Chapter 4 : New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting

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Molecular techniques are increasingly being used for the identification of human parechoviruses (HPeVs), and this will contribute to our changing view on this yet-small group of picornaviruses. The family is one of the largest RNA virus families and contains an array of pathogens that infect both humans and animals. HPeVs were previously classified as members of the genus. Molecular data are rapidly being generated and submitted to data banks, allowing for more precise classifications and reclassification of different viruses within new genera. This will increase our understanding of the virus diversity in relation to pathogenesis and evolution. By comparing the complete nucleotide sequence with the genomes of HPeV1 and -2, the new strain was classified as the third serotype of HPeV. The presence of motifs within viral proteins could be due to transduction of host sequences into the viral genome. It has been theorized that most viruses were initially built from preexisting cellular modules in which mutations and recombination allow for an optimized structure and function within a viral genome. The association with disease in children is much more pronounced than for human enterovirus (HEVs), to which HPeVs are closely related, and the reason for this remains obscure. Specific genome organization and structures will determine biological features, such as receptor usage, cell tropism, infectivity, and fitness, and these may explain the epidemiological and clinical behaviors of this group of viruses.

Citation: Benschop K, Stanway G, Wolthers K. 2008. New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting, p 53-74. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch4
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Unrooted phylogenetic tree, showing the relationship between human parechoviruses and other genera. The proposed genera and are shown in italics. The genus, proposed to be merged with is encircled in a hatched line. The tree was constructed based on amino acid differences, using the neighbor-joining method. The following nucleotide sequences were obtained from GenBank according to recent proposals by the ICTV: HPeV1 (S45208), HPeV1 BNI-788St (EF051629), HPeV2 (AJ005695), HPeV3 A308/99 (AB084913) and Can82853-01 (AJ889918), HPeV4 K251176-02 (DQ315670) and T75-4077 (AM235750), HPeV5 CT86-6760 (AF055846) and T92-15 (AM235749), HPeV6 NII561-2000 (AB252582) and BNI-67/03 (EU024629); Ljungan virus 174F (AF327921), 87-012 (AF327920), and 145SL (AF327922); PV1 (V01149), PV2 (M12197), PV3 (K01392), CAV10 (AY421767), CAV16 (U05876), EV71 (U22521), CBV3 (M16572), CBV6 (AF114384), echovirus 30 (AF311938), echovirus 11 (AJ577589), CAV9 (D00627), CAV20 (AF465514), CAV24 (D90457), EV68 (AY426531), EV70 (D00820), simian enterovirus (SEV; NC003988), and rhinovirus 1B (HRV-1B; D00239) and HRV 14 (K02121); FMDV-A (NC011450), FMDV-O (AY686687), FMDV-SAT1 (NC011451), and equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV; DQ272577); encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV; X87335); (TMEV; NC001366); hepatitis A virus (HAV; AJ299464); porcine teschovirus (PTV; NC003985); equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV; AF361253); aichivirus (AIV; AB010145) and bovine kobuvirus (BKV; AB084788); porcine enterovirus (new proposed name avian sapelovirus, PEV/ASV; AF406813); Seneca Valley virus (SVV; DQ641257); avian encephalomyelitis-like virus (AEV; AY275539).

Citation: Benschop K, Stanway G, Wolthers K. 2008. New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting, p 53-74. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch4
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Genome organization of a typical picornavirus, together with differences in the polyprotein between different genera. These differences are mainly limited to the L protein and 2A protein. Different shading of these proteins indicates distinct structural classes in the genera. The genera shown are those which will exist if current taxonomic proposals are accepted by the ICTV.

Citation: Benschop K, Stanway G, Wolthers K. 2008. New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting, p 53-74. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch4
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Alignment of the region flanking the RGD sequence (shaded) in the picornaviruses which have this motif. One representative sequence is shown for each virus serotype. Sites showing characteristic patterns of conservation and located downstream of the RGD motif are shown in bold. The integrins reported to be recognized by at least one virus in each species are also indicated: HPeV ( ), CAV9 ( ), echovirus 9 ( ), FMDV ( ).

Citation: Benschop K, Stanway G, Wolthers K. 2008. New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting, p 53-74. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Schematic diagram of the HPeV 5′ UTR showing the key IRES domains (continuous oval) and RNA replication determinants (dotted oval).

Citation: Benschop K, Stanway G, Wolthers K. 2008. New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting, p 53-74. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch4
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Table 1.

Prototype HPeV strains

Citation: Benschop K, Stanway G, Wolthers K. 2008. New Human Parechoviruses: Six and Counting, p 53-74. In Scheld W, Hammer S, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 8. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815592.ch4

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