Chapter 27 : Epidemiological Methods To Implicate Specific Microorganisms with Long-Term Complications

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This chapter presents the epidemiological methods to implicate microorganisms with long-term complications. It addresses the design of epidemiological studies, the validity of such studies, and the importance of population-and registry-based research. Three types of problems that affect the interpretation of epidemiological studies may be identified. These include selection bias, information bias, and confounding. Population-or community-based studies refer to large population studies in which cohorts are followed over several years. For chronic disease epidemiology, there are many examples of such studies. Examples from industrialized countries include human herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi’s sarcoma in HIV-positive individuals, human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and gastric cancer, and population-based cohort studies of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal diseases. In the future, infections will be detected or described, and some of these may be linked to complications or sequelae that occur later in life. Epidemiological studies will, along with other lines of rigorous research, continue to be of importance to explore putative associations between infectious exposures and chronic conditions or illnesses.

Citation: Mølbak K. 2009. Epidemiological Methods To Implicate Specific Microorganisms with Long-Term Complications, p 477-486. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch27
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Table 1.

Infectious disease associations with long-term complications

Citation: Mølbak K. 2009. Epidemiological Methods To Implicate Specific Microorganisms with Long-Term Complications, p 477-486. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch27
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Advantages and disadvantages of the cohort and the case-control studies to implicate specific microorganisms with long-term complications

Citation: Mølbak K. 2009. Epidemiological Methods To Implicate Specific Microorganisms with Long-Term Complications, p 477-486. In Fratamico P, Smith J, Brogden K (ed), Sequelae and Long-Term Consequences of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815486.ch27

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