Chapter 2 : Morphology and Reproductive Mode of

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Morphology and Reproductive Mode of , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815523/9781555814380_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815523/9781555814380_Chap02-2.gif


This chapter provides an overview of the morphology of and related species and discusses the reproductive mode of this important fungus. Recently, strains of sensu lato which were previously identified as in the CBS fungal culture collection based on morphology have been reexamined based on β-tubulin sequence data and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. , as with the majority of species of , is only known to reproduce by asexual means. However, there is accumulating evidence that gene flow through recombination has occurred, or is occurring, in natural populations of . Results of the genome annotation and analysis were reported in a study in which a special area of interest concerned possible reasons for asexuality in . It was predicted that the genome analysis might reveal possible mutations within coding regions for genes required for sexual development, which might explain the absence of sexual reproduction in this species due to lack of an essential gene. Mating-type (MAT) genes are required for sexual development in both heterothallic and homothallic species and have been shown to be functional in . In the case of heterothallic species, in which complementary MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates are required for sexual reproduction, MAT genes are located at a single MAT locus within the genome. In terms of its global distribution and prevalence, is without doubt an evolutionarily successful organism.

Citation: Samson R, Varga J, Dyer P. 2009. Morphology and Reproductive Mode of , p 7-13. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Aho, R.,, Y. Horie,, K. Nishimura, and, M. Miyaji. 1994. Aspergillus arvii spec. nov., a new animal pathogen? Mycoses 37: 389392.
2. Alhambra, A.,, J. M. Moreno,, M. Dolores Moragues,, S. Brena,, G. Quindós,, J. Pontón, and A. del Palacio. 2006. Aislamiento de Aspergillus lentulus en un enfermo crítico con EPOC y aspergilosis invasora, abstr. D14. VIII Congreso Nacional Micologia, Barcelona, Spain.
3. Anderson, M. J.,, J. L. Brookman, and, D. W. Denning. 2003. Aspergillus, p. 1–39. In R. A. Prade and, H. J. Bohnert (ed.), Genomics of Plants and Fungi. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
4. Arie, T.,, I. Kaneko,, T. Yoshida,, M. Noguchi,, Y. Nomura, and I. Yamaguchi. 2000. Mating-type genes from asexual phytopathogenic ascomycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 13: 13301339.
5. Balajee, S. A.,, D. Nickle,, J. Varga, and K. A. Marr. 2006. Molecular studies reveal frequent misidentification of Aspergillus fumigatus by morphotyping. Eukaryot. Cell 5: 17051712.
6. Balajee, S. A.,, J. Gribskov,, M. Brandt,, J. Ito,, A. Fothergill, and K. A. Marr. 2005a. Mistaken identity: Neosartorya pseudofischeri and its anamorph masquerading as Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 59965999.
7. Balajee, S. A.,, J. L. Gribskov,, E. Hanley,, D. Nickle, and K. A. Marr. 2005b. Aspergillus lentulus sp. nov., a new sibling species of A. fumigatus. Eukaryot. Cell 4: 625632.
8. Balajee, S. A.,, M. Weaver,, A. Imhof,, J. Gribskov, and K. A. Marr. 2004. Aspergillus fumigatus variant with decreased susceptibility to multiple antifungals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 11971203.
9. Barrs, V. R.,, J. A. Beatty,, A. E. Lingard,, R. Malik,, M. B. Krockenberger,, P. Martin,, C. O’Brien,, J. M. Angles,, M. Dowden, and C. Halliday. 2007. Feline sino-orbital aspergillosis: an emerging clinical syndrome? Austr. Vet. J. 85: N23.
10. Blumenstein, A.,, K. Vienken,, R. Tasler,, J. Purschwitz,, D. Veith,, N. Frankenberg-Dinkel, and R. Fischer. 2005. The Aspergillus nidulans phytochrome FphA represses sexual development in red light. Curr. Biol. 15: 18331838.
11. Casselton, L. A. 2002. Mate recognition in fungi. Heredity 88: 142147.
12. Chazalet, V.,, J. P. Debeaupuis,, J. Sarfati,, J. Lortholary,, P. Ribaud,, P. Shah,, M. Cornet,, H. V. Thien,, E. Gluckman,, G. Brücker, and, J. P. Latgé. 1998. Molecular typing of environmental and patient isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from various hospital settings. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 14941500.
13. Debeaupuis, J. P.,, J. Sarfati,, V. Chazalet, and J. P. Latgé. 1997. Genetic diversity among clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect. Immun. 65: 30803085.
14. Debuchy, R., and, B. G. Turgeon. 2006. Mating-type structure, evolution, and function in euascomycetes, p. 293–323. In U. Kües and R. Fischer (ed.), The Mycota. I: Growth, Differentiation and Sexuality. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
15. Dyer, P. S. 2007. Sexual reproduction and significance of MAT in the aspergilli, p. 123–142. In J. Heitman,, J. W. Kronstad,, J. W. Taylor, and, L. A. Casselton (ed.), Sex in Fungi: Molecular Determination and Evolutionary Principles. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
16. Dyer, P. S., and, M. Paoletti. 2005. Reproduction in Aspergillus fumigatus: sexuality in a supposedly asexual species? Med. Mycol. 43(Suppl.1): S7S14.
17. Dyer, P. S.,, M. Paoletti, and D. B. Archer. 2003. Genomics reveals sexual secrets of Aspergillus. Microbiology 149: 23012303.
18. Fedorova, N. D.,, N. Khaldi,, V. S. Joardar,, R. Maiti,, P. Amedeo,, M. J. Anderson,, J. Crabtree,, J. C. Silva,, J. H. Badger,, A. Albarraq,, S. Anguioli,, H. Bussey,, P. Bowyer,, P. J. Cotty,, P. S. Dyer,, A. Egan,, K. Galens,, C. M. Fraser-Liggett,, B. J. Haas,, J. M. Inman,, R. Kent,, S. Lemieux,, I. Malavazi,, J. Orvis,, T. Roemer,, C. M. Ronning,, J. P. Sundaram,, G. Sutton,, G. Turner,, J. C. Venter,, O. R. White,, B. R. Whitty,, P. Youngman,, K. H. Wolfe,, G. H. Goldman,, J. R. Wortman,, B. Jiang,, D. W. Denning, and, W. C. Nierman. 2008. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. PloS Genet. ll: e1000046.
19. Fisher, R., and, U. Küies. 2003. Developmental processes in filamentous fungi, p. 41-118. In R. A. Prade and, H. J. Bohnert (ed.), Genomics of Plants and Fungi. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
20. Fresenius, G. 1863. Beiträge zur Mykologie. Brönner, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
21. Galagan, J.,, S. E. Calvo,, C. Cuomo,, L.- J. Ma,, J. Wortman,, S. Bat-zoglou,, S.- I. Lee,, M. Brudno,, B. Meray,, C. C. Spevak,, J. Clutter-buck,, V. Kapitonov,, J. Jurka,, C. Scazzocchio,, M. Farman,, J. Butler,, S. Purcell,, S. Harris,, G. H. Braus,, O. Draht,, S. Busch,, C. D’Enfert,, C. Bouchier,, G. H. Goldman,, D. Bell-Pedersen,, S. Griffiths-Jones,, J. H. Doonan,, J. Yu,, K. Vienken,, A. Pain,, M. Freitag,, E. U. Selker,, D. B. Archer,, M. A. Penalva,, B. R. Oakley,, M. Momany,, T. Ta-naka,, T. Kumagai,, K. Asai,, M. Machida,, W. C. Nierman,, D. W. Denning,, M. Caddick,, M. Hynes,, M. Paoletti,, R. Fischer,, B. Miller,, P. Dyer,, M. S. Sachs,, S. A. Osmani, and, B. W. Birren. 2005. Sequencing and comparative analysis of Aspergillus nidulans. Nature 438: 11051115.
22. Gams, W.,, M. Christensen,, A. H. Onions,, J. I. Pitt, and, R. A. Samson. 1985. Infrageneric taxa of Aspergillus, p. 55-62. In R. A. Samson and, J. I. Pitt (ed.), Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus Syste-matics. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
23. Geiser, D. M.,, J. C. Frisvad, and, J. W. Taylor. 1998. Evolutionary relationships in Aspergillus section Fumigati inferred from partial β-tubulin and hydrophobin DNA sequences. Mycologia 90: 831845.
24. Hong, S. B.,, H. D. Shin,, J. B. Hong,, J. C. Frisvad,, P. V. Nielsen,, J. Varga, and R. A. Samson. 2007. New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 93: 8798.
25. Hong, S. B.,, H. S. Cho,, H. D. Shin,, J. C. Frisvad, and, R. A. Samson. 2006. Novel Neosartorya species isolated from soil in Korea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56: 477486.
26. Hong, S. B.,, S. J. Go,, H. D. Shin,, J. C. Frisvad, and, R. A. Samson. 2005. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species. Mycologia 97: 13161329.
27. Horie, Y.,, M. Miyaji,, K. Nishimura,, H. Taguchi, and S. Udagawa. 1993. Aspergillus fumisynnematus, a new species from Venezuelan soil. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 34: 37.
28. Katz, M. E.,, A. M. Dougall,, K. Weeks, and B. F. Cheetham. 2005. Multiple genetically distinct groups revealed among clinical isolates identified as atypical Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 551555.
29. Katz, M. E.,, M. Mcloon,, S. Burrows, and B. F. Cheetham. 1998. Extreme DNA sequence variation in isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 20: 283288.
30. Kozakiewicz, Z. 1989. Aspergillus species on stored products. Mycol. Papers 161: 1188.
31. Krappmann, S.,, O. Bayram, and, G. H. Braus. 2005. Deletion and allelic exchange of the Aspergillus fumigatus veA locus via a novel recyclable marker module. Eukaryot. Cell 4: 12981307.
32. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1975. A new pathogenic species of Aspergillus in the Aspergillus fumigatus series. Mycologia 67: 770779.
33. Lau, A.,, S. Chen,, T. Sorrell,, D. Carter,, R. Malik,, P. Martin, and, C. Halliday. 2007. Development and clinical application of a panfungal PCR assay to detect and identify fungal DNA in tissue specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 380385.
34. Leslie, C. E.,, B. Flannigan, and, L. J. R. Milne. 1988. Morphological studies on clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 26: 335341.
35. Malloch, D., and, R. F. Cain. 1972. The Trichocomataceae: ascomycetes with Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium imperfect states. Can. J. Bot. 50: 26132628.
36. Mellado, E.,, L. Alcazar-Fuoli,, G. Garcia-Effro,, N. A. Alastruey-Izquierdo,, M. Cuenca-Estrella, and, J. L. Rodríguez-Tudela. 2006. New resistance mechanisms to azole drugs in Aspergillus fumigatus and emergence of antifungal drugs-resistant A. fumigatus atypical strains. Med. Mycol. 44: S367S371.
37. Moragues, M. D.,, S. Brena,, I. Miranda,, R. Laporta,, M. Muñoz,, J. Pontón, and, A. del Palacio. 2006. Colonización pulmonar por Neosartorya udagawae en un paciente trasplantado de pulmón, abstr. D15. VIII Congreso Nacional Micologia, Barcelona, Spain.
38. Neuvéglise,, C.,, J. Sarfati,, J. P. Latgé, and, S. Paris. 1996. Afut1, a retrotransposon-like element from Aspergillus fumigatus. Nucleic Acids Res. 24: 14281434.
39. Nierman, W.,, A. Pain,, M. J. Anderson,, J. Wortman,, S. Kim,, J. Arroya,, M. Berriman,, K. Abe,, D. Archer,, C. Bermejo,, J. Bennett,, P. Bowyer,, D. Chen,, M. Collins,, R. Coulsen,, R. Davies,, P. S. Dyer,, M. Farman,, N. Fedorova,, N. Fedorova,, T. V. Feldblyum,, R. Fischer,, N. Fosker,, A. Fraser,, J. L. García,, M. J. García,, A. Goble,, G. H. Goldman,, K. Gomi,, S. Griffith-Jones,, R. Gwilliam,, B. Haas,, H. Haas,, D. Harris,, H. Horiuchi,, J. Huang,, S. Humphray,, J. Jiménez,, N. Keller,, H. Khouri,, K. Kitamoto,, T. Kobayashi,, S. Konzack,, R. Kulkarni,, T. Kumagai,, A. Lafon,, J. P. Latgé,, W. Li,, A. Lord,, C. Lu,, W. H. Majoros,, G. S. May,, B. L. Miller,, Y. Mohamoud,, M. Molina,, M. Monod,, I. Mouyna,, S. Mulligan,, L. Murphy,, S. O’Neil,, I. Paulsen,, M. A. Peñalva,, M. Pertea,, C. Price,, B. L. Pritchard,, M. A. Quail,, E. Rabbinowitsch,, N. Rawlins,, M. A. Rajandream,, U. Reichard,, H. Renauld,, G. D. Robson,, S. Rodriguez de Córdoba,, J. M. Rodríguez-Peña,, C. M. Ronning,, S. Rutter,, S. L. Salzberg,, M. Sanchez,, J. C. Sánchez-Ferrero,, D. Saunders,, K. Seeger,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, M. Takeuchi,, F. Tekaia,, G. Turner,, C. R. Vazquez de Aldana,, J. Weid-man,, O. White,, J. Woodward,, J. H. Yu,, V. Fraser,, J. E. Galagan,, K. Asai,, M. Machida,, N. Hall,, B. Barrell, and, D. W. Denning. 2005. Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic Aspergil-lus fumigatus. Nature 438: 11511156.
40. Normark, B. B.,, O. P. Judson, and, N. A. Morgan. 2003. Genomic signatures of ancient asexual lineages. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 79: 6984.
41. Notteghem, J. L., and, D. Silué. 1992. Distribution of the mating type alleles in Magnaporthe grisea populations pathogenic on rice. Phytopathology 82: 421424.
42. O’Gorman, C. M.,, H. T. Fuller, and, P. S. Dyer. 2007. Aspergillus fumigatus: mating-type distribution hints at sex in the city?, p. 44. In Ecology of Fungal Communities. Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Mycological Society. British Mycological Society, Manchester, United Kingdom.
43. Pál, K.,, A. D. van Diepeningen,, J. Varga,, R. F. Hoekstra,, P. S. Dyer, and, A. J. M. Debets. 2007. Sexual and vegetative compatibility genes in the aspergilli. Stud. Mycol. 59: 1931.
44. Paoletti, M.,, C. Rydholm,, E. U. Schwier,, M. J. Anderson,, G. Szakacs,, F. Lutzoni,, J. P. Debeaupuis,, J. P. Latgé,, D. W. Denning, and, P. S. Dyer. 2005. Evidence for sexuality in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Curr. Biol. 15: 12421248.
45. Paoletti, M.,, F. A. Seymour,, M. J. C. Alcocer,, N. Kaur,, A. M. Calvo,, D. B. Archer, and, P. S. Dyer. 2007. Mating type and the genetic basis of self-fertility in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Curr. Biol. 17: 13841389.
46. Pel, H. J.,, J. H. de Winde,, D. B. Archer,, P. S. Dyer,, G. Hofmann,, P. J. Schaap,, G. Turner,, R. P. de Vries,, R. Albang,, K. Albermann,, M. R. Andersen,, J. D. Bendtsen,, J. A. Benen,, M. van den Berg,, S. Breestraat,, M. X. Caddick,, R. Contreras,, M. Cornell,, P. M. Cou-tinho,, E. G. Danchin,, A. J. Debets,, P. Dekker,, P. W. van Dijck,, A. van Dijk,, L. Dijkhuizen,, A. J. Driessen,, C. d’Enfert,, S. Geysens,, C. Goosen G. S. Groot,, P. W. de Groot,, T. Guillemette,, B. Henrissat,, M. Herweijer,, J. P. van den Hombergh,, C. A. van den Hondel,, R. T. van der Heijden,, R. M. van der Kaaij,, F. M. Klis,, H. J. Kools,, C. P. Kubicek,, P. A. van Kuyk,, J. Lauber,, X. Lu,, M. J. van der Maarel,, R. Meulenberg,, H. Menke,, M. A. Mortimer,, J. Nielsen,, S. G. Oliver,, M. Olsthoorn,, K. Pal,, N. N. van Peij,, A. F. Ram,, U. Rinas,, J. A. Roubos,, C. M. Sagt,, M. Schmoll,, J. Sun,, D. Ussery,, J. Varga,, W. Vervecken,, P. J. van de Vondervoort,, H. Wedler,, H. A. Wosten,, A. P. Zeng,, A. J. van Ooyen,, J. Visser, and, H. Stam. 2007. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88. Nat. Biotechnol. 25: 221231.
47. Peterson, S. W.,, J. Varga,, J. C. Frisvad, and, R. A. Samson. 2008. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus, p. 33–56. In J. Varga and, R. A. Samson (ed.), Aspergillus in the Genomic Era. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
48. Pringle, A.,, D. M. Baker,, J. L. Platt,, J. P. Wares,, J. P. Latgé, and, J. W. Taylor. 2005. Cryptic speciation in the cosmopolitan and clonal human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Evolution 59: 18861899.
49. Raper, K. B., and, D. I. Fennell. 1965. The Genus Aspergillus. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
50. Rinyu, E.,, J. Varga, and, L. Ferenczy. 1995. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of variability in Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 25672575.
51. Rydholm, C.,, G. Szakacs, and, F. Lutzoni. 2006. Low genetic variation and no detectable population structure in Aspergillus fumigatus compared to closely related Neosartorya species. Eukaryot. Cell 5: 650657.
52. Samson, R. A.,, S. B. Hong,, S. W. Peterson,, J. C. Frisvad, and, J. Varga. 2007. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph, Neosartorya. Stud. Mycol. 59: 147203.
53. Snyder, W. C.,, S. G. Georgopoulos,, R. K. Webster, and, S. N. Smith. 1975. Sexuality and genetic behaviour in the fungus Hypomyces ( Fusarium) solani f. sp. cucurbitae. Hilgardia 43: 161185.
54. Varga, J., and, B. Tóth. 2003. Genetic variability and reproductive mode of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect. Genet. Evol. 3: 317.
55. Varga, J.,, Z. Vida,, B. Tóth,, F. Debets, and, Y. Horie. 2000. Phylo-genetic analysis of newly described Neosartorya species. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 77: 235239.
56. Varshney, J. L., and, A. K. Sarbhoy. 1981. A new species of Aspergillus fumigatus group and comments upon its taxonomy. Mycopathologia 73: 8992.
57. Yaguchi, T.,, Y. Horie,, R. Tanaka,, T. Matsuzawa,, J. Ito, and, K. Nish-imura. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of multiple genes on Aspergillus section Fumigati isolated from clinical specimens in Japan. Jpn. J. Med. Mycol. 48: 3746.
58. Yun, S. H.,, T. Arie,, I. Kaneko,, O. C. Yoder, and, B. G. Turgeon. 2000. Molecular organisation of mating type loci in heterothallic, homothallic and asexual Gibberella/ Fusarium species. Fungal Genet. Biol. 31: 720.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

List of accepted species belonging to section ( )

Citation: Samson R, Varga J, Dyer P. 2009. Morphology and Reproductive Mode of , p 7-13. In Latgé J, Steinbach W (ed), and Aspergillosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815523.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error