Chapter 21 : Animal Models of Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Animal Models of Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap21-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap21-2.gif


Early studies have been conducted to test various inbred and outbred strains of mice as colonization and disease models. The infecting strain of will influence the outcome of infection even in inbred mice. Therefore, strain and history in the laboratory should be taken into consideration. Murine models of colonization and enteritis induced by primary oral challenge have long been needed to explore the genetics of resistance to this pathogen and the genetics of virulence of the pathogen; however, the basis for why most immunocompetent mice are refractory to induced disease is still unknown. Typhlocolitis is the main pathological lesion that can be observed by either gross or histopathological examination, although inflammation is observed in other GI tissues, including the stomach and liver. Severe combined immunodeficient mice have been tested for colonization and enteritis induced by . Researchers showed that wild-type C3H mice with normal enteric flora were colonized inconsistently and inefficiently by 81-176. Models for vaccine development are dependent on animals capable of expressing disease after challenge and mounting an adaptive immune response after vaccination. The greater the volume of feces that is cultured, the higher the probability will be that an accurate identification of colonization status is made. Despite progress in development of tractable murine models for study of colonization and enteritis, gaps in model development still exist.

Citation: Mansfield L, Schauer D, Fox J. 2008. Animal Models of Infections, p 367-379. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch21
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abimiku, A. G., and, J. M. Dolby. 1988. Cross-protection of infant mice against intestinal colonisation by Campylobacter jejuni: importance of heat-labile serotyping (Lior) antigens. J. Med. Microbiol. 26: 265268.
2. Abimiku, A. G.,, J. M. Dolby, and, S. P. Borriello. 1989. Comparison of different vaccines and induced immune response against Campylobacter jejuni colonization in the infant mouse. Epidemiol. Infect. 102: 271280.
3. AbuOun, M.,, G. Manning,, S. A. Cawthraw,, A. Ridley,, I. H. Ahmed,, T. M. Wassenaar, and, D. G. Newell. 2005. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-negative Campylobacter jejuni strains and anti-CDT neutralizing antibodies are induced during human infection but not during colonization in chickens. Infect. Immun. 73: 30533062.
4. Babakhani, F. K.,, G. A. Bradley, and, L. A. Joens. 1993. Newborn piglet model for campylobacteriosis. Infect. Immun. 61: 34663475.
5. Baqar, S.,, L. A. Applebee, and, A. L. Bourgeois. 1995. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a prototype Campylobacter killed whole-cell vaccine in mice. Infect. Immun. 63: 37313735.
6. Baqar, S.,, A. L. Bourgeois,, L. A. Applebee,, A. S. Mourad,, M. T. Kleinosky,, Z. Mohran, and, J. R. Murphy. 1996. Murine intra-nasal challenge model for the study of Campylobacter pathogenesis and immunity. Infect. Immun. 64: 49334939.
7. Baqar, S.,, N. D. Pacheco, and, F. M. Rollwagen. 1993. Modulation of mucosal immunity against Campylobacter jejuni by orally-administered cytokines. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 26882692.
8. Bell, J. A., and, D. D. Manning. 1990. A domestic ferret model of immunity to Campylobacter jejuni-induced enteric disease. Infect. Immun. 58: 18481852.
9. Berg, D. J.,, N. Davidson,, R. Kühn,, W. Müller,, S. Menon,, G. Holland,, L. Thompson-Snipes,, M. W. Leach, and, D. Rennick. 1996. Enterocolitis and colon cancer in interleukin-10-deficient mice are associated with aberrant cytokine production and CD4(+) TH1-like responses. J. Clin. Invest. 98: 10101020.
10. Berndtson, E.,, M. L. Danielsson-Tham, and, A. Engvall. 1994. Experimental colonization of mice with Campylobacter jejuni. Vet. Microbiol. 41: 183188.
11. Biswas, D.,, U. Fernando,, C. Reiman,, P. Willson,, A. Potter, and, B. Allan. 2006. Effect of cytolethal distending toxin of Campylobacter jejuni on adhesion and internalization in cultured cells and in colonization of the chicken gut. Avian Dis. 50: 586593.
12. Blaser, M. J. 1997. Epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter jejuni infections. J. Infect. Dis. 176: S103S105.
13. Blaser, M. J.,, R. I. Glass,, M. I. Hug,, B. Stoll,, G. M. Kibrya, and, A. R. M. A. Alim. 1980. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from Bangladeshi children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 744747.
14. Boosinger, T. R., and, T. A. Powe. 1988. Campylobacter jejuni infections in gnotobiotic pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 456458.
15. Bristol, I. J.,, M. A. Farmer,, Y. Z. Cong,, X. X. Zheng,, T. B. Srom,, C. O. Elson,, J. P. Sundberg, and, E. H. Leiter. 2000. Heritable susceptibility for colitis in mice induced by IL-10 deficiency. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 6: 290302.
16. Bruce, D.,, W. Zochowski, and, G. A. Fleming. 1980. Campylobacter infections in cats and dogs. Vet. Rec. 107: 200201.
17. Burr, D. H.,, D. Rollins,, L. H. Lee,, D. L. Pattarini,, S. S. Walz,, J. H. Tian,, J. L. Pace,, A. L. Bourgeois, and, R. I. Walker. 2005. Prevention of disease in ferrets fed an inactivated whole cell Campylobacter jejuni vaccine. Vaccine 23: 43154321.
18. Caldwell, M. B.,, R. I. Walker,, S. D. Stewart, and, J. E. Rogers. 1983. Simple adult rabbit model for Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. Infect. Immun. 42: 11761182.
19. Candon, H. L.,, B. J. Allan,, C. D. Fraley, and, E. C. Gaynor. 2007. Polyphosphate kinase 1 (PPK1) is a pathogenesis determinant in Campylobacter jejuni. J. Bacteriol. 189: 80998108.
20. Chang, C., and, J. F. Miller. 2006. Campylobacter jejuni colonization of mice with limited enteric flora. Infect. Immun. 74: 52615271.
21. Chien, C. C.,, N. S. Taylor,, Z. Ge,, D. B. Schauer,, V. B. Young, and, J. G. Fox. 2000. Identification of cdtB homologues and cytolethal distending toxin activity in enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 525534.
22. Coker, A. O., and, C. L. Obi. 1991. Effect of iron-dextran on lethality of Nigerian isolates of Campylobacter jejuni in mice. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 37: 2023.
23. Dawson, H. D.,, E. Beshah,, S. Nishi,, G. Solano-Aguilar,, M. Morimoto,, A. Zhao,, K. B. Madden,, T. K. Ledbetter,, J. P. Dubey,, T. Shea-Donohue,, J. K. Lunney, and, J. F. Urban, Jr. 2005. Localized multigene expression patterns support an evolving Th1/Th2-like paradigm in response to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and Ascaris suum. Infect. Immun. 73: 11161128.
24. Diker, K. S.,, G. Hascelik, and, S. Diker. 1992. Colonization of infant mice with flagellar variants of Campylobacter jejuni. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 39: 133136.
25. Eaton, K. A.,, D. R. Morgan, and, S. Krakowka. 1989. Campylobacter pylori virulence factors in gnotobiotic piglets. Infect. Immun. 57: 11191125.
26. Erdman, S. E.,, J. G. Fox,, C. A. Dangler,, D. Feldman, and, B. Horwitz. 2001. Cutting edge: typhlocolitis in NF-κB deficient mice. J. Immunol. 66: 14431447.
27. Erdman, S. E.,, V. P. Rao,, T. Poutahidis,, M. M. Ihrig,, Z. Ge,, Y. Feng,, M. Tomczak,, A. B. Rogers,, B. H. Horwitz, and, J. G. Fox. 2003. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory lymphocytes require interleukin 10 to interrupt colon carcinogenesis in mice. Cancer Res. 63: 60426050.
28. Feng, S.,, K. Ku,, E. Hodzic,, E. Lorenzana,, K. Freet, and, S. W. Barthold. 2005. Differential detection of five mouse-infecting Helicobacter species by multiplex PCR. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immun. 12: 531536.
29. Fernando, U.,, D. Biswas,, B. Allan,, P. Willson, and, A. A. Potter. 2007. Influence of Campylobacter jejuni fliA, rpoN and flgK genes on colonization of the chicken gut. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 118: 194200.
30. Fitzgeorge, R. B.,, A. Baskerville, and, K. P. Lander. 1981. Experimental infection of Rhesus monkeys with a human strain of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 86: 343351.
31. Forbes, J. R., and, P. Gros. 2001. Divalent-metal transport by NRAMP proteins at the interface of host-pathogen interactions. Trends Microbiol. 9: 397403.
32. Fox, J. G. 1992. In vivo models of enteric campylobacteriosis: natural and experimental infections, p. 131138. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser, and, L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
33. Fox, J. G.,, J. I. Ackerman,, N. Taylor,, M. Claps, and, J. C. Murphy. 1987. Campylobacter jejuni infection in the ferret: an animal model of human campylobacteriosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 48: 8590.
34. Fox, J. G.,, R. Moore, and, J. I. Ackerman. 1983. Campylobacter jejuni–associated diarrhea in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183: 14301433.
35. Fox, J. G.,, A. B. Rogers,, M. T. Whary,, Z. Ge,, N. S. Taylor,, S. Xu,, B. H. Horwitz, and, S. E. Erdman. 2004. Gastroenteritis in NF-κB-deficient mice is produced with wild-type Camplyobacter jejuni but not with C. jejuni lacking cytolethal distending toxin despite persistent colonization with both strains. Infect. Immun. 72: 11161125.
36. Fry, B. N.,, S. Feng,, Y. Y. Chen,, D. G. Newell,, P. J. Coloe, and, V. Korolik. 2000. The galE gene of Campylobacter jejuni is involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and virulence. Infect. Immun. 68: 25942601.
37. Gaynor, E. C.,, S. Cawthraw,, G. Manning,, J. K. MacKichan,, S. Falkow, and, D. G. Newell. 2004. The genome-sequenced variant of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and the original clonal clinical isolate differ markedly in colonization, gene expression, and virulence-associated phenotypes. J. Bacteriol. 186: 503517.
38. Hendrixson, D. R., and, V. J. DiRita. 2004. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni genes involved in commensal colonization of the chick gastrointestinal tract. Mol. Microbiol. 52: 471484.
39. Higgins, L. M.,, G. Frankel,, G. Douce,, G. Dougan, and, T. T. MacDonald. 1999. Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice elicits a mucosal Th1 cytokine response and lesions similar to those in murine inflammatory bowel disease. Infect. Immun. 67: 30313039.
40. Hodgson, A. E.,, B. W. McBride,, M. J. Hudson,, G. Hall, and, S. A. Leach. 1998. Experimental Campylobacter infection and diarrhoea in immunodeficient mice. J. Med. Microbiol. 47: 799809.
41. Hu, L., and, D. J. Kopecko. 2000. Interactions of Campylobacter with eukaryotic cells: gut luminal colonization and mucosal invasion mechanisms, p. 191216. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
42. Humphrey, C. D.,, D. M. Montag, and, F. E. Pittman. 1985. Experimental infection of hamsters with Campylobacter jejuni. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 485493.
43. Islam, D.,, M. D. Lewis,, A. Srijan,, L. Bodhidatta,, A. Aksomboon,, M. Gettayacamin,, S. Baqar,, D. Scott, and, C. J. Mason. 2006. Establishment of a non-human primate Campylobacter disease model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Campylobacter vaccine formulations. Vaccine 24: 37623771.
44. Jesudason, M. V.,, D. J. Hentges, and, P. Pongpech. 1989. Colonization of mice by Campylobacter jejuni. Infect. Immun. 57: 22792282.
45. Johansson, S. K.,, R. E. Feinstein,, K. E. Johansson, and, A. V. Lindberg. 2006. Occurrence of Helicobacter species other than H. hepaticus in laboratory mice and rats in Sweden. Comp. Med. 56: 110113.
46. Jones, F. R.,, S. Baqar,, A. Gozalo,, G. Nunez,, N. Espinoza,, S. M. Reyes,, M. Salazar,, R. Meza,, C. K. Porter, and, S. E. Walz. 2006. New World monkey Aotus nancymae as a model for Campylobacter jejuni infection and immunity. Infect. Immun. 74: 790793.
47. Jones, M. A.,, K. L. Marston,, C. A. Woodall,, D. J. Maskell,, D. Linton,, A. V. Karlyshev,, N. Dorrell,, B. W. Wren, and, P. A. Barrow. 2004. Adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 to high-level colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Infect. Immun. 72: 37693776.
48. Kita, E.,, D. Oku,, A. Hamuro,, F. Nishikawa,, M. Emoto,, Y. Yagyu,, N. Katsui, and, S. Kashiba. 1990. Hepatotoxic activity of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Med. Microbiol. 33: 171182.
49. Knudsen, K. N.,, D. D. Bang,, L. O. Andresen, and, M. Madsen. 2006. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge. Avian Dis. 50: 1014.
50. Konkel, M. E.,, L. A. Joens, and, P. F. Mixter. 2000. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni virulence determinants, p. 217240. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
51. Konkel, M. E.,, B. J. Kim,, J. D. Klena,, C. R. Young, and, R. Ziprin. 1998. Characterization of the thermal stress response of Campylobacter jejuni. Infect. Immun. 66: 36663672.
52. Kringel, H.,, T. Iburg,, H. Dawson,, B. Aasted, and, A. Roepstorff. 2006. A time course study of immunological responses in Trichuris suis infected pigs demonstrates induction of a local type 2 response associated with worm burden. Int. J. Parasitol. 36: 915924.
53. Kühn, R.,, J. Löhler,, D. Rennick,, K. Rajewsky, and, W. Müller. 1993. Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitis. Cell 75: 263274.
54. Kullberg, M. C.,, A. G. Rothfuchs,, D. Jankovic,, P. Caspar,, T. A. Wynn,, P. L. Gorelick,, A. W. Cheever, and, A. Sher. 2001. Helicobacter hepaticus–induced colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice: cytokine requirements for the induction and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. Infect. Immun. 69: 42324241.
55. Kullberg, M. C.,, J. M. Ward,, P. L. Gorelick,, P. Caspar,, S. Hieny,, A. Cheever,, D. Jankovic, and, A. Sher. 1998. Helicobacter hepaticus triggers colitis in specific-pathogen-free interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice through an IL-12- and gamma interferon–dependent mechanism. Infect. Immun. 66: 51575166.
56. Lecuit, M.,, S. Vandormael-Pournin,, J. Lefort,, M. Huerre,, P. Gounon,, C. Dupuy,, C. Babinet, and, P. Cossart. 2001. A transgenic model for listeriosis: role of internalin in crossing the intestinal barrier. Science 292: 17221725.
57. Lee, L. H.,, E. Burg, 3rd,, S. Baqar,, A. L. Bourgeois,, D. H. Burr,, C. P. Ewing,, T. J. Trust, and, P. Guerry. 1999. Evaluation of a truncated recombinant flagellin subunit vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni. Infect. Immun. 67: 57995805.
58. MacKichan, J. K.,, E. C. Gaynor,, C. Chang,, S. Cawthraw,, D. G. Newell,, J. F. Miller, and, S. Falkow. 2004. The Campylobacter jejuni dcc RS two-component system is required for optimal in vivo colonization but is dispensable for in vitro growth. Mol. Microbiol. 54: 12691286.
59. Mähler, M., and, E. H. Leiter. 2002. Genetic and environmental context determines the course of colitis developing in IL-10-deficient mice. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 8: 347355.
60. Manninen, K. I.,, J. F. Prescott, and, I. R. Dohoo. 1982. Pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from animals and humans. Infect. Immun. 38: 4652.
61. Mansfield, L. S.,, J. A. Bell,, D. L. Wilson,, A. J. Murphy,, H. M. Elsheikha,, V. A. Rathinam,, B. R. Fierro,, J. E. Linz, and, V. B. Young. 2007. C57BL/6 and congenic interleukin-10-deficient mice can serve as models of Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis. Infect. Immun. 75: 10991115.
62. Mansfield, L. S.,, D. T. Gauthier,, S. R. Abner,, K. M. Jones,, S. R. Wilder, and, J. F. Urban. 2003. Enhancement of disease and pathology by synergy of Trichuris suis and Campylobacter jejuni in the colon of immunologically naive swine. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 7080.
63. Mansfield, L. S., and, J. F. Urban. 1996. The pathogenesis of necrotic proliferative colitis in swine is linked to whipworm induced suppression of mucosal immunity to resident bacteria. Vet. Immunol. Immunop. 50: 117.
64. Nachamkin, I.,, B. M. Allos, and, T. Ho. 1998. Campylobacter species and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 555567.
65. Newell, D. G. 2001. Animal models of Campylobacter jejuni colonization and disease and the lessons to be learned from similar Helicobacter pylori models. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90: 57S67S.
66. Newell, D. G., and, A. Pearson. 1984. The invasion of epithelial cell lines and the intestinal epithelium of infant mice by Campylobacter jejuni/coli. J. Diarrhoeal. Dis. Res. 2: 1926.
67. Nielsen, E. M.,, J. Engberg, and, M. Madsen. 1997. Distribution of serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from Danish patients, poultry, cattle and swine. FEMS Immunol. Med. Mic. 19: 4756.
68. Oberhelman, R. A.,, R. H. Gilman,, P. Sheen,, J. Cordova,, D. N. Taylor,, M. Zimic,, R. Meza,, J. Perez,, C. LeBron,, L. Cabrera,, F. G. Rodgers,, D. L. Woodward, and, L. J. Price. 2003. Campylobacter transmission in a Peruvian shantytown: a longitudinal study using strain typing of Campylobacter isolates from chickens and humans in household clusters. J. Infect. Dis. 187: 260269.
69. Olson, P., and, K. Sandstedt. 1987. Campylobacter in the dog: a clinical and experimental study. Vet. Rec. 121: 99101.
70. O’Mahoney, L.,, M. Feeney,, S. O’Halloran,, L. Murphy,, B. Kiely,, J. Fitzgibbon,, G. Lee,, G. O’Sullivan,, F. Shanahan, and, J. K. Collins. 2001. Probiotic impact on microbial flora, inflammation, and tumour development in IL-10 knockout mice. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 15: 12191225.
71. Pacha, R. E.,, G. W. Clark,, E. A. Williams,, A. M. Carter,, J. J. Scheffelmaier, and, P. Debusschere. 1987. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp. Appl. Environ. Microb. 53: 15741579.
72. Pavlovskis, O. R.,, D. M. Rollins,, R. L. Haberberger, Jr.,, A. E. Green,, L. Habash,, S. Strocko, and, R. I. Walker. 1991. Significance of flagella in colonization resistance of rabbits immunized with Campylobacter spp. Infect. Immun. 59: 22592264.
73. Pazzaglia, G.,, A. L. Bourgeois,, K. el Diwany,, N. Nour,, N. Badran, and, R. Hablas. 1991. Campylobacter diarrhoea and an association of recent disease with asymptomatic shedding in Egyptian children. Epidemiol. Infect. 106: 7782.
74. Pei, Z. H.,, C. Burucoa,, B. Grignon,, S. Baqar,, X. Z. Huang,, D. J. Kopecko,, A. L. Bourgeois,, J. L. Fauchere, and, M. J. Blaser. 1998. Mutation in the peb1A locus of Campylobacter jejuni reduces interactions with epithelial cells and intestinal colonization of mice. Infect. Immun. 66: 938943.
75. Poly, F.,, T. Read,, D. R. Tribble,, S. Baqar,, M. Lorenzo, and, P. Guerry. 2007. Genome sequence of a clinical isolate of Campylobacter jejuni from Thailand. Infect. Immun. 75: 34253433.
76. Purdy, D.,, C. M. Buswell,, A. E. Hodgson,, K. McAlpine,, I. Henderson, and, S. A. Leach. 2000. Characterisation of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) mutants of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 473479.
77. Raphael, B. H.,, S. Pereira,, G. A. Flom,, Q. Zhang,, J. M. Ketley, and, M. E. Konkel. 2005. The Campylobacter jejuni response regulator, CbrR, modulates sodium deoxycholate resistance and chicken colonization. J. Bacteriol. 187: 36623670.
78. Ringoir, D. D.,, D. Szylo, and, V. Korolik. 2007. Comparison of 2-day-old and 14-day-old chicken colonization models for Campylobacter jejuni. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 49: 155158.
79. Rollwagen, F. M.,, N. D. Pacheco,, J. D. Clements,, O. Pavlovskis,, D. M. Rollins, and, R. I. Walker. 1993. Killed Campylobacter elicits immune response and protection when administered with an oral adjuvant. Vaccine 11: 13161320.
80. Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.,, L. E. Cervantes,, P. Ramos,, B. Chavez-Munguia, and, D. S. Newburg. 2003. Campylobacter jejuni binds intestinal H(O) antigen (Fuc alpha 1, 2Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc), and fucosyloligosaccharides of human milk inhibit its binding and infection. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 1411214120.
81. Russell, R. G.,, M. J. Blaser,, J. I. Sarmiento, and, J. Fox. 1989. Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in Macaca nemestrina. Infect. Immun. 57: 14381444.
82. Russell, R. G.,, J. A. Kiehlbauch,, C. J. Gebhart, and, L. J. DeTolla. 1992. Uncommon Campylobacter species in infant Macaca nemestrina monkeys housed in a nursery. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 30243027.
83. Russell, R. G.,, M. Odonnoghue,, D. C. Blake,, J. Zulty, and, L. J. Detolla. 1993. Early colonic damage and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in experimentally challenged infant Macaca mulatta. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 210215.
84. Sellon, R. K.,, S. L. Tonkonogy,, H. Grable,, J. Kwon,, M. Schultz,, E. Balish,, D. Rennick, and, R. B. Sartor. 1997. Development of spontaneous colitis in IL-10 knockout mice requires normal enteric bacterial flora. Gastroenterology 112: A1088A1088.
85. Sestak, K.,, C. K. Merritt,, J. Borda,, E. Saylor,, S. R. Schwamberger,, F. Cogswell,, E. S. Didier,, P. J. Didier,, G. Plauche,, R. P. Bohm,, P. P. Aye,, P. Alexa,, R. L. Ward, and, A. A. Lackner. 2003. Infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques. Infect. Immun. 71: 40794086.
86. Skirrow, M. B., and, M. J. Blaser. 2000. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter infection, p. 6988. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
87. Stanfield, J. T.,, B. A. McCardell, and, J. M. Madden. 1987. Campylobacter diarrhea in an adult mouse model. Microb. Pathog. 3: 155165.
88. Stern, N. J. 1992. Reservoirs for Campylobacter jejuni and approaches for intervention in poultry, p. 4960. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser, and, L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
89. Szymanski, C. M.,, D. H. Burr, and, P. Guerry. 2002. Campylobacter protein glycosylation affects host cell interactions. Infect. Immun. 70: 22422244.
90. Takahashi, M.,, M. Koga,, K. Yokoyama, and, N. Yuki. 2005. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from patients with Guillain-Barré and Fisher syndromes in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 335339.
91. Taylor, N. S.,, S. Xu,, P. Nambiar,, F. E. Dewhirst, and, J. G. Fox. 2007. Enterohepatic Helicobacter species are prevalent in mice from commercial and academic institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 21662172.
92. Ueki, Y.,, A. Umeda,, S. Fujimoto,, M. Mitsuyama, and, K. Amako. 1987. Protection against Campylobacter jejuni infection in suckling mice by anti-flagellar antibody. Microbiol. Immunol. 31: 11611171.
93. Vuckovic, D.,, M. Abram,, M. Bubonja,, B. Wraber, and, M. Doric. 2006. Host resistance to primary and secondary Campylobacter jejuni infections in C57BL/6 mice. Microb. Pathogenesis 40: 3539.
94. Vuckovic, D.,, M. Abram, and, M. Doric. 1998. Primary Campylobacter jejuni infection in different mice strains. Microb. Pathogenesis 24: 263268.
95. Walker, R. I.,, E. A. Schmauder-Chock,, J. L. Parker, and, D. Burr. 1988. Selective association and transport of Campylobacter jejuni through M cells of rabbit Peyer’s patches. Can. J. Microbiol. 34: 11421147.
96. Watson, R. O.,, V. Novik,, D. Hofreuter,, M. Lara-Tejero, and, J. E. Galan. 2007. A MyD88-deficient mouse model reveals a role for Nramp1 in Campylobacter jejuni infection. Infect. Immun. 75: 19942003.
97. Whary, M. T.,, S. J. Danon,, Y. Feng,, Z. Ge,, N. Sundina,, V. Ng,, N. S. Taylor,, A. B. Rogers, and, J. G. Fox. 2006. Rapid onset of ulcerative typhlocolitis in B6. 129P2-IL10tm1Cgn (IL-10 –/–) mice infected with Helicobacter trogontum is associated with decreased colonization by altered Schaedler’s flora. Infect. Immun. 74: 66156623.
98. Wu, Y. L.,, L. H. Lee,, D. M. Rollins, and, W. M. Ching. 1994. Heat shock–and alkaline pH–induced proteins of Campylobacter jejuni: characterization and immunological properties. Infect. Immun. 62: 42564260.
99. Young, V. B.,, K. A. Knox,, J. S. Pratt,, J. S. Cortez,, L. S. Mansfield,, A. B. Rogers,, J. G. Fox, and, D. B. Schauer. 2004. In vitro and in vivo characterization of Helicobacter hepaticus cytolethal distending toxin mutants. Infect. Immun. 72: 25212527.
100. Young, V. B.,, D. B. Schauer, and, J. G. Fox. 2000. Animal models of Campylobacter infection, p. 287302. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
101. Young, C. R.,, R. L. Ziprin,, M. E. Hume, and, L. H. Stanker. 1999. Dose response and organ invasion of day-of-hatch Leghorn chicks by different isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. Avian Dis. 43: 763767.
102. Zhang, L.,, S. J. Danon,, M. Grehan,, V. Chan,, A. Lee, and, H. Mitchell. 2005. Natural colonization with Helicobacter species and the development of inflammatory bowel disease in interleukin-10-deficient mice. Helicobacter 10: 223230.
103. Ziprin, R. L.,, C. R. Young,, J. A. Byrd,, L. H. Stanker,, M. E. Hume,, S. A. Gray,, B. J. Kim, and, M. E. Konkel. 2001. Role of Campylobacter jejuni potential virulence genes in cecal colonization. Avian Dis. 45: 549557.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error