Chapter 35 : Campylobacter in the Food Supply

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Campylobacter in the Food Supply, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap35-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815554/9781555814373_Chap35-2.gif


infections in humans are considered to be mainly food-borne, in which foods of animal origin play an important role. The majority of infections are sporadic (single) cases or small family outbreaks, and the actual source of these types of infection is rarely microbiologically identified. This chapter describes the detection and prevalence of in a wide range of different types of food. Food products, however, may harbor only low numbers of campylobacters, and bacterial cells may be seriously injured by processing procedures such as freezing, cooling, heating, and salting. Survival of on eggshells, however, is considered to be poor because of the sensitivity of the organism to drying. Unpasteurized milk is a well-documented cause of a number of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis. Sufficient heating of red meat products, which are relatively infrequently contaminated with low numbers of , will eliminate this risk of human infection. Several investigations on the detection of in different types of seafood have been carried out. The majority of studies on growth characteristics and survival were carried out during the early 1980s, and summarizing reviews can be found in articles by Doyle and Stern and Kazmi. Reduction of the potential risk of contaminated poultry products has to be achieved by the application of good hygienic practices by both the producers of poultry meat products and the consumers of these products.

Citation: Jacobs-Reitsma W, Lyhs U, Wagenaar J. 2008. Campylobacter in the Food Supply, p 627-644. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch35
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abeyta, C.,, F. G. Deeter,, C. A. Kaysner,, R. F. Stott, and, M. M. Wekell. 1993. Campylobacter jejuni in a Washington State shell-fish growing bed associated with illness. J. Food Prot. 56: 323325.
2. Aho, M., and, J. Hirn. 1988. Prevalence of campylobacteria in the Finnish broiler chicken chain from the producer to the consumer. Acta Vet. Scand. 29: 451462.
3. Alter, T.,, F. Gaull,, A. Froeb, and, K. Fehlhaber. 2005. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni strains at different stages of a turkey slaughter line. Food Microbiol. 22: 345351.
4. Alter, T.,, M. Gürtler,, F. Gaull,, A. Johne, and, K. Fehlhaber. 2004. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail turkey and chicken meat. Arch. Lebensmittelhyg. 55: 4972.
5. Arsenault, J.,, A. Letellier,, S. Quessy,, J. P. Morin, and, M. Boulianne. 2007. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. carcass contamination in turkeys slaughtered in Quebec, Canada. J. Food Prot. 70: 13501359.
6. Atanassova, V.,, F. Reich,, L. Beckmann, and, G. Klein. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in turkey meat from a slaughterhouse and in turkey meat retail products. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 49: 141145.
7. Atanassova, V., and, C. Ring. 1999. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry meat in Germany. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 51: 187190.
8. Bachmann, H. P., and, U. Spahr. 1995. The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 476483.
9. Berndtson, E.,, M. Tivemo, and, A. Engvall. 1992. Distribution and numbers of Campylobacter in newly slaughtered broiler chickens and hens. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15: 4550.
10. Berrang, M. E.,, J. S. Bailey,, S. F. Altekruse,, B. Patel,, W. K. Shaw, Jr.,, R. J. Meinersmann, and, P. J. Fedorka-Cray. 2007. Prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses collected at rehang and postchill in 20 U.S. processing plants. J. Food Prot. 70: 15561560.
11. Berrang, M. E.,, R. J. Buhr, and, J. A. Cason. 2000. Campylobacter recovery from external and internal organs of commercial broiler carcass prior to scalding. Poultry Sci. 79: 286290.
12. Beumer, R. R.,, J. J. Cruysen, and, I. R. Birtantie. 1988. The occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in raw cow’s milk. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 65: 9396.
13. Blaser, M. J.,, D. N. Taylor, and, R. A. Feldman. 1983. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections. Epidemiol. Rev. 5: 157176.
14. Bolder, N. M. 1997. Decontamination of meat and poultry carcasses. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8: 221227.
15. Bryan, F. L., and, M. P. Doyle. 1995. Health risks and consequences of Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry. J. Food Prot. 58: 326344.
16. Burgess, F.,, C. L. Little,, G. Allen,, K. Williamson, and, R. T. Mitchelli. 2005. Prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli on the external packaging of raw meat. J. Food Prot. 68: 469475.
17. Casanovas, L.,, M. de Simon,, M. D. Ferrer,, J. Arques, and, G. Monzon. 1995. Intestinal carriage of campylobacters, salmonellas, yersinias and listerias in pigeons in the city of Barcelona. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 78: 1113.
18. Chai, L. C.,, T. Robin,, U. M. Ragavan,, J. W. Gunsalam,, F. A. Bakar,, F. M. Ghazali,, S. Radu, and, M. P. Kumar. 2007. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 117: 106111.
19. Cogan, T. A.,, S. F. Bloomfield, and, T. J. Humphrey. 1999. The effectiveness of hygiene procedures for prevention of cross-contamination from chicken carcasses in the domestic kitchen. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 354358.
20. Cogan, T. A.,, J. Slader,, S.F Bloomfield, and, T. J. Humphrey. 2002. Achieving hygiene in the domestic kitchen: the effectiveness of commonly used cleaning procedures. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92: 885892.
21. Corry, J. E. L.,, H. I. Atabay,, S. J. Forsythe, and, L. P. Mansfield. 2003. Culture media for the isolation of campylobacters, heliobacters and arcobacters, p. 271316. In J. E. L. Corry,, G. D. W. Curtis, and, R. M. Baird (ed.), Handbook of Culture Media for Food Microbiology, 2nd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
22. Cuomo, A.,, L. Dipineto,, A. Santaniello,, G. Matteoli,, T. Sarli,, D. D. Vecchia,, A. Fioretti, and, L. F. Menna. 2007. Detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter in ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Italy. Vet. J. 174: 439441.
23. Cuk, Z.,, A. Annan-Prah,, M. Janc, and, J. Zajc Satler. 1987. Yoghurt: an unlikely source of Campylobacter jejuni/coli. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 63: 201205.
24. Denis, M.,, M.-J. Refrégier-Petton,, M.-J. Laisney,, G. Ermel, and, G. Salvat. 2001. Campylobacter contamination in French chicken production from farm to consumers. Use of a PCR assay for detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91: 255267.
25. Desmasures, N.,, F. Bazin, and, M. Gueguen. 1997. Microbiological composition of raw milk from selected farms in the Camembert region of Normandy. J. Appl. Microbiol. 83: 5358.
26. Dominguez, C.,, I. Gómez, and, J. Zumalacarregui. 2002. Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in retail chicken meat in Spain. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 72: 165168.
27. Doyle, M. P. 1984a. Association of Campylobacter with laying hens and eggs. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 47: 533536.
28. Doyle, M. P. 1984b. Campylobacter in foods, p. 163180. In J. P. Butzler (ed.), Campylobacter Infection in Man and Animals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
29. Doyle, M. P., and, D. J. Roman. 1982. Prevalence and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in unpasteurized milk. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 11541158.
30. Doyle, M. P., and, J. L. Schoeni. 1986. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from retail mushrooms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 449450.
31. Duffy, E. A.,, K. E. Belk,, J. N. Sofos,, G. R. Bellinger,, A. Pape, and, G. C. Smith. 2001. Extent of microbial contamination in United States pork retail products. J. Food Prot. 64: 172178.
32. Endtz, H. P.,, J. S. Vliegenthart,, P. Vandamme,, H. W. Weverink,, N. P. van den Braak,, H. A. Verbrugh, and, A. van Belkum. 1997. Genotypic diversity of Campylobacter lari isolated from mussels and oysters in The Netherlands. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 34: 7988.
33. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2006a. Report of Task Force on Zoonoses Data Collection on proposed technical specifications for a coordinated monitoring programme for Salmonella and Campylobacter in broiler meat in the EU. EFSA J. 92: 133.
34. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2005. Scientific report of the scientific panel on biological hazards on the request from the commission related to Campylobacter in animals and foodstuffs. Annex EFSA J. 173: 1105.
35. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2006b. Trends on sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and antimicrobial resistance in the EU in 2004. EFSA J. 2005: 310. http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/monitoring_zoonoses/reports/1277_en.html.
36. Evans, M. R.,, W. Lane,, J. A. Frost, and, G. Nylen. 1998. A C ampylobacter outbreak associated with stirfried food. Epidemiol. Infect. 121: 275279.
37. Evans, M. R.,, C. D. Ribeiro, and, R. L. Salmon. 2003. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 12191225.
38. Fahey, T.,, D. Morgan,, C. Gunneburg,, G. K. Adak,, F. Majid, and, E. Kaczmarski. 1995. An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with failed milk pasteurisation. J. Infect. 31: 137143.
39. Fédérighi, M.,, C. Magras,, M. F. Pilet,, D. Woodward,, W. Johnson,, F. Jugiau, and, J. L. Jouve. 1999. Incidence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in foods assessed by NF ISO 10272 standard: results of a two-year study. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 16: 195204.
40. Fernandez, H., and, V. Pison. 1996. Isolation of thermotolerant species of Campylobacter from commercial chicken livers. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 29: 7580.
41. Finch, M. J., and, P. A. Blake. 1985. Foodborne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis: the United States experience, 1980–1982. Am. J. Epidemiol. 122: 262268.
42. Fricker, C. R., and, R. W. A. Park. 1989. A two-year study of the distribution of “thermophilic’’ campylobacters in human, environmental and food samples from the Reading area with particular reference to toxin production and heat-stable serotype. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66: 477490.
43. Gallay, A.,, H. De Valk,, M. Cournot,, B. Ladeuil,, C. Hemery,, C. Castor,, F. Bon,, F. Mégraud,, P. Le Cann,, J. C. Desenclos; Outbreak Investigation Team. 2006. A large multi-pathogen water-borne community outbreak linked to faecal contamination of a groundwater system, France, 2000. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12: 561570.
44. Ghafir, Y.,, B. China,, K. Dierick,, L. De Zutter, and, G. Daube. 2007. A seven-year survey of Campylobacter contamination in meat at different production stages in Belgium. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116: 111120.
45. Gorman, R.,, S. Bloomfield, and, C. C. Adley. 2002. A study of cross-contamination of food-borne pathogens in the domestic kitchen in the Republic of Ireland. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 76: 143150.
46. Gomolka, M., and, J. Uradzinski. 1996. Occurrence of Campylobacter species in raw milk in north eastern Poland. Milchwissenschaft 51: 366368.
47. Hahn, G.,, H. Kirchhoff,, P. Hammer,, E. H. Ubben, and, W. H. Heeschen. 1992. Bacteriological findings and their evaluation for milk and dairy products. Arch. Lebensmittelhyg. 43: 8993.
48. Hakkinen, M.,, H. Heiska, and, M.-L. Hänninen. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in cattle in Finland and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bovine Campylobacter jejuni strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 32323238
49. Hänninen, M.-L.,, H. Haajanen,, T. Pummi,, K. Wermundsen,, M.-L. Katila,, H. Sarkkinen,, I. Miettinen, and, H. Rautelin. 2003. Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in Finland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 13911396.
50. Harris, N. V.,, T. J. Kimball,, P. Bennett,, Y. Johnson,, D. Wakeley, and, C. M. Nolan. 1987. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with raw goat’s milk. Am. J. Epidemiol. 126: 179186.
51. Harrison, W. A.,, C. J. Griffith,, D. Tennant, and, A. C. Peters. 2001. Incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella isolated from retail chicken and associated packaging in South Wales. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33: 450454.
52. Havelaar, A. H.,, M. J. Nauta,, M.-J. J. Mangen,, A. G. de Koeijer,, M.-J. Bogaardt,, E. G. Evers,, W. F. Jacobs-Reitsma,, W. van Pelt,, J. A. Wagenaar,, G. A. de Wit, and, H. van der Zee. 2005. Costs and Benefits of Controlling Campylobacter in The Netherlands. Integrating Risk Analysis, Epidemiology and Economics. RIVM report 250911009/2005. Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
53. Hong, J.,, J. M. Kim,, W. K. Jung,, S. H. Kim,, W. Bae,, H. C. Koo,, J. Gil,, M. Kim,, J. Ser, and, Y. H. Park. 2007. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken meat, pork, and beef in Korea, from 2001 to 2006. J. Food Prot. 70: 860866.
54. Hudson, S. J.,, N. F. Lightfoot,, J. C. Coulson,, K. Russell,, P. R. Sisson, and, A. O. Sobo. 1991. Jackdaws and magpies as vectors of milk-borne human Campylobacter infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 107: 363372.
55. Humphrey, T. J., and, P. Beckett. 1987. Campylobacter jejuni in dairy cows and raw milk. Epidemiol. Infect. 98: 263269.
56. Humphrey, T. J., and, R. J. Hart. 1988. Campylobacter and Salmonella contamination of unpasteurized cow’s milk on sale to the public. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 65: 463467.
57. Humphrey, T. J.,, K. W. Martin,, J. Slader, and, K. Durham. 2001. Campylobacter spp. in the kitchen: spread and persistence. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90: 115S120S.
58. Humphrey, T. J.,, S. O’Brien, and, M. Madsen. 2007. Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 117: 237257.
59. Hunt, J. M.,, C. Abeyta, and, T. Tran. 1998. Campylobacter. In FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online, 8th ed. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-7.html.
60. Hussain, I.,, M. Shahid Mahmood,, M. Akhtar, and, A. Khan. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in meat, milk and other food commodities in Pakistan. Food Microbiol. 24: 219222.
61. Hutchinson, D. N.,, F. J. Bolton,, P. M. Hinchliffe,, H. C. Dawkins,, S. D. Horsley,, E. G. Jessop,, P. A. Robertshaw, and, D. E. Counter. 1985. Evidence of udder excretion of Campylobacter jejuni as the cause of milk borne Campylobacter outbreak. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 94: 205215.
62. Inglis, G. D.,, L. D. Kaischuk, and, H. W. Busz. 2004. Chronic shedding of Campylobacter species in beef cattle. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 41020.
63. ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2006a. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. Part 1: detection method. ISO 10272-1: 2006.
64. ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2006b. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. Part 2: enumeration method. ISO/TS 10272-2: 2006.
65. ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2005. Water quality—detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. ISO 17995: 2005.
66. Izat, A. L., and, F. A. Gardner. 1988. Incidence of Campylobacter jejuni in processed egg products. Poultry Sci. 67: 14311435.
67. Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F. 2000. Campylobacter in the food supply. p. 467481. In I. Nachamkin and, M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM, Washington, DC.
68. Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F. 1994. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry. Thesis. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
69. Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.,, W. van Overbeek,, S. Oostra-van Dijk, and, H. J. Aarts. 2007. Implementation of ISO 10272:2006 for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter in foods. Zoonoses Public Health 54 (Suppl. 1): 49.
70. Jayarao, B. M.,, S. C. Donaldson,, B. A. Straley,, A. A. Sawant,, N. V. Hegde, and, J. L. Brown. 2006. A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in Pennsylvania. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 24512458.
71. Jayarao, B. M., and, D. R. Henning. 2001. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 21572162.
72. Jeffrey, J. S.,, K. H. Tonooka, and, J. Lozano. 2001. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from skin, crop, and intestine of commercial broiler chicken carcasses at processing. Poultry Sci. 80: 13901392.
73. Jones, P. H.,, A. T. Willis,, D. A. Robinson,, M. B. Skirrow, and, D. S. Josephs. 1981. Campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of free school milk. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 87: 155162.
74. Jorgensen, F.,, R. Bailey,, S. Williams,, P. Henderson,, D. R. A. Wareing,, F. J. Bolton,, J. A. Frost,, L. Ward, and, T. J. Humphrey. 2002. Prevalence and numbers of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. on raw, whole chickens in relation to sampling methods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 76: 151164.
75. Kapperud, G., and, O. Rosef. 1983. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonlla spp. in Norway. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 45: 375380.
76. Klein, G.,, F. Reich,, L. Beckmann, and, V. Atanassova. 2007. Quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in broilers during meat processing. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 92: 267273.
77. Koenraad, P. M. F. J.,, F. M. Rombouts, and, S. H. W. Notermans. 1997. Epidemiological aspects of thermophilic Campylobacter in water related environments: a review. Water Environm. Res. 69: 5263.
78. Kramer, J. M.,, J. A. Frost,, F. J. Bolton, and, D. R. A. Wareing. 2000. Campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with isolates from human infection. J. Food Prot. 63: 16541659.
79. Kumar, A.,, R. K. Agarwal,, K. N. Bhilegaonkar,, B. R. Shome, and, V. N. Bachhil. 2001. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 67: 153155.
80. Kuusi, M.,, J. P. Nuorti,, M.-L. Hänninen,, M. Koskela,, V. Jussila,, E. Kela,, I. Miettinen, and, P. Ruutu. 2005. A large outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with a municipal water supply in Finland. Epidemiol. Infect. 133: 593601.
81. Lammerding, A. M.,, M. M. Garcia,, E. D. Mann,, Y. Robinson,, W. J. Dorward,, R. B. Truscott, and, F. Tittiger. 1988. Prevalence of Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter in fresh pork, beef, veal and poultry in Canada. J. Food Prot. 51: 4752.
82. Lindmark, H.,, C. Diedrich,, L. Andersson,, R. Lindqvist, and, E. Olsson Engvall. 2006. Distribution of Campylobacter genotypes on broilers during slaughter. J. Food Prot. 69: 29022907.
83. Luber, P., and, E. Bartelt. 2007. Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. on the surface and within chicken breast fillets. J. Appl. Microbiol. 102: 313318.
84. Luber, P.,, S. Brynestad,, D. Topsch,, K. Scherer, and, E. Bartelt. 2006. Quantification of Campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 6670.
85. Mafu, A. A.,, R. Higgins,, M. Nadeau, and, G. Cousineau. 1989. The incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica in swine carcasses and the slaughterhouse environment. J. Food Prot. 52: 642645.
86. Malakauskas, M.,, K. Jorgensen,, E. M. Nielsen,, B. Ojeniyi, and, J. E. Olsen. 2006. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from a pig slaughterhouse and analysis of cross-contamination. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108: 295300.
87. Manfreda, G.,, A. De Cesare,, V. Bondioli,, N. J. Stern, and, A. Franchini. 2006. Enumeration and identity of Campylobacter spp. in Italian broilers. Poultry Sci. 85: 556562.
88. Mateo, E.,, J. Cárcamo,, M. Urquijo,, I. Perales, and, A. Fernández–storga. 2005. Evaluation of a PCR assay for the detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail poultry products. Res. Microbiol. 156: 568574.
89. Mattick, K.,, K. Durham,, G. Domingue,, F. Jørgensen,, M. Sen,, D. W. Schaffner, and, T. Humphrey. 2003b. The survival of foodborne pathogens during domestic washing-up and subsequent transfer onto washing-up sponges, kitchen surfaces and food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 85: 213226.
90. Mattick, K.,, K. Durham,, M. Hendrix,, J. Slader,, C. Griffith,, M. Sen, and, T. Humphrey. 2003a. The microbiological quality of washing-up water and the environment in domestic and commercial kitchens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 94: 842848.
91. McMahon, M. A., and, I. G. Wilson. 2001. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 70: 155162.
92. McManus, C., and, J. M. Lanier. 1987. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia enterocolitica in raw milk. J. Food Prot. 50: 5155.
93. Mead, G. C.,, W. R. Hudson, and, M. H. Hinton. 1995. Effect of changes in processing to improve hygiene control on contamination of poultry carcasses with Campylobacter. Epidemiol. Infect. 115: 495500.
94. Moore, J. EW.,, P. S. Caldwell,, B. C. Millar, and, P. G. Murphy. 2001. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in water in Northern Ireland: implications for public health. Ulster Med. J. 70: 102107.
95. Muehlherr, J. E.,, C. Zweifel,, S. Corti,, J. E. Blanco, and, R. Stephan. 2003. Microbiological quality of raw goat’s and ewe’s bulk-tank milk in Switzerland. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 8493856.
96. NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods). 2005. Analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/NACMCF_Campylobacter_092805.pdf.
97. NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods). 1994. Campylobacter jejuni/coli. J. Food Prot. 57: 11011121.
98. NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods). 1997. Generic HACCP application in broiler slaughter and processing. J. Food Prot. 60: 579604.
99. Nauta, M.,, I. van der Fels-Klerx, and, A. Havelaar. 2005. A poultry-processing model for quantitative microbiological risk assessment. Risk Anal. 25: 8598.
100. Nielsen, E. M.,, V. Fussing,, J. Engberg,, N. L. Nielsen, and, J. Neimann. 2006. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals. Epidemiol. Infect. 134: 758767.
101. Odumeru, J. A.,, S. J. Mitchell,, D. M. Alves,, J. A. Lynch,, A. J. Yee,, S. L. Wang,, S. Styliadis, and, J. M. Farber. 1997. Assessment of the microbiological quality of ready to use vegetables for health care food services. J. Food Prot. 60: 954960.
102. Oosterom, J.,, G. J. A. de Wilde,, E. de Boer,, L. H. de Blaauw, and, H. Karman. 1983. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni during poultry processing and pig slaughtering. J. Food Prot. 46: 702706, 709.
103. Oporto, B.,, J. I. Esteban,, G. Aduriz,, R. A. Juste, and, A. Hurtado. 2007. Prevalence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle, sheep and swine farms. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103: 977984.
104. Orr, K. E.,, N. F. Lightfoot,, P. R. Sisson,, B. A. Harkis,, J. L. Tweddle,, P. Boyd,, A. Carroll,, C. J. Jackson,, D. R. A. Wareing, and, R. Freeman. 1995. Direct milk excretion of Campylobacter jejuni in a dairy cow causing cases of human enteritis. Epidemiol. Infect. 114: 1524.
105. Oyarzabal., O. A.,, D. E. Conner, and, F. J. Hoerr. 1995. Incidence of campylobacters in the intestine of avian species in Alabama. Avian Dis. 39: 147151.
106. Park, C. E., and, G. W. Sanders. 1992. Occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters in fresh vegetables sold at farmers’ outdoor markets and supermarkets. Can. J. Microbiol. 38: 313316.
107. Perko-Mäkelä, P.,, M. Koljonen,, M. Miettinen, and, M.-L. Hänninen. 2000. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in marinated and nonmarinated chicken products. J. Food Safety 20: 209216.
108. Peterson, M. C. 2003. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with consumption of raw milk. J. Environ. Health 65: 2021.
109. Pezzotti, G.,, A. Serafin,, I. Luzzi,, R. Mioni,, M. Milan, and, R. Perin. 2003. Occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in animals and meat in northeastern Italy. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 82: 281287.
110. Reinhard, R. G.,, T. J. McAdam,, G. J. Flick,, R. E. Croonenberghs,, R. F. Wittman,, A. A. Diallo, and, C. Fernandes. 1996. Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh hand-picked blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) meat. J. Food Prot. 59: 803807.
111. Roberts, D. 1985. Microbiological aspects of goat’s milk—a public health laboratory service survey. Goat Vet. Soc. J. 6: 1013.
112. Roels, T. H.,, B. Wickus,, H. H. Bostrom,, J. J. Kazmierczak,, M. A. Nicholson,, T. A. Kurzynski, and, J. P. Davis. 1998. A foodborne outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni (O:33) infection associated with tuna salad: a rare strain in an unusual vehicle. Epidemiol. Infect. 121: 281287.
113. Rohrbach, B. W.,, F. A. Draughon,, P. M. Davidson, and, S. P. Oliver. 1992. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Salmonella in bulk tank milk: risk factors and risk of human exposure. J. Food Prot. 55: 9397.
114. Rosenquist, H.,, N. L. Nielsen,, H. M. Sommer,, B. Norrungand, and, B. B. Christensen. 2003. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis associated with thermophilic Campylobacter species in chickens. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 83: 87103.
115. Rosenquist H.,, H. M. Sommer,, N. L. Nielsen, and, B. B. Christensen. 2006. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108: 226232.
116. Sagoo, S. K.,, C. L. Little, and, R. T. Mitchell. 2001. The microbiological examination of ready-to-eat organic vegetables from retail establishments in the United Kingdom. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33: 434439.
117. Sahin, O.,, P. Kobalka, and, Q. Zhang. 2003. Detection of Campylobacter in chicken eggs. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95: 10701079.
118. Savill, M. G.,, J. A. Hudson,, A. Ball,, J. D. Klena,, P. Scholes,, R. J. Whyte,, R. E. McCormick, and, D. Jankovic. 2001. Enumeration of Campylobacter in New Zealand recreational and drinking waters. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91: 3846.
119. Scherer K.,, E. Bartelt,, C. Sommerfeld, and, G. Hildebrandt. 2006. Quantification of Campylobacter on the surface and in the muscle of chicken legs at retail. J. Food Prot. 69: 757761.
120. Schildt, M.,, S. Savolainen, and, M. L. Hänninen. 2006. Longlasting Campylobacter jejuni contamination of milk associated with gastrointestinal illness in a farming family. Epidemiol. Infect. 134: 401405
121. Shane, S. M.,, D. H. Gifford, and, K. Yogasundram. 1986. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of eggs. Vet. Res. Comm. 10: 487492.
122. Son, I.,, M. D. Englen,, M. E. Berrang,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and, M. A. Harrison. 2007. Prevalence of Archobacter and Campylobacter on broiler carcasses during processing. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 113: 1622.
123. Stanley, K. N.,, J. S. Wallace,, J. E. Currie,, P. J. Diggle, and, K. Jones. 1998a. Seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters in lambs at slaughter. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84: 11111116.
124. Stanley, K. N.,, J. S. Wallace,, J. E. Currie,, P. J. Diggle, and, K. Jones. 1998b. The seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters in beef cattle, dairy cattle, and calves. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85: 472480.
125. Steele, M. L.,, W. B. McNab,, C. Poppe,, M. W. Griffiths,, Chen Shu,, S. A. Degrandis,, L. C. Fruhner,, C. A. Larkin,, J. A. Lynch, and, J. A. Odumeru. 1997. Survey of Ontario bulk tank raw milk for food-borne pathogens. J. Food Prot. 60: 13411346.
126. Stern, N. J. 1995. Influence of season and refrigerated storage on Campylobacter spp. contamination of broiler carcasses. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 4: 235238.
127. Stern, N. J.,, K. L. Hiett,, G. A. Alfredsson,, K. G. Kristinsson,, J. Reiersen,, H. Hardardottir,, H. Briem,, E. Gunnarsson,, F. Georgsson,, R. Lowman,, E. Berndtson,, A. M. Lammerding,, G. M. Paoli, and, M. T. Musgrove. 2003. Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease. Epidemiol. Infect. 130: 2332.
128. Stern, N. J., and, S. U. Kazmi. 1989. Campylobacter jejuni, p. 71110. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Food-borne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York.
129. Stone, D. L. 1987. A survey of raw whole milk for Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. N. Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 22: 257264.
130. Stoyanchev, T.,, I. Vashin,, C. Ring, and, V. Atanassova. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Bulgarian retail market. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 92: 285288.
131. Sulonen, J.,, R. Kärenlampi,, U. Holma, and, M.-L. Hänninen. 2007. Campylobacter in Finnish organic laying hens in autumn 2003 and spring 2004. Poult. Sci. 86: 12231228.
132. Tatchou-Nyamsi-König, J.-A.,, A. Moreau,, M. Fédérighi, and, J.-C. Block. 2007. Behavior of Campylobacter jejuni in experimentally contaminated bottled natural mineral water. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103: 280288.
133. Uyttendaele, M.,, K. Baert,, Y. Ghafir,, G. Daube,, L. De Zutter,, L. Herman,, K. Dierick,, D. Pierard,, J. J. B. Horion, and, J. Debevere. 2006. Quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in poultry based meat preparations as one of the factors to support the development of risk-based microbiological criteria in Belgium. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 111: 14963.
134. Vellinga, A., and, F. Van Loock. 2002. The dioxin crisis as experiment to determine poultry-related Campylobacter enteritis. Epidemiol. Infect. Dis. 8: 1922.
135. Whyte, P.,, K. McGill,, D. Cowley,, R. H. Madden,, L. Moran,, P. Scates,, C. Carroll,, A. O’Leary,, S. Fanning,, J. D. Collins,, E. McNamara,, J. E. Moore, and, M. Cormican. 2004. Occurrence of Campylobacter in retail foods in Ireland. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95: 111118.
136. Wilson, I. G., and, J. E. Moore. 1996. Presence of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in shellfish. Epidemiol. Infect. 116: 147153.
137. Wong, T. L.,, L. Hollis,, A. Cornelius,, C. Nicol,, R. Cook, and, J. A. Hudson. 2007. Prevalence, numbers, and subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in uncooked retail meat samples. J. Food Prot. 70: 566573.
138. Zhao, T.,, M. P. Doyle, and, D. E. Berg. 2000. Fate of Campylobacter jejuni in butter. J. Food Prot. 63: 120122.
139. Zhao, C.,, G. Beilei,, J. De Villena,, R. Sudler,, E. Yeh,, S. Zhao,, D. G. White,, D. Wagner, and, J. Meng. 2001. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in retail chicken, turkey, pork, and beef from the greater Washington, DC, area. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 54315436.
140. Zweifel, C.,, M. A. Zychowska, and, R. Stephen. 2004. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. isolated from slaughtered sheep in Switzerland. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 92: 4553.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Presence of thermotolerant at the poultry slaughterhouse level

Citation: Jacobs-Reitsma W, Lyhs U, Wagenaar J. 2008. Campylobacter in the Food Supply, p 627-644. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch35
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Presence of thermotolerant in poultry products at the retail level

Citation: Jacobs-Reitsma W, Lyhs U, Wagenaar J. 2008. Campylobacter in the Food Supply, p 627-644. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch35
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Presence of thermotolerant in raw milk

Citation: Jacobs-Reitsma W, Lyhs U, Wagenaar J. 2008. Campylobacter in the Food Supply, p 627-644. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch35
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Presence of thermotolerant in meat products, excluding poultry

Citation: Jacobs-Reitsma W, Lyhs U, Wagenaar J. 2008. Campylobacter in the Food Supply, p 627-644. In Nachamkin I, Szymanski C, Blaser M (ed), , Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815554.ch35

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error