Chapter 21 : Slow Viral Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Slow Viral Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap21-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815486/9781555814304_Chap21-2.gif


There are many viruses that are not cleared from the body after they infect an individual. These include the herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B, and five other viruses that are discussed in this chapter. The viruses are presented in chronologic fashion based on discovery, focusing on the possible sequelae that chronic infection with these viruses can cause. Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL), an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, remains a difficult disease to treat. A section reviews the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the infected individual and follows it with an in-depth review of the major sequelae, listed by organ system. The immune system takes the brunt of the effects of HIV since these cells are the target of the virus. As an individual becomes infected, HIV quickly decimates the immune system. The chapter focuses first on the effect of HIV itself and only briefly mentions the infections that can affect the nervous system. Peripheral neuropathies have become the most common neurologic complication in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. They have been classified as inflammatory demyelination polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex or radiculopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), and toxic neuropathy from antiretroviral therapy. Although pulmonary hypertension (PAH) may be associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), HIV has been associated with pulmonary hypertension when no other organisms have been identified.

Citation: Samuel R, Bettiker R. 2009. Slow Viral Infections, p 389-406. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch21
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Agarwal, A.,, A. Soni,, M. Ciechanowsky,, P. Chander, and, G. Treser. 1989. Hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Nephron 53: 317321.
2. Ambroziak, J. A.,, D. J. Blackbourn,, B. G. Herndier,, R. G. Glogau,, J. H. Gullett,, A. R. McDonald,, E. T. Lennette, and, J. A. Levy. 1995. Herpes-like sequences in HIV-infected and uninfected Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Science 268: 582583.
3. Anderson, D. W.,, R. Virmani,, J. M. Reilly,, T. O’Leary,, R. E. Cunnion,, M. Robinowitz,, A. M. Macher,, U. Punja,, S. T. Villaflor, and, J. E. Parrillo. 1988. Prevalent myocarditis at necropsy in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 11: 792799.
4. Antman, K.,, and Y. Chang. 2000. Kaposi’s sarcoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 342: 10271038.
5. Aoki, Y.,, and G. Tosato. 2004. HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infectivity. Blood 104: 810814.
6. Aoki, Y.,, and G. Tosato. 2007. Interactions between HIV-1 Tat and KSHV. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 312: 309326.
7. Ariyoshi, K.,, Schim van der Loeff, M.,, P. Cook,, D. Whitby,, T. Corrah,, S. Jaffar,, F. Cham,, S. Sabally,, D. O’Donovan,, R. A. Weiss,, T. F. Schulz, and, H. Whittle. 1998. Kaposi’s sarcoma in the Gambia, West Africa is less frequent in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 than in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection despite a high prevalence of human herpesvirus 8. J. Hum. Virol. 1: 193199.
8. Arranz Caso, J. A.,, C. Sanchez Mingo, and, J. Garcia Tena. 1999. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on thrombocytopenia in patients with HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 12391240.
9. Arthos, J.,, C. Cicala,, E. Martinelli,, K. Macleod,, D. Van Ryk,, D. Wei,, Z. Xiao,, T. D. Veenstra,, T. P. Conrad,, R. A. Lem-picki,, S. McLaughlin,, M. Pascuccio,, R. Gopaul,, J. McNally,, C. C. Cruz,, N. Censoplano,, E. Chung,, K. N. Reitano,, S. Kottilil,, D. J. Goode, and, A. S. Fauci. 2008. HIV-1 envelope protein binds to and signals through integrin alpha4beta7, the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells. Nat. Immunol. 9: 301309.
10. Athale, U. H.,, P. S. Patil,, C. Chintu, and, B. Elem. 1995. Influence of HIV epidemic on the incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma in Zambian children. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8: 96100.
11. Bais, C.,, B. Santomasso,, O. Coso,, L. Arvanitakis,, E. G. Raaka,, J. S. Gutkind,, A. S. Asch,, E. Cesarman,, M. C. Gersh-engorn, and, E. A. Mesri. 1998. G-protein-coupled receptor of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a viral oncogene and angiogenesis activator. Nature 391: 8689.
12. Barbaro, G.,, G. Di Lorenzo,, B. Grisorio,, G. Barbarini, et al. 1998. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy and detection of HIV in myocardial cells of HIV-positive patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 10931099.
13. Barozzi, P.,, L. Potenza,, G. Riva,, D. Vallerini,, C. Quadrelli,, R. Bosco,, F. Forghieri,, G. Torelli, and, M. Luppi. 2007. B cells and herpesviruses: a model of lymphoproliferation. Autoimmun. Rev. 7: 132136.
14. Barron, M. A.,, N. Blyveis,, B. E. Palmer,, S. MaWhinney, and, C. C. Wilson. 2003. Influence of plasma viremia on defects in number and immunophenotype of blood dendritic cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals. J. Infect. Dis. 187: 2637.
15. Bayley, A. C. 1984. Aggressive Kaposi’s sarcoma in Zambia, 1983. Lancet i: 13181320.
16. Becker, S.,, G. Fusco,, J. Fusco,, R. Balu,, S. Gangjee,, C. Brennan,, J. Feinberg, and Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research/US Cohort. 2004. HIV-associated thrombotic microangiopathy in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: an observational study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: S267S275.
17. Beilke, M. A.,, V. TrainaDorge,, J. D. England, and, J. L. Blanchard. 1996. Polymyositis, arthritis, and uveitis in a macaque experimentally infected with human T lymphotropic virus type I. Arthritis Rheum. 39: 610615.
18. Beltran, S.,, F. X. Lescure,, R. Desailloud,, Y. Douadi,, A. Smail,, I. El Esper,, S. Arlot,, J. L. Schmit, and Thyroid and VIH Group. 2003. Increased prevalence of hypothyroidism among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a need for screening. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 579583.
19. Bendayan, D.,, R. Sarid,, A. Cohen,, D. Shitrit,, I. Shechtman, and, M. R. Kramer. Absence of human herpesvirus 8 DNA sequences in lung biopsies from Israeli patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Respiration 75: 155157.
20. Beral, V.,, T. A. Peterman,, R. L. Berkelman, and, H. W. Jaffe. 1990. Kaposi’s sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet 335: 123128.
21. Berhane, K.,, R. Karim,, M. H. Cohen,, L. Masri-Lavine,, M. Young,, K. Anastos,, M. Augenbraun,, D. H. Watts, and, A. M. Levine. 2004. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on anemia and relationship between anemia and survival in a large cohort of HIV-infected women: women’s interagency HIV study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 37: 12451252.
22. Biggar, R. J.,, B. K. Johnson,, C. Oster,, P. S. Sarin,, D. Ocheng,, P. Tukei,, H. Nsanze,, S. Alexander,, A. J. Bodner, and, T. A. Siongok. 1985. Regional variation in prevalence of antibody against human T-lymphotropic virus types I and III in Kenya, East Africa. Int. J. Cancer 35: 763767.
23. Blanchard, D. G.,, C. Hagenhoff,, L. C. Chow,, H. A. McCann, and, H. C. Dittrich. 1991. Reversibility of cardiac abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals: a serial echocardiographic study. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17: 12701276.
24. Blattner, W.,, and M. Charurat. 2005. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II, p. 2098–2118. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett, and, R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
25. Bock, P. J.,, and D. M. Markovitz. 2001. Infection with HIV-2. AIDS 15: S35S45.
26. Bower, M.,, M. Nelson,, A. M. Young,, C. Thirlwell,, T. Newsom-Davis,, S. Mandalia,, T. Dhillon,, P. Holmes,, B. G. Gazzard, and, J. Stebbing. 2005. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma. J. Clin. Oncol. 23: 52245228.
27. Brenchley, J. M.,, T. W. Schacker,, L. E. Ruff,, D. A. Price,, J. H. Taylor,, G. J. Beilman,, P. L. Nguyen,, A. Khoruts,, M. Larson,, A. T. Haase, and, D. C. Douek. 2004. CD4+ T cell depletion during all stages of HIV disease occurs predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract. J. Exp. Med. 200: 749759.
28. Bresser, P.,, M. I. Cornelissen,, W. van der Bij,, C. J. van Noesel, and, W. Timens. 2007. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension in Dutch Caucasian patients is not associated with human herpes virus-8 infection. Respir. Med. 101: 854856.
29. Busti, A. J.,, R. G. Hall, and, D. M. Margolis. 2004. Atazanavir for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pharmacotherapy 24: 17321747.
30. Carbone, A.,, A. Gloghini,, E. Vaccher,, V. Zagonel,, C. Pastore,, P. Dalla Palma,, F. Branz,, G. Saglio,, R. Volpe,, U. Tirelli, and, G. Gaidano. 1996. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA sequences in AIDS-related and AIDS-unrelated lymphomatous effusions. Br. J. Haematol. 94: 533543.
31. Castleman, B.,, L. Iverson, and, V. Menendez Pardo. 1956. Localized mediastinal lymph-node hyperplasia resembling thymoma. Cancer 9: 822830.
32. Cazanave, C.,, M. Dupon,, V. Lavignolle-Aurillac,, N. Barthe,, S. Lawson-Ayayi,, N. Mehsen,, P. Mercie,, P. Morlat,, R. Thiebaut,, F. Dabis, and Groupe d’Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en, Aquitaine. 2008. Reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS 22: 395402.
33. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1981. Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men--New York City and California. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 30: 305308.
34. Cesarman, E.,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, J. W. Said, and, D. M. Knowles. 1995. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 11861191.
35. Cesarman, E.,, R. G. Nador,, F. Bai,, R. A. Bohenzky,, J. J. Russo,, P. S. Moore,, Y. Chang, and, D. M. Knowles. 1996. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus contains G protein-coupled receptor and cyclin D homologs which are expressed in Kaposi’s sarcoma and malignant lymphoma. J. Virol. 70: 82188223.
36. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, F. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles, and, P. S. Moore. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266: 18651869.
37. Chang, Y.,, J. Ziegler,, H. Wabinga,, E. Katangole-Mbidde,, C. Boshoff,, T. Schulz,, D. Whitby,, D. Maddalena,, H. W. Jaffe,, R. A. Weiss,, P. S. Moore, et al. 1996. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Kaposi’s sarcoma in Africa. Arch. Intern. Med. 156: 202204.
38. Chen, X. M.,, J. S. Keithly,, C. V. Paya, and, N. F. LaRusso. 2002. Cryptosporidiosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 346: 17231731.
39. Chen, X. M.,, and N. F. LaRusso. 2002. Cryptosporidiosis and the pathogenesis of AIDS-cholangiopathy. Semin. Liver Dis. 22: 277289.
40. Chernak, E.,, G. Dubin,, D. Henry,, S. J. Naides,, R. L. Hodinka,, R. R. MacGregor, and, H. M. Friedman. 1995. Infection due to parvovirus B19 in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 170173.
41. Childs, E. A.,, R. H. Lyles,, O. A. Selnes,, B. Chen,, E. N. Miller,, B. A. Cohen,, J. T. Becker,, J. Mellors, and, J. C. McArthur. 1999. Plasma viral load and CD4 lymphocytes predict HIV-associated dementia and sensory neuropathy. Neurology 52: 607613.
42. Chin, K. M.,, and L. J. Rubin. 2008. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51: 15271538.
43. Chung, R. T.,, J. Andersen,, P. Volberding,, G. K. Robbins,, T. Liu,, K. E. Sherman,, M. G. Peters,, M. J. Koziel,, A. K. Bhan,, B. Alston,, D. Colquhoun,, T. Nevin,, G. Harb,, C. van der Horst, and AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5071 Study Team. 2004. Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 351: 451459.
44. Cool, C. D.,, P. R. Rai,, M. E. Yeager,, D. Hernandez-Saavedra,, A. E. Serls,, T. M. Bull,, M. W. Geraci,, K. K. Brown,, J. M. Routes,, R. M. Tuder, and, N. F. Voelkel. 2003. Expression of human herpesvirus 8 in primary pulmonary hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 349: 11131122.
45. Daibata, M.,, I. Miyoshi,, H. Taguchi,, H. Matsubara,, H. Date,, N. Shimizu, and, Y. Ohtsuki. 2004. Absence of human herpesvirus 8 in lung tissues from Japanese patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Respir. Med. 98: 12311232.
46. Dalakas, M. C.,, I. Illa,, G. H. Pezeshkpour,, J. P. Laukaitis,, B. Cohen, and, J. L. Griffin. 1990. Mitochondrial myopathy caused by long-term zidovudine therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 10981105.
47. de The, G.,, M. Kazanji, and, G. de The. 1996. An HTLV-I/II vaccine: from animal models to clinical trials? J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13( Suppl. 1) : S191S198.
48. Deng, Z.,, J. H. Morse,, S. L. Slager,, N. Cuervo,, K. J. Moore,, G. Venetos,, S. Kalachikov,, E. Cayanis,, S. G. Fischer,, R. J. Barst,, S. E. Hodge, and, J. A. Knowles. 2000. Familial primary pulmonary hypertension (gene PPH1) is caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II gene. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67: 737744.
49. DiGiovanna, J. J.,, and B. Safai. 1981. Kaposi’s sarcoma. Retrospective study of 90 cases with particular emphasis on the familial occurrence, ethnic background and prevalence of other diseases. Am. J. Med. 71: 779783.
50. Dobs, A. S.,, M. A. Dempsey,, P. W. Ladenson, and, B. F. Polk. 1988. Endocrine disorders in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Med. 84: 611616.
51. Dougherty, R. H.,, R. L. Skolasky, Jr., and, J. C. McArthur. 2002. Progression of HIV-associated dementia treated with HAART. AIDS Read. 12: 6974.
52. Eguchi, K.,, N. Matsuoka,, H. Ida,, M. Nakashima,, M. Sakai,, S. Sakito,, A. Kawakami,, K. Terada,, H. Shimada, and, Y. Kawabe. 1992. Primary Sjogren’s syndrome with antibodies to HTLV-I: clinical and laboratory features. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51: 769776.
53. Eledrisi, M. S.,, and A. C. Verghese. 2001. Adrenal insufficiency in HIV infection: a review and recommendations. Am. J. Med. Sci. 321: 137144.
54. Fiorelli, V.,, G. Barillari,, E. Toschi,, C. Sgadari,, P. Monini,, M. Sturzl, and, B. Ensoli. 1999. IFN-gamma induces endothelial cells to proliferate and to invade the extracellular matrix in response to the HIV-1 Tat protein: implications for AIDS-Kaposi’s sarcoma pathogenesis. J. Immunol. 162: 11651170.
55. Flamand, L.,, I. Stefanescu,, D. V. Ablashi, and, J. Menezes. 1993. Activation of the Epstein-Barr virus replicative cycle by human herpesvirus 6. J. Virol. 67: 67686777.
56. Friis-Moller, N.,, C. A. Sabin,, R. Weber,, A. d’Arminio Monforte,, W. M. El-Sadr,, P. Reiss,, R. Thiebaut,, L. Morfeldt,, S. De Wit,, C. Pradier,, G. Calvo,, M. G. Law,, O. Kirk,, A. N. Phillips,, J. D. Lundgren, and Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group. 2003. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 349: 19932003.
57. Gaba, A. R.,, R. S. Stein,, D. L. Sweet, and, D. Variakojis. 1978. Multicentric giant lymph node hyperplasia. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 69: 8690.
58. Galambos, C.,, J. Montgomery, and, F. J. Jenkins. 2006. No role for kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in pediatric idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 41: 122125.
59. Gao, S. J.,, L. Kingsley,, D. R. Hoover,, T. J. Spira,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Saah,, J. Phair,, R. Detels,, P. Parry,, Y. Chang, and, P. S. Moore. 1996. Seroconversion to antibodies against Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related latent nuclear antigens before the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 233241.
60. Garavelli, P. L.,, and P. Berti. 1993. Efficacy of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the long-term treatment of AIDS-related neutropenia. AIDS 7: 589590.
61. Gessain, A.,, A. Sudaka,, J. Briere,, N. Fouchard,, M. A. Nicola,, B. Rio,, M. Arborio,, X. Troussard,, J. Audouin,, J. Diebold, and, G. de The. 1996. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes-like virus (human herpesvirus type 8) DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman’s disease: is there any relevant association in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients? Blood 87: 414416.
62. Gessain, A.,, J. C. Vernant,, L. Maurs,, F. Barin,, O. Gout,, A. Calender, and, G. De Thé. 1985. Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-I in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 326: 407410.
63. Gessain, A.,, and O. Gout. 1992. Chronic myelopathy associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). Ann. Intern. Med. 117: 933946.
64. Gonzalez-Scarano, F.,, and J. Martin-Garcia. 2005. The neuropathogenesis of AIDS. Nature Rev. Immunol. 5: 6981.
65. Goulder, P. J.,, and B. D. Walker. 1999. The great escape - AIDS viruses and immune control. Nat. Med. 5: 12331235.
66. Green, D. F.,, L. Resnick, and, J. J. Bourgoignie. 1992. HIV infects glomerular endothelial and mesangial but not epithelial cells in vitro. Kidney Int. 41: 956960.
67. Guo, H. G.,, S. Pati,, M. Sadowska,, M. Charurat, and, M. Reitz. 2004. Tumorigenesis by human herpesvirus 8 vGPCR is accelerated by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat. J. Virol. 78: 93369342.
68. Guo, H. G.,, M. Sadowska,, W. Reid,, E. Tschachler,, G. Hayward, and, M. Reitz. 2003. Kaposi’s sarcoma-like tumors in a human herpesvirus 8 ORF74 transgenic mouse. J. Virol. 77: 26312639.
69. Gupta, S. K.,, J. A. Eustace,, J. A. Winston,, I. I. Boydstun,, T. S. Ahuja,, R. A. Rodriguez,, K. T. Tashima,, M. Roland,, N. Franceschini,, F. J. Palella,, J. L. Lennox,, P. E. Klotman,, S. A. Nachman,, S. D. Hall, and, L. A. Szczech. 2005. Guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 15591585.
70. Hanchard, B. 1996. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Jamaica: 1986–1995. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13: S20S25.
71. Heidenreich, P. A.,, M. J. Eisenberg,, L. L. Kee,, C. A. Somelofski,, H. Hollander,, N. B. Schiller, and, M. D. Cheitlin. 1995. Pericardial effusion in AIDS. Incidence and survival. Circulation 92: 32293234.
72. Hengge, U. R.,, T. Ruzicka,, S. K. Tyring,, M. Stuschke,, M. Roggendorf,, R. A. Schwartz, and, S. Seeber. 2002. Update on Kaposi’s sarcoma and other HHV8 associated diseases. Part 1: epidemiology, environmental predispositions, clinical manifestations, and therapy. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2: 281292.
73. Henke-Gendo, C.,, M. Mengel,, M. M. Hoeper,, K. Alkharsah, and, T. F. Schulz. 2005. Absence of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172: 15811585.
74. Henry, D. H.,, P. A. Volberding, and, G. Leitz. 2004. Epoetin alfa for treatment of anemia in HIV-infected patients: past, present, and future. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 37: 12211227.
75. Hjelle, B.,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, R. Mills,, O. Appenzeller,, R. Jahnke,, S. Alexander,, G. Ross, and, B. Hjelle. 1992. Chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with HTLV-II infection. Lancet 339: 645646.
76. Hofman, P.,, M. D. Drici,, P. Gibelin,, J. F. Michiels, and, A. Thyss. 1993. Prevalence of toxoplasma myocarditis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Br. Heart J. 70: 376381.
77. Huang, L. 2008. Respiratory disease, p. 1225–1252. In R. Dolin,, H. Masur, and, M. Saag (ed.), AIDS Therapy, 3rd ed. Elsevier Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
78. Huang, Y. Q.,, J. J. Li,, M. H. Kaplan,, B. Poiesz,, E. Katabira,, W. C. Zhang,, D. Feiner, and, A. E. Friedman-Kien. 1995. Human herpesvirus-like nucleic acid in various forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 345: 759761.
79. Ijichi, S.,, M. Nakagawa,, F. Umehara,, I. Higuchi,, K. Arimura,, S. Izumo, and, M. Osame. 1996. HAM/TSP: recent perspectives in Japan. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Human Retrovirol. 13: S26S32.
80. Imamura, A.,, T. Kitagawa,, Y. Ohi, and, M. Osame. 1991. Clinical manifestation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I-associated myelopathy and vesicopathy. Urol. Int. 46: 149153.
81. Irving, W.,, P. White, and, G. Cambridge. 1989. Antibodies to HTLV-I in sera from patients with connective tissue diseases. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 48: 80.
82. Johnson, R. P. 2008. How HIV guts the immune system. N. Engl. J. Med. 358: 22872289.
83. Johnson, R. W.,, F. M. Williams,, S. Kazi,, M. M. Dimachkie, and, J. D. Reveille. 2003. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated polymyositis: a longitudinal study of outcome. Arthritis Rheum. 49: 172178.
84. Jones, D.,, M. E. Ballestas,, K. M. Kaye,, J. M. Gulizia,, G. L. Winters,, J. Fletcher,, D. T. Scadden, and, J. C. Aster. 1998. Primary-effusion lymphoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma in a cardiac-transplant recipient. N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 444449.
85. Jubault, V.,, A. Penfornis,, F. Schillo,, B. Hoen,, M. Izembart,, J. Timsit,, M. D. Kazatchkine,, J. Gilquin, and, J. P. Viard. 2000. Sequential occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies and Graves’ disease after immune restoration in severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85: 42544257.
86. Kahn, J. O.,, and B. D. Walker. 1998. Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 3339.
87. Kalyanaraman, V. S.,, M. G. Sarngadharan,, M. Robert-Guroff,, I. Miyoshi,, D. Golde, and, R. C. Gallo. 1982. A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. Science 218: 571573.
88. Kamin, D. S.,, and S. K. Grinspoon. 2005. Cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients. AIDS 19: 641652.
89. Katano, H.,, and C. M. Hogaboam. 2005. Herpesvirus-associated pulmonary hypertension? Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172: 14851486.
90. Katano, H.,, K. Ito,, K. Shibuya,, T. Saji,, Y. Sato, and, T. Sata. 2005. Lack of human herpesvirus 8 infection in lungs of Japanese patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. J. Infect. Dis. 191: 743745.
91. Kaul, M.,, and S. A. Lipton. 1999. Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 82128216.
92. Kawai, H.,, T. Mitsui,, K. Yokoi,, M. Akaike,, K. Hirose,, K. Hizawa, and, S. Saito. 1996. Evidence of HTLV-I in thyroid tissue in an HTLV-I carrier with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J. Mol. Med. 74: 275278.
93. Kaye, K. M. 2005. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus type 8), p. 1827–1832. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett, and, R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
94. Keaveny, A. P.,, and M. S. Karasik. 1998. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic infections in AIDS: Part II. AIDS Patient Care STDS 12: 451456.
95. Kedda, M. A.,, L. Margolius,, M. C. Kew,, C. Swanepoel, and, D. Pearson. 1996. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in Kaposi’s sarcoma occurring in immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients. Clin. Transplant. 10: 429431.
96. Keswani, S. C.,, C. A. Pardo,, C. L. Cherry,, A. Hoke, and, J. C. McArthur. 2002. HIV-associated sensory neuropathies. AIDS 16: 21052117.
97. Kitajima, I.,, K. Yamamoto,, K. Sato,, Y. Nakajima,, T. Nakajima,, I. Maruyama,, M. Osame, and, K. Nishioka. 1991. Detection of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I proviral DNA and its gene expression in synovial cells in chronic inflammatory arthropathy. J. Clin. Investig. 88: 13151322.
98. Klotman, M. 1998. Potential role for G-protein coupled receptors in HIV-associated nephropathy. Kidney Int. 54: 22432244.
99. Knowles, D. M.,, G. Inghirami,, A. Ubriaco, and, R. Dalla-Favera. 1989. Molecular genetic analysis of three AIDS-associated neoplasms of uncertain lineage demonstrates their B-cell derivation and the possible pathogenetic role of the Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 73: 792799.
100. Kotler, D. P. 2005. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal tract. AIDS 19: 107117.
101. Koutkia, P.,, B. Canavan,, J. Breu, and, S. Grinspoon. 2005. Growth hormone (GH) responses to GH-releasing hormone-arginine testing in human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90: 3238.
102. Kuller, L., and SMART Study Group. 2008. Abstr. 15th Conf. Retrovir. Opportunistic Infect., abstr. 139.
103. LaGrenade, L. 1996. HTLV-I-associated infective dermatitis: past, present, and future. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Human Retrovirol. 13: S46S49.
104. LaGrenade, L.,, B. Hanchard,, V. Fletcher,, B. Cranston, and, W. Blattner. 1990. Infective dermatitis of Jamaican children: a marker for HTLV-I infection. Lancet 336: 13451347.
105. Lascar, R. M.,, R. J. Gilson,, A. R. Lopes,, A. Bertoletti, and, M. K. Maini. 2003. Reconstitution of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell responses with treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/HBV coinfection. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 18151819.
106. Ledergerber, B.,, M. Egger,, V. Erard,, R. Weber,, B. Hirschel,, H. Furrer,, M. Battegay,, P. Vernazza,, E. Bernasconi,, M. Opravil,, D. Kaufmann,, P. Sudre,, P. Francioli, and, A. Telenti. 1999. AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses occurring after initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. JAMA 282: 22202226.
107. Letendre, S. L.,, J. A. McCutchan,, M. E. Childers,, S. P. Woods,, D. Lazzaretto,, R. K. Heaton,, I. Grant,, R. J. Ellis, and HNRC group. 2004. Enhancing antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus cognitive disorders. Ann. Neurol. 56: 416423.
108. Lewis, W.,, and M. C. Dalakas. 1995. Mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral drugs. Nat. Med. 1: 417422.
109. Lombardi, L.,, E. W. Newcomb, and, R. Dalla-Favera. 1987. Pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma: expression of an activated c-myc oncogene causes the tumorigenic conversion of EBV-infected human B lymphoblasts. Cell 49: 161170.
110. Lutzner, M.,, R. Edelson,, P. Schein,, I. Green,, C. Kirkpatrick, and, A. Ahmed. 1975. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: the Sezary syndrome, mycosis fungoides, and related disorders. Ann. Intern. Med. 83: 534552.
111. Madeddu, G.,, A. Spanu,, F. Chessa,, G. M. Calia,, C. Lovigu,, P. Solinas,, M. Mannazzu,, A. Falchi,, M. S. Mura, and, G. Madeddu. 2006. Thyroid function in human immunodeficiency virus patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a longitudinal study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxford) 64: 375383.
112. Marecki, J. C.,, C. D. Cool,, J. E. Parr,, V. E. Beckey,, P. A. Luciw,, A. F. Tarantal,, A. Carville,, R. P. Shannon,, A. Cota-Gomez,, R. M. Tuder,, N. F. Voelkel, and, S. C. Flores. 2006. HIV-1 Nef is associated with complex pulmonary vascular lesions in SHIV-nef-infected macaques. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 174: 437445.
113. Mariette, X.,, F. Agbalika,, M. T. Daniel,, M. Bisson,, P. Lagrange,, J. C. Brouet, and, F. Morinet. 1993. Detection of human T lymphotropic virus type I tax gene in salivary gland epithelium from two patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 36: 14231428.
114. Martin, J. N.,, D. E. Ganem,, D. H. Osmond,, K. A. Page-Shafer,, D. Macrae, and, D. H. Kedes. 1998. Sexual transmission and the natural history of human herpesvirus 8 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 948954.
115. Martinez, V.,, E. Caumes,, L. Gambotti,, H. Ittah,, J. P. Morini,, J. Deleuze,, I. Gorin,, C. Katlama,, F. Bricaire, and, N. Dupin. 2006. Remission from Kaposi’s sarcoma on HAART is associated with suppression of HIV replication and is independent of protease inhibitor therapy. Br. J. Cancer 94: 10001006.
116. McGovern, B. H. 2007. Hepatitis C in the HIV-infected patient. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 45: S47S56.
117. Merino, F.,, M. Robert-Guroff,, J. Clark,, M. Biondo-Bracho,, W. A. Blattner, and, R. C. Gallo. 1984. Natural antibodies to human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus in healthy Venezuelan populations. Int. J. Cancer 34: 501506.
118. Meynard, J. L.,, M. Guiguet,, S. Arsac,, J. Frottier, and, M. C. Meyohas. 1997. Frequency and risk factors of infectious complications in neutropenic patients infected with HIV. AIDS 11: 995998.
119. Mochizuki, M.,, K. Tajima,, T. Watanabe, and, K. Yamaguchi. 1994. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 uveitis. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78: 149154.
120. Mochizuki, M.,, A. Ono,, E. Ikeda,, N. Hikita,, T. Watanabe,, K. Yamaguchi,, K. Sagawa, and, K. Ito. 1996. HTLV-I uveitis. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13: S50S56.
121. Moore, P. S.,, C. Boshoff,, R. A. Weiss, and, Y. Chang. 1996. Molecular mimicry of human cytokine and cytokine response pathway genes by KSHV. Science 274: 17391744.
122. Moore, P. S.,, and Y. Chang. 1995. Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients with and without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 11811185.
123. Morgan, O. S.,, C. Mora,, P. Rodgers-Johnson, and, G. Char. 1989. HTLV-1 and polymyositis in Jamaica. Lancet 334: 11841187.
124. Mueller, N.,, A. Okayama,, S. Stuver, and, N. Tachibana. 1996. Findings from the Miyazaki Cohort Study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13: S2S7.
125. Murphy, E. L.,, B. Hanchard,, J. P. Figueroa,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. S. Lofters,, M. Campbell,, J. J. Goedert, and, W. A. Blattner. 1989. Modelling the risk of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Int. J. Cancer 43: 250253.
126. Murphy, E. L. 1996. The clinical epidemiology of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II). J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Human Retrovirol. 13: S215S219.
127. Nakada, K.,, M. Kohakura,, H. Komoda, and, Y. Hinuma. 1984. High incidence of HTLV antibody in carriers of Strongyloides stercoralis. Lancet 323: 633633.
128. Nakagawa, M.,, S. Izumo,, S. Ijichi,, H. Kubota,, K. Arimura,, M. Kawabata, and, M. Osame. 1995. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: analysis of 213 patients based on clinical features and laboratory findings. J. Neurovirol. 1: 5061.
129. Nakao, K.,, M. Matsumoto, and, N. Ohba. 1991. Seroprevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I in patients with ocular disorders. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75: 7678.
130. Nera, F. A.,, E. L. Murphy,, A. Gam,, B. Hanchard,, J. P. Figueroa, and, W. A. Blattner. 1989. Antibodies to Strongyloides stercoralis in healthy Jamaican carriers of HTLV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 252253.
131. Nishioka, K. 1996. HTLV-I arthropathy and Sjogren syndrome. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13: S57S62.
132. Nishioka, K.,, I. Maruyama,, K. Sato,, I. Kitajima,, Y. Nakajima, and, M. Osame. 1989. Chronic inflammatory arthropathy associated with HTLV-I. Lancet 333: 441441.
133. Nomoto, M.,, Y. Utatsu,, Y. Soejima, and, M. Osame. 1991. Neopterin in cerebrospinal fluid: a useful marker for diagnosis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Neurology 41: 457.
134. Novitzky, N.,, J. Thomson,, L. Abrahams,, C. du Toit, and, A. McDonald. 2005. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in patients with retroviral infection is highly responsive to plasma infusion therapy. Br. J. Haematol. 128: 373379.
135. Ohba, N.,, M. Matsumoto,, M. Sameshima,, Y. Kabayama,, K. Nakao,, K. Unoki,, F. Uehara,, K. Kawano,, I. Maruyama, and, M. Osame. 1989. Ocular manifestations in patients infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 33: 112.
136. Ohshima, K. 2007. Pathological features of diseases associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Cancer Sci. 98: 772778.
137. Osame, M.,, K. Usuku,, S. Izumo,, N. Ijichi,, H. Amitani,, A. Igata,, M. Matsumoto, and, M. Tara. 1986. HTLV-I associated myelopathy, a new clinical entity. Lancet 327: 10311032.
138. Pan, G.,, Z. Yang,, S. W. Ballinger, and, J. M. McDonald. 2006. Pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis induced by highly active anti-retroviral therapy for AIDS. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1068: 297308.
139. Papasavvas, E.,, M. Pistilli,, A. Hancock,, G. Reynolds,, A. Mackiewicz,, C. Gallo,, J. Kostman,, K. Mounzer,, J. Shull, and, L. Montaner. 2008. Abstr. 15th Conf. Retrovir. Opportunistic Infect., abstr. 299.
140. Pardo, C. A.,, J. C. McArthur, and, J. W. Griffin. 2001. HIV neuropathy: insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease. J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 6: 2127.
141. Parravicini, C.,, M. Corbellino,, M. Paulli,, U. Magrini,, M. Lazzarino,, P. S. Moore, and, Y. Chang. 1997. Expression of a virus-derived cytokine, KSHV vIL-6, in HIV-seronegative Castleman’s disease. Am. J. Pathol. 151: 15171522.
142. Patel, P.,, D. L. Hanson,, P. S. Sullivan,, R. M. Novak,, A. C. Moorman,, T. C. Tong,, S. D. Holmberg,, J. T. Brooks, and Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of Disease Project and HIV Outpatient Study, Investigators. 2008. Incidence of types of cancer among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population in the United States, 1992–2003. Ann. Intern. Med. 148: 728736.
143. Pinheiro, S. R.,, A. B. Carneiro-Proietti,, M. V. Lima-Martins,, F. A. Proietti,, A. A. Pereira, and, F. Orefice. 1996. HTLV-I/II seroprevalence in 55 Brazilian patients with idiopathic uveitis. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 29: 383384.
144. Pinheiro, S. R.,, M. A. Lana-Peixoto,, A. B. Proietti,, F. Orefice,, M. V. Lima-Martins, and, F. A. Proietti. 1995. HTLV-I associated uveitis, myelopathy, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 53: 777781.
145. Piroth, L.,, D. Sene,, S. Pol,, I. Goderel,, K. Lacombe,, B. Martha,, D. Rey,, V. Loustau-Ratti,, J. F. Bergmann,, G. Pialoux,, A. Gervais,, C. Lascoux-Combe,, F. Carrat, and, P. Cacoub. 2007. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients (EPIB 2005 study). AIDS 21: 13231331.
146. Poiesz, B. J.,, F. W. Ruscetti,, A. F. Gazdar,, P. A. Bunn,, J. D. Minna, and, R. C. Gallo. 1980. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 74157419.
147. Poiesz, B. J.,, F. W. Ruscetti,, M. S. Reitz,, V. S. Kalyanaraman, and, R. C. Gallo. 1981. Isolation of a new type C retrovirus (HTLV) in primary uncultured cells of a patient with Sezary T-cell leukaemia. Nature 294: 268271.
148. Polson, A. G.,, D. Wang,, J. DeRisi, and, D. Ganem. 2002. Modulation of host gene expression by the constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Cancer Res. 62: 45254530.
149. Pope, M. 1999. Mucosal dendritic cells and immunodeficiency viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 179: S427S430.
150. Poretsky, L.,, S. Can, and, B. Zumoff. 1995. Testicular dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. Metabolism 44: 946953.
151. Proietti, F. A.,, A. B. Carneiro-Proietti,, B. C. Catalan-Soares, and, E. L. Murphy. 2005. Global epidemiology of HTLV-I infection and associated diseases. Oncogene 24: 60586068.
152. Puoti, M.,, C. Torti,, R. Bruno,, G. Filice, and, G. Carosi. 2006. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B in co-infected patients. J. Hepatol. 44: S6570.
153. Qunibi, W.,, M. Akhtar,, K. Sheth,, H. E. Ginn,, O. Al-Furayh,, E. B. DeVol, and, S. Taher. 1988. Kaposi’s sarcoma: the most common tumor after renal transplantation in Saudi Arabia. Am. J. Med. 84: 225232.
154. Rietschel, P.,, C. Corcoran,, T. Stanley,, N. Basgoz,, A. Kliban-ski, and, S. Grinspoon. 2000. Prevalence of hypogonadism among men with weight loss related to human immunodeficiency virus infection who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 12401244.
155. Rodgers-Johnson, P.,, D. Carleton Gajdusek,, O. Morgan,, V. Zaninovic,, P. Sarin, and, D. Graham. 1985. HTLV-I and HTLV-III antibodies and tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 326: 12471248.
156. Roling, J.,, H. Schmid,, M. Fischereder,, R. Draenert, and, F. D. Goebel. 2006. HIV-associated renal diseases and highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced nephropathy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 14881495.
157. Román, G.,, and M. Osame. 1988. Identity of HTLV-I-associated tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Lancet 331: 651651.
158. Ross, M. J.,, and P. E. Klotman. 2004. HIV-associated nephropathy. AIDS 18: 10891099.
159. Ross, T. M.,, S. M. Pettiford, and, P. L. Green. 1996. The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes. J. Virol. 70: 51945202.
160. Roucoux, D. F.,, and E. L. Murphy. 2004. The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II. AIDS Rev. 6: 144154.
161. Rychert, J.,, S. Saindon,, S. Placek,, D. Daskalakis, and, E. Rosenberg. 2007. Sequence variation occurs in CD4 epitopes during early HIV infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 46: 261267.
162. Saavedra-Lauzon, A.,, and R. A. Johnson. 2008. Dermatologic disease, p. 1121–1156. In R. Dolin,, H. Masur, and, M. Saag (ed.), AIDS Therapy, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
163. Sabin, C. A.,, S. W. Worm,, R. Weber,, P. Reiss,, W. El-Sadr,, F. Dabis,, S. De Wit,, M. Law,, A. D’Arminio Monforte,, N. Friis-Moller,, O. Kirk,, C. Pradier,, I. Weller,, A. N. Phillips, and, J. D. Lundgren. 2008. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the DAD study: a multi-cohort collaboration. Lancet 371: 14171426.
164. Sacktor, N. 2002. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Neurovirol. 8: 115121.
165. Sagawa, K.,, M. Mochizuki,, K. Masuoka,, K. Katagiri,, T. Katayama,, T. Maeda,, A. Tanimoto,, S. Sugita,, T. Watanabe, and, K. Itoh. 1995. Immunopathological mechanisms of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) uveitis. Detection of HTLV-I-infected T cells in the eye and their constitutive cytokine production. J. Clin. Investig. 95: 852858.
166. Sakai, M.,, K. Eguchi,, K. Terada,, M. Nakashima,, I. Yamashita,, H. Ida,, Y. Kawabe,, T. Aoyagi,, H. Takino, and, T. Nakamura. 1993. Infection of human synovial cells by human T cell lymphotropic virus type I. Proliferation and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by synovial cells. J. Clin. Investig. 92: 19571966.
167. Samaras, K. 2008. Metabolic consequences and therapeutic options in highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 61: 238245.
168. Sato, Y.,, and Y. Shiroma. 1989. Concurrent infections with Strongyloides and T-cell leukemia virus and their possible effect on immune responses of host. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 52: 214224.
169. Scadden, D. T. 2003. AIDS-related malignancies. Annu. Rev. Med. 54: 285303.
170. Shannon, R. P.,, M. A. Simon,, M. A. Mathier,, Y. J. Geng,, S. Mankad, and, A. A. Lackner. 2000. Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with simian AIDS in nonhuman primates. Circulation 101: 185193.
171. Shepard, L. W.,, M. Yang,, P. Xie,, D. D. Browning,, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya,, T. Kozasa, and, R. D. Ye. 2001. Constitutive activation of NF-kappa B and secretion of interleu-kin-8 induced by the G protein-coupled receptor of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus involve G alpha( 13) and RhoA. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 4597945987.
172. Shepherd, F. A.,, E. Maher,, C. Cardella,, E. Cole,, P. Greig,, J. A. Wade, and, G. Levy. 1997. Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma after solid organ transplantation. J. Clin. Oncol. 15: 23712377.
173. Sheremata, W. A.,, W. J. Harrington,, P. A. Bradshaw,, S. K. H. Foung,, S. P. Raffanti,, J. R. Berger,, S. Snodgrass,, L. Resnick, and, B. J. Poiesz. 1993. Association of ‘(tropical) ataxic neuropathy’ with HTLV-II. Virus Res. 29: 7177.
174. Shimoyama, M. 1991. Diagnostic criteria and classification of clinical subtypes of adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma. A report from the lymphoma study group (1984–87). Br. J. Haematol. 79: 428437.
175. Simpson, D. M.,, J. C. McArthur,, R. Olney,, D. Clifford,, Y. So,, D. Ross,, B. J. Baird,, P. Barrett,, A. E. Hammer, and La-motrigine HIV Neuropathy Study Team. 2003. Lamotrig-ine for HIV-associated painful sensory neuropathies: a placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 60: 15081514.
176. Sitbon, O.,, C. Lascoux-Combe,, J. F. Delfraissy,, P. G. Yeni,, F. Raffi,, D. De Zuttere,, V. Gressin,, P. Clerson,, D. Sereni, and, G. Simonneau. 2008. Prevalence of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension in the current antiretroviral therapy era. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177: 108113.
177. Slamon, D. J.,, K. Shimotohno,, M. J. Cline,, D. W. Golde, and, I. S. Y. Chen. 1984. Identification of the putative transforming protein of the human T-cell leukemia viruses HTLV-I and HTLV-II. Science 226: 6165.
178. Sloand, E. M.,, H. G. Klein,, S. M. Banks,, B. Vareldzis,, S. Merritt, and, P. Pierce. 1992. Epidemiology of thrombocytopenia in HIV infection. Eur. J. Haematol. 48: 168172.
179. Sophie, B.,, M. Anne-Genevieve,, F. Nathalie,, R. Stephanie,, D. Florence,, T. Micheline, and, D. Nicolas. 2007. The first reported case and management of multicentric Castleman’s disease associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma in an HIV-2-infected patient. AIDS 21: 14921494.
180. Soulier, J.,, L. Grollet,, E. Oksenhendler,, P. Cacoub,, D. Cazals-Hatem,, P. Babinet,, M. F. d’Agay,, J. P. Clauvel,, M. Raphael, and, L. Degos. 1995. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman’s disease. Blood 86: 12761280.
181. Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group, W. M. El-Sadr,, J. D. Lundgren,, J. D. Neaton,, F. Gordin,, D. Abrams,, R. C. Arduino,, A. Babiker,, W. Burman,, N. Clumeck,, C. J. Cohen,, D. Cohn,, D. Cooper,, J. Darbyshire,, S. Emery,, G. Fatkenheuer,, B. Gazzard,, B. Grund,, J. Hoy,, K. Klingman,, M. Losso,, N. Markowitz,, J. Neuhaus,, A. Phillips, and, C. Rappoport. 2006. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N. Engl. J. Med. 355: 22832296.
182. Strickler, H. D.,, C. Rattray,, C. Escoffery,, A. Manns,, M. H. Schiffman,, C. Brown,, B. Cranston,, B. Hanchard,, J. M. Palefsky, and, W. A. Blattner. 1995. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and severe neoplasia of the cervix in Jamaica. Int. J. Cancer 61: 2326.
183. Sugimoto, M.,, H. Nakashima,, S. Watanabe,, E. Uyama,, F. Tanaka,, M. Ando,, S. Araki, and, S. Kawasaki. 1987. T-lymphocyte alveolitis in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Lancet ii: 1220.
184. Sulkowski, M. S.,, S. H. Mehta,, R. E. Chaisson,, D. L. Thomas, and, R. D. Moore. 2004. Hepatotoxicity associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens with or without concurrent ritonavir. AIDS 18: 22772284.
185. Sulkowski, M. S.,, D. L. Thomas,, S. H. Mehta,, R. E. Chaisson, and, R. D. Moore. 2002. Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy: role of hepatitis C and B infections. Hepatology 35: 182189.
186. Sullivan, P. S.,, D. L. Hanson,, S. Y. Chu,, J. L. Jones, and, J. W. Ward. 1998. Epidemiology of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons: results from the multistate adult and adolescent spectrum of HIV disease surveillance project. Blood 91: 301308.
187. Sumida, T.,, F. Yonaha,, T. Maeda,, Y. Kita,, I. Iwamoto,, T. Koike, and, S. Yoshida. 1994. Expression of sequences homologous to HTLV-I tax gene in the labial salivary glands of Japanese patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 37: 545550.
188. Szczech, L. A.,, S. K. Gupta,, R. Habash,, A. Guasch,, R. Ka-layjian,, R. Appel,, T. A. Fields,, L. P. Svetkey,, K. H. Flanagan,, P. E. Klotman, and, J. A. Winston. 2004. The clinical epidemiology and course of the spectrum of renal diseases associated with HIV infection. Kidney Int. 66: 11451152.
189. Tajima, K.,, and T. Kuroishi. 1985. Estimation of rate of incidence of ATL among ATLV (HTLV-I) carriers in Kyushu, Japan. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 15: 423430.
190. Takahashi, T.,, H. Takase,, T. Urano,, S. Sugita,, K. Miyata,, N. Miyata, and, M. Mochizuki. 2000. Clinical features of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 uveitis: a long-term follow-up. Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm. 8: 235241.
191. Tan, R.,, X. Xu,, G. S. Ogg,, P. Hansasuta,, T. Dong,, T. Rostron,, G. Luzzi,, C. P. Conlon,, G. R. Screaton,, A. J. McMi-chael, and, S. Rowland-Jones. 1999. Rapid death of adoptively transferred T cells in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Blood 93: 15061510.
192. Taylor, J. F.,, A. C. Templeton,, C. L. Vogel,, J. L. Ziegler, and, S. K. Kyalwazi. 1971. Kaposi’s sarcoma in Uganda: a clinico-pathological study. Int. J. Cancer 8: 122135.
193. Toggas, S. M.,, E. Masliah, and, L. Mucke. 1996. Prevention of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage in the central nervous system of transgenic mice by the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Brain Res. 706: 303307.
194. Torriani, F. J.,, M. Rodriguez-Torres,, J. K. Rockstroh,, E. Lissen,, J. Gonzalez-Garcia,, A. Lazzarin,, G. Carosi,, J. Sasadeusz,, C. Katlama,, J. Montaner,, H. Sette, Jr.,, S. Passe,, J. De Pamphilis,, F. Duff,, U. M. Schrenk,, D. T. Dieterich, and, G. APRICOT Study. 2004. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 351: 438450.
195. Toy, P. T.,, M. E. Reid, and, M. Burns. 1985. Positive direct antiglobulin test associated with hyperglobulinemia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am. J. Hematol. 19: 145150.
196. Tuder, R. M.,, B. Groves,, D. B. Badesch, and, N. F. Voelkel. 1994. Exuberant endothelial cell growth and elements of inflammation are present in plexiform lesions of pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Pathol. 144: 275285.
197. Tuder, R. M.,, and N. F. Voelkel. 1998. Pulmonary hypertension and inflammation. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 132: 1624.
198. Uchiyama, T.,, J. Yodoi,, K. Sagawa,, K. Takatsuki, and, H. Uchino. 1977. Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 50: 481492.
199. Van Huyen, J. P.,, A. Landau,, C. Piketty,, M. F. Belair,, D. Batisse,, G. Gonzalez-Canali,, L. Weiss,, R. Jian,, M. D. Kazatchkine, and, P. Bruneval. 2003. Toxic effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on the liver. Value of electron microscopy analysis for the diagnosis of mitochondrial cytopathy. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 119: 546555.
200. Wabinga, H. R.,, D. M. Parkin,, F. Wabwire-Mangen, and, J. W. Mugerwa. 1993. Cancer in Kampala, Uganda, in 1989–91: changes in incidence in the era of AIDS. Int. J. Cancer 54: 2636.
201. Weber, R.,, C. A. Sabin,, N. Friis-Moller,, P. Reiss,, W. M. El-Sadr,, O. Kirk,, F. Dabis,, M. G. Law,, C. Pradier,, S. De Wit,, B. Akerlund,, G. Calvo,, A. Monforte,, M. Rickenbach,, B. Ledergerber,, A. N. Phillips, and, J. D. Lundgren. 2006. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study. Arch. Intern. Med. 166: 16321641.
202. Weiss, R. 1981. A virus associated with human adult T-cell leukaemia. Nature 294: 212.
203. World Health Organization. 1989. Virus diseases: human T-lymphotropic virus type I, HTLV-I. WHO Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 49: 382383.
204. Yamaguchi, K.,, and T. Watanabe. 2002. Human T lymphotropic virus type-I and adult T-cell leukemia in Japan. Int. J. Hematol. 76: 240245.
205. Yamaguchi, K.,, M. Mochizuki,, T. Watanabe,, K. Yoshimura,, M. Shirao,, S. Araki,, N. Miyata,, S. Mori,, T. Kiyokawa, and, K. Takatsuki. 1994. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 uveitis after Graves’ disease. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78: 163166.
206. Zeng, Y.,, X. Zhang,, Z. Huang,, L. Cheng,, S. Yao,, D. Qin,, X. Chen,, Q. Tang,, Z. Lv,, L. Zhang, and, C. Lu. 2007. Intracellular Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of JAK/STAT signaling. J. Virol. 81: 24012417.
207. Zon, L. I.,, C. Arkin, and, J. E. Groopman. 1987. Haematologic manifestations of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Br. J. Haematol. 66: 251256.
208. Zuber, J. P.,, A. Calmy,, J. M. Evison,, B. Hasse,, V. Schiffer,, T. Wagels,, R. Nuesch,, L. Magenta,, B. Ledergerber,, R. Jenni,, R. Speich,, M. Opravil, and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study Group. 2004. Pulmonary arterial hypertension related to HIV infection: improved hemodynamics and survival associated with antiretroviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 11781185.
209. Zucker, S. D.,, X. Qin,, S. D. Rouster,, F. Yu,, R. M. Green,, P. Keshavan,, J. Feinberg, and, K. E. Sherman. 2001. Mechanism of indinavir-induced hyperbilirubinemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1267112676.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error