progression of human papillomavirus infections. Semin. Cancer Biol. 7: 359371.
22. Brown, Z. A.,, S. Selke,, J. Zeh,, J. Kopelman,, A. Maslow,, R. L. Ashley,, D. H. Watts,, S. Berry,, M. Herd, and, L. Corey. 1997. The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 509515.
23. Brown, Z. A.,, L. A. Vontver,, J. Benedetti,, C. W. Critchlow,, C. J. Sells,, S. Berry, and, L. Corey. 1987. Effects on infants of a first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med. 317: 12461251.
24. Browne, H.,, G. Smith,, S. Beck, and, T. Minson. 1990. A complex between the MHC class I homologue encoded by human cytomegalovirus and beta 2 microglobulin. Nature 347: 770772.
25. Buddingh, G. J.,, D. I. Schrum,, J. C. Lanier, and, D. J. Guidry. 1953. Studies of the natural history of herpes simplex infections. Pediatrics 11: 595610.
26. Butel, J. S.,, and J. A. Lednicky. 1999. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91: 119134.
27. Campadelli, G.,, R. Brandimarti,, C. Di Lazzaro,, P. L. Ward,, B. Roizman, and, M. R. Torrisi. 1993. Fragmentation and dispersal of Golgi proteins and redistribution of glycoproteins and glycolipids processed through Golgi following infection with herpes simplex virus 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 27982802.
28. Chee, M. S.,, S. C. Satchwell,, E. Preddie,, K. M. Weston, and, B. G. Barrell. 1990. Human cytomegalovirus encodes three G protein-coupled receptor homologues. Nature 344: 774777.
29. Chowdhury, M.,, J. P. Taylor,, C. F. Chang,, J. Rappaport, and, K. Khalili. 1992. Evidence that a sequence similar to TAR is important for induction of the JC virus late promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat. J. Virol. 66: 73557361.
30. Chuh, A. A.,, S. S. Chiu, and, J. S. Peiris. 2001. Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 DNA in peripheral blood leucocytes and plasma in patients with pityriasis rosea by polymerase chain reaction: a prospective case control study. Acta Derm. Venereol. 81: 289290.
31. Cohen, J. I.,, and S. E. Straus. 2001. Varicella-zoster virus and its replication, p. 2707–2730. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
32. Cole, C. N.,, and S. D. Conzen. 2001. Polyomaviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 2141–2174. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
33. Colom, A. J.,, A. M. Teper,, W. M. Vollmer, and, G. B. Diette. 2006. Risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans in children with bronchiolitis. Thorax 61: 503506.
34. Cone, R. W.,, R. C. Hackman,, M. L. Huang,, R. A. Bowden,, J. D. Meyers,, M. Metcalf,, J. Zeh,, R. Ashley, and, L. Corey. 1993. Human herpesvirus 6 in lung tissue from patients with pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 329: 156161.
35. Cone, R. W.,, M. L. Huang,, L. Corey,, J. Zeh,, R. Ashley, and, R. Bowden. 1999. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after bone marrow transplantation: clinical and virologic manifestations. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 311318.
36. Copie-Bergman, C.,, G. Niedobitek,, D. C. Mangham,, J. Selves,, K. Baloch,, T. C. Diss,, D. N. Knowles,, G. Delsol, and, P. G. Isaacson. 1997. Epstein-Barr virus in B-cell lymphomas associated with chronic suppurative inflammation. J. Pathol. 183: 287292.
37. Craig, C. P.,, and A. J. Nahmias. 1973. Different patterns of neurologic involvement with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2 from the buffy coat of two adults with meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 127: 365372.
38. Cristaudo, A.,, R. Foddis,, A. Vivaldi,, R. Buselli,, V. Gattini,, G. Guglielmi,, F. Cosentino,, F. Ottenga,, E. Ciancia,, R. Libener,, R. Filiberti,, M. Neri,, P. Betta,, M. Tognon,, L. Mutti, and, R. Puntoni. 2005. SV40 enhances the risk of malignant mesothelioma among people exposed to asbestos: a molecular epidemiologic case-control study. Cancer Res. 65: 30493052.
39. Daibata, M.,, T. Taguchi,, T. Sawada,, H. Taguchi, and, I. Miyoshi. 1998. Chromosomal transmission of human herpesvirus 6 DNA in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet 352: 543544.
40. Dawson, C. W.,, A. G. Eliopoulos,, J. Dawson, and, L. S. Young. 1995. BHRF1, a viral homologue of the Bcl-2 oncogene, disturbs epithelial cell differentiation. Oncogene 10: 6977.
41. Deayton, J.,, A. Mocroft,, P. Wilson,, V. C. Emery,, M. A. Johnson, and, P. D. Griffiths. 1999. Loss of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viraemia following highly active antiretroviral therapy in the absence of specific anti-CMV therapy. AIDS 13: 12031206.
42. De Luca, A.,, A. Baldi,, V. Esposito,, C. M. Howard,, L. Bagella,, P. Rizzo,, M. Caputi,, H. I. Pass,, G. G. Giordano,, F. Baldi,, M. Carbone, and, A. Giordano. 1997. The retinoblastoma gene family pRb/p105, p107, pRb2/p130 and simian virus-40 large T-antigen in human mesotheliomas. Nat. Med. 3: 913916.
43. Dingwell, K. S.,, C. R. Brunetti,, R. L. Hendricks,, Q. Tang,, M. Tang,, A. J. Rainbow, and, D. C. Johnson. 1994. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins E and I facilitate cell-to-cell spread in vivo and across junctions of cultured cells. J. Virol. 68: 834845.
44. Drobyski, W. R.,, K. K. Knox,, D. Majewski, and, D. R. Carrigan. 1994. Brief report: fatal encephalitis due to variant B human herpesvirus-6 infection in a bone marrow-transplant recipient. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 13561360.
45. Dworsky, M.,, M. Yow,, S. Stagno,, R. F. Pass, and, C. Alford. 1983. Cytomegalovirus infection of breast milk and transmission in infancy. Pediatrics 72: 295299.
46. Egan, J. J.,, J. P. Stewart,, P. S. Hasleton,, J. R. Arrand,, K. B. Carroll, and, A. A. Woodcock. 1995. Epstein-Barr virus replication within pulmonary epithelial cells in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Thorax 50: 12341239.
47. Elenitoba-Johnson, K. S.,, and E. S. Jaffe. 1997. Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with congenital immunodeficiencies. Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 14: 3547.
48. Elliott, W. M.,, S. Hayashi, and, J. C. Hogg. 1995. Immunodetection of adenoviral E1A proteins in human lung tissue. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 12: 642648.
49. Emery, V. C.,, M. C. Atkins,, E. F. Bowen,, D. A. Clark,, M. A. Johnson,, I. M. Kidd,, J. E. McLaughlin,, A. N. Phillips,, P. M. Strappe, and, P. D. Griffiths. 1999. Interactions between beta-herpesviruses and human immunodeficiency virus in vivo: evidence for increased human immunodeficiency viral load in the presence of human herpesvirus 6. J. Med. Virol. 57: 278282.
50. Enam, S.,, T. M. Sweet,, S. Amini,, K. Khalili, and, L. Del Valle. 2004. Evidence for involvement of transforming growth factor beta1 signaling pathway in activation of JC virus in human immunodeficiency virus 1-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 128: 282291.
51. Epstein, M. A.,, G. Henle,, B. G. Achong, and, Y. M. Barr. 1965. Morphological and biological studies on a virus in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma. J. Exp. Med. 121: 761770.
52. Faulkner, G. C.,, S. R. Burrows,, R. Khanna,, D. J. Moss,, A. G. Bird, and, D. H. Crawford. 1999. X-Linked agammaglobulinemia patients are not infected with Epstein-Barr virus: implications for the biology of the virus. J. Virol. 73: 15551564.
53. Feng, H.,, M. Shuda,, Y. Chang, and, P. S. Moore. 2008. Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319: 10961100.
54. Frank, D.,, E. Cesarman,, Y. F. Liu,, R. E. Michler, and, D. M. Knowles. 1995. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders frequently contain type A and not type B Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 85: 13961403.
55. Fraser, N. W.,, A. M. Deatly,, D. M. Mellerick,, M. I. Muggeridge, and, J. G. Spivack. 1986. Molecular biology of latent HSV-1, p. 39–54. In C. Lopez,, B. Roizman (ed.), Human Herpesvirus Infections: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Raven, New York, NY.
56. Frisch, M.,, R. J. Biggar, and, J. J. Goedert. 2000. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92: 15001510.
57. Fujii, T.,, J. C. Hogg,, N. Keicho,, R. Vincent,, S. F. Van Eeden, and, S. Hayashi. 2003. Adenoviral E1A modulates inflammatory mediator expression by lung epithelial cells exposed to PM10. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 284: L290297.
58. Furuta, Y.,, S. Fukuda,, E. Chida,, T. Takasu,, F. Ohtani,, Y. Inuyama, and, K. Nagashima. 1998. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in patients with Bell’s palsy. J. Med. Virol. 54: 162166.
59. Furuta, Y.,, F. Ohtani,, H. Kawabata,, S. Fukuda, and, T. Bergstrom. 2000. High prevalence of varicella-zoster virus reactivation in herpes simplex virus-seronegative patients with acute peripheral facial palsy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 529533.
60. Gallia, G. L.,, J. Gordon, and, K. Khalili. 1998. Tumor pathogenesis of human neurotropic JC virus in the CNS. J. Neurovirol. 4: 175181.
61. Gaynor, A. M.,, M. D. Nissen,, D. M. Whiley,, I. M. MacKay,, S. B. Lambert,, G. Wu,, D. C. Brennan,, G. A. Storch,, T. P. Sloots, and, D. Wang. 2007. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PLoS Pathogens 3: 595604.
62. Gendelman, H. E.,, W. Phelps,, L. Feigenbaum,, J. M. Ostrove,, A. Adachi,, P. M. Howley,, G. Khoury,, H. S. Ginsberg, and, M. A. Martin. 1986. Trans-activation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequence by DNA viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 97599763.
63. Gill, M. J.,, J. Arlette, and, K. Buchan. 1988. Herpes simplex virus infection of the hand. A profile of 79 cases. Am. J. Med. 84: 8993.
64. Gilmour, P. S.,, I. Rahman,, S. Hayashi,, J. C. Hogg,, K. Donaldson, and, W. MacNee. 2001. Adenoviral E1A primes alveolar epithelial cells to PM(10)-induced transcription of interleukin-8. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 281: L598L606.
65. Gold, D. R.,, I. B. Tager,, S. T. Weiss,, T. D. Tosteson, and, F. E. Speizer. 1989. Acute lower respiratory illness in childhood as a predictor of lung function and chronic respiratory symptoms. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 140: 877884.
66. Goncalves, M. A.,, and A. A. de Vries. 2006. Adenovirus: from foe to friend. Rev. Med. Virol. 16: 167186.
67. Graham, F. L. 1984. Transformation by and oncogenicity of human adenoviruses, p. 339–398. In H. S. Ginsberg (ed.), The Adenoviruses. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
68. Grassmann, K.,, S. P. Wilczynski,, N. Cook,, B. Rapp, and, T. Iftner. 1996. HPV6 variants from malignant tumors with sequence alterations in the regulatory region do not reveal differences in the activities of the oncogene promoters but do contain amino acid exchanges in the E6 and E7 proteins. Virology 223: 185197.
69. Gratama, J. W.,, M. A. Oosterveer,, G. Klein, and, I. Ernberg. 1990. EBNA size polymorphism can be used to trace Epstein-Barr virus spread within families. J. Virol. 64: 47034708.
70. Grattan, M. T.,, C. E. Moreno-Cabral,, V. A. Starnes,, P. E. Oyer,, E. B. Stinson, and, N. E. Shumway. 1989. Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with cardiac allograft rejection and atherosclerosis. JAMA 261: 35613566.
71. Gray, G. C.,, J. D. Callahan,, A. W. Hawksworth,, C. A. Fisher, and, J. C. Gaydos. 1999. Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 379385.
72. Green, M.,, W. S. M. Wold, and, K. H. Brachmann. 1980. Human adenovirus transforming genes: group relationships, integration, expression in transformed cells and analysis of human cancers and tonsils, p. 373–397. In M. Essex,,, G. Todaro, and, H. zur Hausen (ed.), Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Cell Proliferation Viruses in Naturally Occurring Tumors. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
73. Green, M.,, W. S. Wold,, J. K. Mackey, and, P. Rigden. 1979. Analysis of human tonsil and cancer DNAs and RNAs for DNA sequences of group C (serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6) human adenoviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 66066610.
74. Harabuchi, Y.,, N. Yamanaka,, A. Kataura,, S. Imai,, T. Kinoshita,, F. Mizuno, and, T. Osato. 1990. Epstein-Barr virus in nasal T-cell lymphomas in patients with lethal midline granuloma. Lancet 335: 128130.
75. Hayashi, S.,, T. Harris,, I. C. Gillam, and, E. G. Sedgwick. 2000. Adenovirus E1A DNA integration into chromosomes of lung epithelial cells of COPD patients. Eur. Resp. J. 16: 17S. (Abstract.)
76. Hayward, G. S.,, R. J. Jacob,, S. C. Wadsworth, and, B. Roizman. 1975. Anatomy of herpes simplex virus DNA: evidence for four populations of molecules that differ in the relative orientations of their long and short components. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 42434247.
77. Hedquist, B. G.,, G. Bratt,, A. L. Hammarin,, M. Grandien,, I. Nennesmo,, B. Sundelin, and, S. Seregard. 1999. Identification of BK virus in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and bilateral atypical retinitis. Ophthalmology 106: 129132.
78. Henderson, S.,, D. Huen,, M. Rowe,, C. Dawson,, G. Johnson, and, A. Rickinson. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 84798483.
79. Higashimoto, Y.,, W. M. Elliott,, A. R. Behzad,, E. G. Sedgwick,, T. Takei,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 2002. Inflammatory mediator mRNA expression by adenovirus E1A-transfected bronchial epithelial cells. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166: 200207.
80. Higashimoto, Y.,, N. Keicho,, W. M. Elliott,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 1999. Effect of adenovirus E1A on ICAM-1 promoter activity in human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Gene Expr. 8: 287297.
81. Hilleman, M. R.,, and J. H. Werner. 1954. Recovery of new agent from patients with acute respiratory illness. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 85: 183188.
82. Hogg, J. C.,, F. Chu,, S. Utokaparch,, R. Woods,, W. M. Elliott,, L. Buzatu,, R. M. Cherniack,, R. M. Rogers,, F. C. Sciurba,, H. O. Coxson, and, P. D. Pare. 2004. The nature of small-airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 350: 26452653.
83. Hogg, J. C.,, W. L. Irving,, H. Porter,, M. Evans,, M. S. Dunnill, and, K. Fleming. 1989. In situ hybridization studies of adenoviral infections of the lung and their relationship to follicular bronchiectasis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 139: 15311535.
84. Hogg, J. C.,, P. T. Macklem, and, W. M. Thurlbeck. 1968. Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 278: 13551360.
85. Horowitz, M. S. 2001. Adenoviruses, p. 2301–2326. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
86. Horwitz, M. S. 2004. Function of adenovirus E3 proteins and their interactions with immunoregulatory cell proteins. J. Gene. Med. 6 (Suppl. 1) : S172S183.
87. Howley, P. M.,, and D. R. Lowy. 2001. Papillomaviruses and their replication, p. 2197–2229. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
88. Huebner, R. J.,, W. P. Rowe, and, R. M. Chanock. 1958. Newly recognized respiratory tract viruses. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 12: 4976.
89. Huebner, R. J.,, W. P. Rowe,, T. G. Ward,, R. H. Parrott, and, J. A. Bell. 1954. Adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival agents: a newly recognized group of common viruses of the respiratory system. N. Engl. J. Med. 251: 10771086.
90. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1998. Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi sarcoma, herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol. 70. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://monographs.lars.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol70/volume70.pdf. Accessed 3 June 2008.
91. Ibelgaufts, H.,, K. W. Jones,, N. Maitland, and, J. F. Shaw. 1982. Adenovirus-related RNA sequences in human neurogenic tumours. Acta Neuropathol. 56: 113117.
92. Ilves, I.,, S. Kivi, and, M. Ustav. 1999. Long-term episomal maintenance of bovine papillomavirus type 1 plasmids is determined by attachment to host chromosomes, which is mediated by the viral E2 protein and its binding sites. J. Virol. 73: 44044412.
93. Ison, M. G. 2006. Adenovirus infections in transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43: 331339.
94. Jones, J. F.,, S. Shurin,, C. Abramowsky,, R. R. Tubbs,, C. G. Sciotto,, R. Wahl,, J. Sands,, D. Gottman,, B. Z. Katz, and, J. Sklar. 1988. T-cell lymphomas containing Epstein-Barr viral DNA in patients with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 318: 733741.
95. Kanerva, M.,, L. Mannonen,, H. Piiparinen,, M. Peltomaa,, A. Vaheri, and, A. Pitkaranta. 2007. Search for herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of facial palsy patients by PCR. Acta Otolaryngol. 127: 775779.
96. Kaschula, R. O.,, J. Druker, and, A. Kipps. 1983. Late morphologic consequences of measles: a lethal and debilitating lung disease among the poor. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: 395404.
97. Kashima, H. K.,, P. Mounts, and, K. Shah. 1996. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 23: 699706.
98. Kawaguchi, K.,, H. Inamura,, Y. Abe,, H. Koshu,, E. Takashita,, Y. Muraki,, Y. Matsuzaki,, H. Nishimura,, H. Ishikawa,, A. Fukao,, S. Hongo, and, M. Aoyagi. 2007. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus and therapeutic effects of combination therapy with prednisolone and valacyclovir in patients with Bell’s palsy. Laryngoscope 117: 147156.
99. Keicho, N.,, W. M. Elliott,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 1997. Adenovirus E1A gene dysregulates ICAM-1 expression in transformed pulmonary epithelial cells. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 16: 2330.
100. Keicho, N.,, W. M. Elliott,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 1997. Adenovirus E1A upregulates interleukin-8 expression induced by endotoxin in pulmonary epithelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. 272: L1046L1052.
101. Keicho, N.,, Y. Higashimoto,, G. P. Bondy,, W. M. Elliott,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 1999. Endotoxin-specific NF-kappaB activation in pulmonary epithelial cells harboring adenovirus E1A. Am. J. Physiol. 277: L523L532.
102. Kieff, E.,, and A. B. Rickinson. 2001. Epstein-Barr virus and its replication, p. 2511–2573. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
103. Knox, K. K.,, and D. R. Carrigan. 1994. Disseminated active HHV-6 infections in patients with AIDS. Lancet 343: 577578.
104. Koelle, D. M.,, S. Barcy,, M. L. Huang,, R. L. Ashley,, L. Corey,, J. Zeh,, S. Ashton, and, D. Buchwald. 2002. Markers of viral infection in monozygotic twins discordant for chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 518525.
105. Kojaoghlanian, T.,, P. Flomenberg, and, M. S. Horwitz. 2003. The impact of adenovirus infection on the immunocompromised host. Rev. Med. Virol. 13: 155171.
106. Kondo, K.,, T. Kondo,, T. Okuno,, M. Takahashi, and, K. Yamanishi. 1991. Latent human herpesvirus 6 infection of human monocytes/macrophages. J. Gen. Virol. 72: 14011408.
107. Korsager, B.,, E. S. Spencer,, C. H. Mordhorst, and, H. K. Andersen. 1975. Herpesvirus hominis infections in renal transplant recipients. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 7: 1119.
108. Kositanont, U.,, C. Wasi,, N. Wanprapar,, P. Bowonkiratikachorn,, K. Chokephaibulkit,, S. Chearskul,, K. Chimabutra,, R. Sutthent,, S. Foongladda,, R. Inagi,, T. Kurata, and, K. Yamanishi. 1999. Primary infection of human herpesvirus 6 in children with vertical infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 5055.
109. Kosuge, H.,, K. Tanaka-Taya,, H. Miyoshi,, K. Amo,, R. Harada,, T. Ebihara,, Y. Kawahara,, K. Yamanishi, and, T. Nishikawa. 2000. Epidemiological study of human herpesvirus-6 and human herpesvirus-7 in pityriasis rosea. Br. J. Dermatol. 143: 795798.
110. Kotenko, S. V.,, S. Saccani,, L. S. Izotova,, O. V. Mirochnitchenko, and, S. Pestka. 2000. Human cytomegalovirus harbors its own unique IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 16951700.
111. Kristie, T. M.,, J. L. Vogel, and, A. E. Sears. 1999. Nuclear localization of the C1 factor (host cell factor) in sensory neurons correlates with reactivation of herpes simplex virus from latency. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 12291233.
112. Kuppers, R.,, and K. Rajewsky. 1998. The origin of Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s disease. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16: 471493.
113. Kuwano, K.,, M. Kawasaki,, R. Kunitake,, N. Hagimoto,, Y. Nomoto,, T. Matsuba,, Y. Nakanishi, and, N. Hara. 1997. Detection of group C adenovirus DNA in small-cell lung cancer with the nested polymerase chain reaction. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 123: 377382.
114. Laghi, L.,, A. E. Randolph,, D. P. Chauhan,, G. Marra,, E. O. Major,, J. V. Neel, and, C. R. Boland. 1999. JC virus DNA is present in the mucosa of the human colon and in colorectal cancers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 74847489.
115. Landini, M. P.,, T. Lazzarotto,, J. Xu,, A. P. Geballe, and, E. S. Mocarski. 2000. Humoral immune response to proteins of human cytomegalovirus latency-associated transcripts. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 6: 100108.
116. Lang, W. R.,, C. W. Howden,, J. Laws, and, J. F. Burton. 1969. Bronchopneumonia with serious sequelae in children with evidence of adenovirus type 21 infection. Br. Med. J. 1: 7379.
117. Lee, E. S.,, J. Locker,, M. Nalesnik,, J. Reyes,, R. Jaffe,, M. Alashari,, B. Nour,, A. Tzakis, and, P. S. Dickman. 1995. The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 1925.
118. Leen, A. M.,, C. M. Bollard,, G. D. Myers, and, C. M. Rooney. 2006. Adenoviral infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12: 243251.
119. Linder, T.,, W. Bossart, and, D. Bodmer. 2005. Bell’s palsy and herpes simplex virus: fact or mystery? Otol. Neurotol. 26: 109113.
120. Liu, Y.,, R. de Waal Malefyt,, F. Briere,, C. Parham,, J. M. Bridon,, J. Banchereau,, K. W. Moore, and, J. Xu. 1997. The EBV IL-10 homologue is a selective agonist with impaired binding to the IL-10 receptor. J. Immunol. 158: 604613.
121. London, W. T.,, S. A. Houff,, D. L. Madden,, D. A. Fuccillo,, M. Gravell,, W. C. Wallen,, A. E. Palmer,, J. L. Sever,, B. L. Padgett,, D. L. Walker,, G. M. ZuRhein, and, T. Ohashi. 1978. Brain tumors in owl monkeys inoculated with a human polyomavirus (JC virus). Science 201: 12461249.
122. Lowy, D. R.,, and P. M. Howley. 2001. Papillomaviruses, p. 2231–2264. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
123. Lukashok, S.,, and M. S. Horwitz. 1997. Adenovirus persistence, p. 147–164. In R. Ahmed, and, I. Chen (ed.), Persistent Viral Infections. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
124. Lukashok, S. A.,, and M. S. Horwitz. 1998. New perspectives in adenoviruses. Curr. Clin. Top. Infect. Dis. 18: 286305.
125. Lungu, O.,, P. W. Annunziato,, A. Gershon,, S. M. Staugaitis,, D. Josefson,, P. LaRussa, and, S. J. Silverstein. 1995. Reactivated and latent varicella-zoster virus in human dorsal root ganglia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 1098010984.
126. Luppi, M.,, P. Barozzi,, C. Morris,, A. Maiorana,, R. Garber,, G. Bonacorsi,, A. Donelli,, R. Marasca,, A. Tabilio, and, G. Torelli. 1999. Human herpesvirus 6 latently infects early bone marrow progenitors in vivo. J. Virol. 73: 754759.
127. Lusso, P.,, P. Secchiero,, R. W. Crowley,, A. Garzino-Demo,, Z. N. Berneman, and, R. C. Gallo. 1994. CD4 is a critical component of the receptor for human herpesvirus 7: interference with human immunodeficiency virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 38723876.
128. MacMahon, B. 1966. Epidemiology of Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer Res. 26: 11891201.
129. Magrath, I. 1990. The pathogenesis of Burkitt’s lymphoma. Adv. Cancer Res. 55: 133270.
130. Major, E. O. 2001. Human polyomavirus, p. 2175–2196. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
131. Malkin, D.,, S. Chilton-MacNeill,, L. A. Meister,, E. Sexsmith,, L. Diller, and, R. L. Garcea. 2001. Tissue-specific expression of SV40 in tumors associated with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Oncogene 20: 44414449.
132. Manfredi, J. J.,, J. Dong,, W. J. Liu,, L. Resnick-Silverman,, R. Qiao,, P. Chahinian,, M. Saric,, A. R. Gibbs,, J. I. Phillips,, J. Murray,, C. W. Axten,, R. P. Nolan, and, S. A. Aaronson. 2005. Evidence against a role for SV40 in human mesothelioma. Cancer Res. 65: 26022609.
133. Marttila, M.,, D. Persson,, D. Gustafsson,, M. K. Liszewski,, J. P. Atkinson,, G. Wadell, and, N. Arnberg. 2005. CD46 is a cellular receptor for all species B adenoviruses except types 3 and 7. J. Virol. 79: 14429144436.
134. Matsuse, T.,, S. Hayashi,, K. Kuwano,, H. Keunecke,, W. A. Jefferies, and, J. C. Hogg. 1992. Latent adenoviral infection in the pathogenesis of chronic airways obstruction. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146: 177184.
135. McClain, K. L.,, C. T. Leach,, H. B. Jenson,, V. V. Joshi,, B. H. Pollock,, R. T. Parmley,, F. J. DiCarlo,, E. G. Chadwick, and, S. B. Murphy. 1995. Association of Epstein-Barr virus with leiomyosarcomas in children with AIDS. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 1218.
136. McCormick, D. P. 1972. Herpes-simplex virus as a cause of Bell’s palsy. Lancet i: 937939.
137. McDonald, K.,, T. S. Rector,, E. A. Braulin,, S. H. Kubo, and, M. T. Olivari. 1989. Association of coronary artery disease in cardiac transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus infection. Am. J. Cardiol. 64: 359362.
138. Mead, J.,, J. M. Turner,, P. T. Macklem, and, J. B. Little. 1967. Significance of the relationship between lung recoil and maximum expiratory flow. J. Appl. Physiol. 22: 95108.
139. Mellerick, D. M.,, and N. W. Fraser. 1987. Physical state of the latent herpes simplex virus genome in a mouse model system: evidence suggesting an episomal state. Virology 158: 265275.
140. Meshi, B.,, T. Z. Vitalis,, D. Ionescu,, W. M. Elliott,, C. Liu,, X. D. Wang,, S. Hayashi, and, J. C. Hogg. 2002. Emphysematous lung destruction by cigarette smoke. The effects of latent adenoviral infection on the lung inflammatory response. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 26: 5257.
141. Miller, D. M.,, and D. D. Sedmak. 1999. Viral effects on antigen processing. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 11: 9499.
142. Mocarski, E. S., Jr.,, and C. T. Courcelle. 2001. Cytomegalo-viruses and their replication, p. 2629–2673. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
143. Mogabgab, W. J. 1968. Acute respiratory illnesses in university (1962–1966), military and industrial (1962–1963) populations. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 98: 359379.
144. Momose, H.,, E. S. Jaffe,, S. S. Shin,, Y. Y. Chen, and, L. M. Weiss. 1992. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma with Reed-Sternberg-like cells and possible transformation to Hodgkin’s disease. Mediation by Epstein-Barr virus. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 16: 859867.
145. Montgomerie, J. Z.,, D. M. Becroft,, M. C. Croxson,, P. B. Doak, and, J. D. North. 1969. Herpes-simplex-virus infection after renal transplantation. Lancet ii: 86771.
146. Murray, C. J.,, and A. D. Lopez. 1996. Evidence-based health policy—lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science 274: 740743.
147. Nahmias, A. J.,, H. L. Keyserling, and, G. M. Kerrick. 1983. Herpes simplex, p. 636–678. In J. S. Remington and, J. O. Klein (ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
148. Nahmias, A. J.,, F. K. Lee, and, S. Bechman-Nahmias. 1990. Sero-epidemiological and sociological patterns of herpes simplex virus infection in the world. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 69: 1936.
149. Nalesnik, M. A. 1998. Clinical and pathological features of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 20: 325342.
150. Nilsson, K.,, G. Klein,, W. Henle, and, G. Henle. 1971. The establishment of lymphoblastoid lines from adult and fetal human lymphoid tissue and its dependence on EBV. Int. J. Cancer 8: 443450.
151. Ogawa, E.,, W. M. Elliott,, F. Hughes,, T. J. Eichholtz,, J. C. Hogg, and, S. Hayashi. 2004. Latent adenoviral infection induces production of growth factors relevant to airway remodeling in COPD. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 286: L189197.
152. Ogawa, E.,, A. Kartono,, J. C. Hogg,, S. Hayashi. 2003. The mechanism of ICAM-1 gene regulation by adenovirus E1A in transfected human bronchial epithelial cells. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167: A401. (Abstract.)
153. Okuno, T.,, K. Higashi,, K. Shiraki,, K. Yamanishi,, M. Takahashi,, Y. Kokado,, M. Ishibashi,, S. Takahara,, T. Sonoda,, K. Tanaka,, K. Baba,, H. Yabuuchi, and, T., Kurata. 1990. Human herpesvirus 6 infection in renal transplantation. Transplantation 49: 519522.
154. Okuno, T.,, K. Takahashi,, K. Balachandra,, K. Shiraki,, K. Yamanishi,, M. Takahashi, and, K. Baba. 1989. Seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 6 infection in normal children and adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 651653.
155. O’Sullivan, C. E.,, W. L. Drew,, D. J. McMullen,, R. Miner,, J. Y. Lee,, R. A. Kaslow,, J. G. Lazar, and, M. S. Saag. 1999. Decrease of cytomegalovirus replication in human immunodeficiency virus infected-patients after treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 847849.
156. Pallesen, G.,, S. J. Hamilton-Dutoit, and, X. Zhou. 1993. The association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with T cell lymphoproliferations and Hodgkin’s disease: two new developments in the EBV field. Adv. Cancer Res. 62: 179239.
157. Parkin, D. M.,, P. Pisani, and, J. Ferlay. 1999. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of 25 major cancers in 1990. Int. J. Cancer 80: 827841.
158. Pass, R. F. 2001. Cytomegalovirus, p. 2675–2705. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
159. Pass, R. F.,, C. Hutto,, R. Ricks, and, G. A. Cloud. 1986. Increased rate of cytomegalovirus infection among parents of children attending day-care centers. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 14141418.
160. Pauwels, R. A.,, A. S. Buist,, P. Ma,, C. R. Jenkins, and, S. S. Hurd. 2001. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and World Health Organization Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD): executive summary. Respir. Care 46: 798825.
161. Peacock, J. E., Jr.,, and F. A. Sarubbi. 1983. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 61: 13S18S.
162. Pellett, P. E.,, and G. Dominguez. 2001. Human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7 and their replication, p. 2769–2784. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
163. Penfold, M. E.,, D. J. Dairaghi,, G. M. Duke,, N. Saederup,, E. S. Mocarski,, G. W. Kemble, and, T. J. Schall. 1999. Cytomegalovirus encodes a potent alpha chemokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 98399844.
164. Pichler, M. N.,, J. Reichenbach,, H. Schmidt,, G. Herrmann, and, S. Zielen. 2000. Severe adenovirus bronchiolitis in children. Acta Paediatr. 89: 13871389.
165. Qavi, H. B.,, M. T. Green,, G. K. SeGall, and, R. L. Font. 1989. Demonstration of HIV-1 and HHV-6 in AIDS-associated retinitis. Curr. Eye Res. 8: 379387.
166. Reidy, P. M.,, H. H. Dedo,, R. Rabah,, J. B. Field,, R. H. Mathog,, L. Gregoire, and, W. D. Lancaster. 2004. Integration of human papillomavirus type 11 in recurrent respiratory papilloma-associated cancer. Laryngoscope 114: 19061909.
167. Rencic, A.,, J. Gordon,, J. Otte,, M. Curtis,, A. Kovatich,, P. Zoltick,, K. Khalili, and, D. Andrews. 1996. Detection of JC virus DNA sequence and expression of the viral oncoprotein, tumor antigen, in brain of immunocompetent patient with oligoastrocytoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 73527357.
168. Retamales, I.,, W. M. Elliott,, B. Meshi,, H. O. Coxson,, P. D. Pare,, F. C. Sciurba,, R. M. Rogers,, S. Hayashi, and, J. C. Hogg. 2001. Amplification of inflammation in emphysema and its association with latent adenoviral infection. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164: 469473.
169. Revello, M. G.,, M. Zavattoni,, A. Sarasini,, E. Percivalle,, L. Simoncini, and, G. Gerna. 1998. Human cytomegalovirus in blood of immunocompetent persons during primary infection: prognostic implications for pregnancy. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 11701175.
170. Reynolds, D. W.,, S. Stagno,, T. S. Hosty,, M. Tiller, and, C. A. Alford, Jr. 1973. Maternal cytomegalovirus excretion and perinatal infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 15.
171. Rickinson, A. B.,, and E. Kieff. 2001. Epstein-Barr virus, p. 2575–2627. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
172. Rock, D. L.,, and N. W. Fraser. 1983. Detection of HSV-1 genome in central nervous system of latently infected mice. Nature 302: 523525.
173. Rock, D. L.,, and N. W. Fraser. 1985. Latent herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA contains two copies of the virion DNA joint region. J. Virol. 55: 849852.
174. Roizman, B. 1966. An inquiry into the mechanisms of recurrent herpes infection of man, p. 283–304. In M. Pollard (ed.), Perspectives in Virology, vol. 4. Harper-Row, New York, NY.
175. Roizman, B.,, and D. M. Knipe. 2001. Herpes simplex viruses and their replication, p. 2399–2509. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
176. Roizman, B.,, and P. E. Pellett. 2001. The family Herpesviridae: brief introduction, p. 2381–2397. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
177. Rollison, D. E.,, W. J. Sexton,, A. R. Rodriguez,, L. C. Kang,, R. Daniel, and, K. V. Shah. 2007. Lack of BK virus DNA sequences in most transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder. Int. J. Cancer 120: 12481251.
178. Rosato, F. E.,, E. F. Rosato, and, S. A. Plotkin. 1970. Herpetic paronychia—an occupational hazard of medical personnel. N. Engl. J. Med. 283: 804805.
179. Rosenbaum, M. J.,, E. A. Edwards,, P. F. Frank,, W. E. Pierce,, Y. E. Crawford, and, L. F. Miller. 1965. Epidemiology and prevention of acute respiratory disease in naval recruits. I. Ten years’ experience with microbial agents isolated from naval recruits with acute respiratory disease. Am. J. Public Health Nations Health 55: 3846.
180. Rosman, F. C.,, A. S. Mistchenko,, H. S. Ladenheim,, J. P. do Nascimento,, H. N. Outani,, K. Madi, and, H. L. Lenzi. 1996. Acute and chronic human adenovirus pneumonia: cellular and extracellular matrix components. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 16: 521541.
181. Rowe, M.,, R. Khanna,, C. A. Jacob,, V. Argaet,, A. Kelly,, S. Powis,, M. Belich,, D. Croom-Carter,, S. Lee,, S. R. Burrows,, J. Trowsdale,, D. J. Moss, and, A. B. Rickinson. 1995. Restoration of endogenous antigen processing in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1: coordinate up-regulation of peptide transporters and HLA-class I antigen expression. Eur. J. Immunol. 25: 13741384.
182. Rubio, R. 1994. Hodgkin’s disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A clinical study of 46 cases. Cooperative Study Group of Malignancies Associated with HIV Infection of Madrid. Cancer 73: 24002407.
183. Russell, K. L.,, M. P. Broderick,, S. E. Franklin,, L. B. Blyn,, N. E. Freed,, E. Moradi,, D. J. Ecker,, P. E. Kammerer,, M. A. Osuna,, A. E. Kajon,, C. B. Morn, and, M. A. Ryan. 2006. Transmission dynamics and prospective environmental sampling of adenovirus in a military recruit setting. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 877885.
184. Russell, K. L.,, A. W. Hawksworth,, M. A. Ryan,, J. Strickler,, M. Irvine,, C. J. Hansen,, G. C. Gray, and, J. C. Gaydos. 2006. Vaccine-preventable adenoviral respiratory illness in US military recruits, 1999–2004. Vaccine 24: 28352842.
185. Saito, Y.,, L. R. Sharer,, S. Dewhurst,, B. M. Blumberg,, C. B. Hall, and, L. G. Epstein. 1995. Cellular localization of human herpesvirus-6 in the brains of children with AIDS encephalopathy. J. Neurovirol. 1: 3099.
186. Sandler, E. S.,, V. M. Aquino,, E. Goss-Shohet,, S. Hinrichs, and, K. Krisher. 1997. BK papova virus pneumonia following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 20: 163165.
187. Santoro, F.,, P. E. Kennedy,, G. Locatelli,, M. S. Malnati,, E. A. Berger, and, P. Lusso. 1999. CD46 is a cellular receptor for human herpesvirus 6. Cell 99: 817827.
188. Sasajima, Y.,, H. Yamabe,, Y. Kobashi,, K. Hirai, and, S. Mori. 1993. High expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent protein EB nuclear antigen-2 on pyothorax-associated lymphomas. Am. J. Pathol. 143: 12801285.
189. Schiffman, M. H. 1994. Epidemiology of cervical human papillomaviruses. In H. Hausen (ed.), Human Pathogenic Papillomaviruses. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
190. Schmitz, H.,, R. Wigand, and, W. Heinrich. 1983. Worldwide epidemiology of human adenovirus infections. Am. J. Epidemiol. 117: 455466.
191. Schmutzhard, E. 2001. Viral infections of the CNS with special emphasis on herpes simplex infections. J. Neurol. 248: 469477.
192. Schwarz, E.,, U. K. Freese,, L. Gissmann,, W. Mayer,, B. Roggenbuck,, A. Stremlau, and, H. zur Hausen. 1985. Structure and transcription of human papillomavirus sequences in cervical carcinoma cells. Nature 314: 111114.
193. Seishima, M.,, S. Yamanaka,, T. Fujisawa,, M. Tohyama, and, K. Hashimoto. 2006. Reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV) family members other than HHV-6 in druginduced hypersensitivity syndrome. Br. J. Dermatol. 155: 344349.
194. Shah, K.,, and N. Nathanson. 1976. Human exposure to SV40: review and comment. Am. J. Epidemiol. 103: 112.
195. Shek, T. W.,, F. C. Ho,, I. O. Ng,, A. C. Chan,, L. Ma, and, G. Srivastava. 1996. Follicular dendritic cell tumor of the liver. Evidence for an Epstein-Barr virus-related clonal proliferation of follicular dendritic cells. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 20: 313324.
196. Shenk, T. E. 2001. Adenoviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 2265–2300. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
197. Singh, J.,, and E. K. Wagner. 1993. Transcriptional analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 region containing the TRL/UL junction. Virology 196: 220231.
198. Singh, N.,, D. R. Carrigan,, T. Gayowski, and, I. R. Marino. 1997. Human herpesvirus-6 infection in liver transplant recipients: documentation of pathogenicity. Transplantation 64: 674678.
199. Singh, N.,, D. R. Carrigan,, T. Gayowski,, J. Singh, and, I. R. Marino. 1995. Variant B human herpesvirus-6 associated febrile dermatosis with thrombocytopenia and encephalopathy in a liver transplant recipient. Transplantation 60: 13551357.
200. Sixbey, J. W.,, J. G. Nedrud,, N. Raab-Traub,, R. A. Hanes, and, J. S. Pagano. 1984. Epstein-Barr virus replication in oropharyngeal epithelial cells. N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 12251230.
201. Smith, M. 1997. Considerations on a possible viral etiology for B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood. J. Immunother. 20: 89100.
202. Steiner, I.,, and Y. Mattan. 1999. Bell’s palsy and herpes viruses: to (acyclo)vir or not to (acyclo)vir? J. Neurol. Sci. 170: 1923.
203. Stern, P. L. 1996. Immunity to human papillomavirus-associated cervical neoplasia. Adv. Cancer Res. 69: 175211.
204. Stewart, J. P.,, J. J. Egan,, A. J. Ross,, B. G. Kelly,, S. S. Lok,, P. S. Hasleton, and, A. A. Woodcock. 1999. The detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 159: 13361341.
205. Stjernquist-Desatnik, A.,, E. Skoog, and, E. Aurelius. 2006. Detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses in patients with Bell’s palsy by the polymerase chain reaction technique. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 115: 306311.
206. Strickler, H. D.,, J. J. Goedert,, M. Fleming,, W. D. Travis,, A. E. Williams,, C. S. Rabkin,, R. W. Daniel, and, K. V. Shah. 1996. Simian virus 40 and pleural mesothelioma in humans. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 5: 473475.
207. Strockbine, L. D.,, J. I. Cohen,, T. Farrah,, S. D. Lyman,, F. Wagener,, R. F. DuBose,, R. J. Armitage, and, M. K. Spriggs. 1998. The Epstein-Barr virus BARF1 gene encodes a novel, soluble colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. J. Virol. 72: 40154021.
208. Su, I. J.,, and J. Y. Chen. 1997. The role of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoid malignancies. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 26: 2541.
209. Su, I. J.,, Y. H. Hsu,, M. T. Lin,, A. L. Cheng,, C. H. Wang, and, L. M. Weiss. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus-containing T-cell lymphoma presents with hemophagocytic syndrome mimicking malignant histiocytosis. Cancer 72: 20192027.
210. Sugawara, Y.,, Y. Mizugaki,, T. Uchida,, T. Torii,, S. Imai,, M. Makuuchi, and, K. Takada. 1999. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue: a novel EBV latency characterized by the absence of EBV-encoded small RNA expression. Virology 256: 196202.
211. Sullivan, J. L.,, and B. A. Woda. 1989. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Immunodefic. Rev. 1: 325347.
212. Tanaka, K.,, T. Kondo,, S. Torigoe,, S. Okada,, T. Mukai, and, K. Yamanishi. 1994. Human herpesvirus 7: another causal agent for roseola (exanthem subitum). J. Pediatr. 125: 15.
213. Tanaka-Taya, K.,, T. Kondo,, T. Mukai,, H. Miyoshi,, Y. Yamamoto,, S. Okada, and, K. Yamanishi. 1996. Seroepidemiological study of human herpesvirus-6 and -7 in children of different ages and detection of these two viruses in throat swabs by polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 48: 8894.
214. Testa, J. R.,, M. Carbone,, A. Hirvonen,, K. Khalili,, B. Krynska,, K. Linnainmaa,, F. D. Pooley,, P. Rizzo,, V. Rusch, and, G. H. Xiao. 1998. A multi-institutional study confirms the presence and expression of simian virus 40 in human malignant mesotheliomas. Cancer Res. 58: 45054509.
215. Top, F. H., Jr.,, E. L. Buescher,, W. H. Bancroft, and, P. K. Russell. 1971. Immunization with live types 7 and 4 adenovirus vaccines. II. Antibody response and protective effect against acute respiratory disease due to adenovirus type 7. J. Infect. Dis. 124: 155160.
216. Torrisi, M. R.,, M. Gentile,, G. Cardinali,, M. Cirone,, C. Zompetta,, L. V. Lotti,, L. Frati, and, A. Faggioni. 1999. Intracellular transport and maturation pathway of human herpesvirus 6. Virology 257: 460471.
217. Trentin, J. J.,, Y. Yabe, and, G. Taylor. 1962. The quest for human cancer viruses. Science 137: 835841.
218. Tuke, P. W.,, S. Hawke,, P. D. Griffiths, and, D. A. Clark. 2004. Distribution and quantification of human herpesvirus 6 in multiple sclerosis and control brains. Mult. Scler. 10: 355359.
219. Tyler, K. L.,, and N. Nathanson. 2001. Pathogenesis of viral infections, p. 199–243. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
220. Vafai, A.,, M. Wellish, and, D. H. Gilden. 1988. Expression of varicella-zoster virus in blood mononuclear cells of patients with postherpetic neuralgia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 27672770.
221. Van Brabandt, H.,, M. Cauberghs,, E. Verbeken,, P. Moerman,, J. M. Lauweryns, and, K. P. Van de Woestijne. 1983. Partitioning of pulmonary impedance in excised human and canine lungs. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 17331742.
222. Vitalis, T. Z.,, N. Keicho,, S. Itabashi,, S. Hayashi, and, J. C. Hogg. 1996. A model of latent adenovirus 5 infection in the guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus). Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 14: 22531.
223. Vitalis, T. Z.,, I. Kern,, A. Croome,, H. Behzad,, S. Hayashi, and, J. C. Hogg. 1998. The effect of latent adenovirus 5 infection on cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation. Eur. Respir. J. 11: 664669.
224. Voltz, R.,, G. Jager,, K. Seelos,, L. Fuhry, and, R. Hohlfeld. 1996. BK virus encephalitis in an immunocompetent patient. Arch. Neurol. 53: 101103.
225. Vontver, L. A.,, D. E. Hickok,, Z. Brown,, L. Reid, and, L. Corey. 1982. Recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy: infant outcome and frequency of asymptomatic recurrences. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143: 7584.
226. Vrabec, J. T.,, and D. A. Payne. 2001. Prevalence of herpesviruses in cranial nerve ganglia. Acta Otolaryngol. 121: 831835.
227. Wade, A. W.,, A. T. McDonald,, P. D. Acott,, S. Lee, and, J. F. Crocker. 1998. Human herpes virus-6 or Epstein-Barr virus infection and acute allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: greater risk for immunologically naive recipients. Transplant. Proc. 30: 20912093.
228. Wadsworth, S.,, R. J. Jacob, and, B. Roizman. 1975. Anatomy of herpes simplex virus DNA. II. Size, composition, and arrangement of inverted terminal repetitions. J. Virol. 15: 14871497.
229. Wallace, H. L.,, II, B. Natelson,, W. Gause, and, J. Hay. 1999. Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6: 216223.
230. Wang, K.,, T. Y. Lau,, M. Morales,, E. K. Mont, and, S. E. Straus. 2005. Laser-capture microdissection: refining estimates of the quantity and distribution of latent herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus DNA in human trigeminal Ganglia at the single-cell level. J. Virol. 79: 1407914087.
231. Wangoo, A.,, R. J. Shaw,, T. C. Diss,, P. J. Farrell,, R. M. du Bois, and, A. G. Nicholson. 1997. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: lack of association with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Thorax 52: 888891.
232. Warner, J. O.,, and W. C. Marshall. 1976. Crippling lung disease after measles and adenovirus infection. Br. J. Dis. Chest 70: 8994.
233. Watanabe, T.,, T. Kawamura,, S. E. Jacob,, E. A. Aquilino,, J. M. Orenstein,, J. B. Black, and, A. Blauvelt. 2002. Pityriasis rosea is associated with systemic active infection with both human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-6. J. Invest. Dermatol. 119: 7937.
234. Watson, P. N.,, and R. J. Evans. 1986. Postherpetic neuralgia. A review. Arch. Neurol. 43: 836840.
235. Weiss, L. M.,, L. A. Movahed,, R. A. Warnke, and, J. Sklar. 1989. Detection of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 502506.
236. Weiss, L. M.,, J. G. Strickler,, R. A. Warnke,, D. T. Purtilo, and, J. Sklar. 1987. Epstein-Barr viral DNA in tissues of Hodgkin’s disease. Am. J. Pathol. 129: 8691.
237. Whitley, R.,, A. D. Lakeman,, A. Nahmias, and, B. Roizman. 1982. DNA restriction-enzyme analysis of herpes simplex virus isolates obtained from patients with encephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 307: 10602.
238. Whitley, R. J. 2001. Herpes simplex viruses, p. 2461–2509. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
239. Whitley, R. J.,, M. Levin,, N. Barton,, B. J. Hershey,, G. Davis,, R. E. Keeney,, J. Whelchel,, A. G. Diethelm,, P. Kartus, and, S. J. Soong. 1984. Infections caused by herpes simplex virus in the immunocompromised host: natural history and topical acyclovir therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 323329.
240. Wiatrak, B. J.,, D. W. Wiatrak,, T. R. Broker, and, L. Lewis. 2004. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population. Laryngoscope 114: 123.
241. Yamanishi, K. 2001. Human herpesviruses 6 and human herpesviruses 7, p. 2785–2801. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed., vol. 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
242. Yamanishi, K.,, T. Okuno,, K. Shiraki,, M. Takahashi,, T. Kondo,, Y. Asano, and, T. Kurata. 1988. Identification of human herpesvirus-6 as a causal agent for exanthem subitum. Lancet i: 10651067.
243. Yamashita, Y.,, K. Shimokata,, S. Mizuno,, H. Yamaguchi, and, Y. Nishiyama. 1993. Down-regulation of the surface expression of class I MHC antigens by human cytomegalovirus. Virology 193: 727736.
244. Yanai, M.,, K. Sekizawa,, T. Ohrui,, H. Sasaki, and, T. Takishima. 1992. Site of airway obstruction in pulmonary disease: direct measurement of intrabronchial pressure. J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 10161023.
245. Zanghellini, F.,, S. B. Boppana,, V. C. Emery,, P. D. Griffiths, and, R. F. Pass. 1999. Asymptomatic primary cytomegalovirus infection: virologic and immunologic features. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 702707.
246. Zhou, Y. F.,, M. B. Leon,, M. A. Waclawiw,, J. J. Popma,, Z. X. Yu,, T. Finkel, and, S. E. Epstein. 1996. Association between prior cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of restenosis after coronary atherectomy. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 624630.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

General classification and features of the latent human viruses

Citation: Hayashi S, Hegele R, Hogg J. 2009. Latent Viral Infections, p 339-369. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Strategies used by latent virus to avoid immune detection

Citation: Hayashi S, Hegele R, Hogg J. 2009. Latent Viral Infections, p 339-369. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Summary of EBV-associated malignancies

Citation: Hayashi S, Hegele R, Hogg J. 2009. Latent Viral Infections, p 339-369. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Classification of human adenoviruses and the diseases they cause

Citation: Hayashi S, Hegele R, Hogg J. 2009. Latent Viral Infections, p 339-369. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch19