Chapter 16 : Solute Transport

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This chapter discusses solute transport in . The fluidity and permeability properties of the lipid membranes are mainly determined by their lipid composition. The archaeal lipid chain contains isoprenoid units where every fourth carbon atom is linked to a methyl group. Most of the archaeal phytanyl chains are fully saturated isoprenoids. ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) transporters have a typical modular domain structure which usually comprises two integral membrane proteins that form the permease domain, and two cytoplasm-located ATPases which drive the transport of the substrate by the hydrolysis of ATP. In a report on secondary transporters in archaea, a lactose transporter was identified in by functionally complementing a mutant strain that was unable to grow on lactose. The distinction between the carbohydrate uptake transporters (CUT) and di/oligopeptide classes of ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) transporters is also evident for the protein-domain organization of the binding proteins. Members of the CUT class of binding proteins from contain type IV pilinlike signal peptides and do not contain secretory signal peptides. A general feature of bacteria and archaea is that they are equipped with defense systems against toxic compounds from the environment. This protection mechanism involves multiple drug transport systems that extrude toxic compounds from the cell. In general, the drug transport systems belong to the class of secondary transporters or ABC transporters.

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16
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Figure 1

Classes of transporters. (A) Channels and different modes of secondary transporters. (B) ABC transporters and the PTS system. Integral membrane subunits of transporters (filled); cytoplasmic or extracellular subunits (open oval); transported substrate (open circle). The names of the subunits of the PTS system refer to the mannitol transporter of .

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16
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Figure 2

Channel structures. The calcium-gated K-channel, MthK of and the secondary transport structure of the glutamate transporter, Glt of are shown. The orientation of both transporters in the membrane is depicted. The membrane-inserted part of MthK is relatively small, in comparison with the large complex of cytoplasmically located RCK domains. The structure of Glt shows the large cavity directed toward the extracellular side where the substrate is bound.

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16
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Figure 3

Mode of anchoring of archaeal substrate-binding proteins and their domain structure. (A) Archaeal substrate-binding proteins are either bound to the membrane by a fatty acid modification of their N terminus or a hydrophobic domain at the C or N terminus. (B) Domain organization of substrate-binding proteins. N, N terminus; C, C terminus; SS, signal sequence; ST-linker, serine/threonine-rich amino acid stretch; filled circle, substrate of binding protein.

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16
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Figure 4

Structure of the ATP-binding subunit, GlcV, of the glucose ABC transporter The ATP-binding domain contains all the necessary residues for ATP hydrolysis. Bound ATP is shown in the structure (ball model). The function of the C-terminal domain is unknown.

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16
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Generic image for table
Table 1.

Characterized ABC transporters in the

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Comparison of the predicted ABC-transport clusters in the three species

Citation: Albers S, Konings W, Driessen A. 2007. Solute Transport, p 354-368. In Cavicchioli R (ed), Archaea. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815516.ch16

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