Chapter 16 : Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins

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Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins, Page 1 of 2

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The family includes enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses, that are major and ubiquitous disease-causing pathogens of humans and animals. Among them are important viruses that cause acute respiratory morbidity, particularly in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised subjects of any age. The family is taxonomically divided into two subfamilies: the , with five genera; and the , which includes two genera. The classification of the viruses is based on their genome organization, morphological and biological characteristics, and sequence relationship of the encoded proteins. To date, the paramyxovirus P gene-encoded proteins, the nonstructural (NS) (NS1 and NS2) proteins of pneumoviruses, and the envelope glycoproteins G and small hydrophobic (SH) protein have been shown to play a major role in antagonizing type I interferon (IFN) signaling and other host innate immune responses. A discussion of the inhibitory function for each of these proteins is presented in this chapter. A small hydrophobic (SH) protein (64 amino acids) is an integral membrane protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) expresses an SH protein that is nearly three times longer than the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) SH and does not affect viral replication. During the early phase of RSV infection (12 to 24 h), the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)/mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) complex is important in canonical pathway activation.

Citation: Casola A, Bao X, Brasier A, Garofalo R. 2009. Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins, p 247-265. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch16
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Figure 1

Genetic map of the different genes of the family. Schematic representation of the genetic map of typical members of each genus of the (Adapted from reference , page 1453.)

Citation: Casola A, Bao X, Brasier A, Garofalo R. 2009. Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins, p 247-265. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch16
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Figure 2

Schematic diagram of sites of antagonism of IFN production and signaling by paramyxovirus proteins.

Citation: Casola A, Bao X, Brasier A, Garofalo R. 2009. Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins, p 247-265. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch16
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Table 1

Major members of the family

Citation: Casola A, Bao X, Brasier A, Garofalo R. 2009. Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins, p 247-265. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch16
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Table 2

Viral proteins encoded by the P gene in members of the

Citation: Casola A, Bao X, Brasier A, Garofalo R. 2009. Inhibition of Antiviral Signaling Pathways by Paramyxovirus Proteins, p 247-265. In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815561.ch16

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