Chapter 17 : The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815622/9781555813000_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815622/9781555813000_Chap17-2.gif


This chapter focuses primarily on the subset of human pathogenic fungi. Even among this relatively small subset of organisms, there is extensive variation in phylogenetic ancestry, pathogenic strategies, ecology, prevalence, and outcome of infection. The major fungal pathogens constitute a diverse group of organisms. With the exception of spp. and , all other pathogenic fungi discussed in this chapter are saprophytic. Pathogens can be classified as generalists or specialists depending on their host range. The chapter also focuses on broad areas of the macroevolution of fungal pathogenesis. In fungi, the two important genetic changes that result in microevolution are genetic rearrangements and point mutations. Macroevolution in terms of speciation has led to the development of multiple pathogenic fungal species. The chapter proposes different hypotheses and supporting data on the evolution and development of fungal pathogenesis. Though the specific mechanisms of evolution and development of virulence factors have not been elucidated, there are clear data implicating soil amoebae as a natural predator that may maintain virulence in the fungal habitat. Given increasing interest in this area, future studies will shed additional light on the evolution of fungal pathogenesis.

Citation: Steenbergen J, Casadevall A. 2006. The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, p 327-346. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Fitch-Margoliash distance tree based on 23S-like rRNA sequences (adapted from reference ). The phylogenetic tree demonstrates the taxonomic location of fungi within the kingdoms.

Citation: Steenbergen J, Casadevall A. 2006. The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, p 327-346. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Fitch-Margoliash distance tree based on 16S-like rRNA sequences (adapted from reference ). The phylogenetic tree demonstrates the interspersal of pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi.

Citation: Steenbergen J, Casadevall A. 2006. The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, p 327-346. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Scanning electron microscopy image of (small cells) with (large cell). This image demonstrates the interactions between the fungal cells and amoeba 30 min postincubation.

Citation: Steenbergen J, Casadevall A. 2006. The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, p 327-346. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Anagnostakis,, S. L. 2004. Chestnut blight: the classical problem of an introduced pathogen. Mycologia 79: 2337.
2. Aristizabal, B. H.,, K. V. Clemons,, A. M. Cock,, A. Restrepo, and, D. A. Stevens. 2002. Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in mice: influence of the hormonal status of the host on tissue responses. Med. Mycol. 40: 169178.
3. Aristizabal,, B. H.,, K. V. Clemons,, D. A. Stevens, and, A. Restrepo. 1998. Morphological transition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia to yeast cells: in vivo inhibition in females. Infect. Immun. 66: 55875591.
4. Arnold,, S. J.,, M. E. Pfrender, and, A. G. Jones. 2001. The adaptive landscape as a conceptual bridge between micro- and macroevolution. Genetica 112–113: 932.
5. Ashbee,, H. R., and, E. G. Evans. 2002. Immunology of diseases associated with Malassezia species. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15: 2157.
6. Bauder,, B.,, A. Kubber-Heiss,, T. Steineck,, E. S. Kuttin, and, L. Kaufman. 2000. Granulomatous skin lesions due to histoplasmosis in a badger (Meles meles) in Austria. Med. Mycol. 38: 249253.
7. Berger, L.,, R. Speare,, P. Daszak,, D. E. Green,, A. A. Cunningham,, C. L. Goggin,, R. Slocombe,, M. A. Ragan,, A. D. Hyatt,, K. R. McDonald,, H. B. Hines,, K. R. Lips,, G. Marantelli, and, H. Parkes. 1998. Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 90319036.
8. Bernstein,, B. E.,, E. L. Humphrey,, R. L. Erlich,, R. Schneider,, P. Bouman,, J. S. Liu,, T. Kouzarides, and, S. L. Schreiber. 2002. Methylation of histone H3 Lys 4 in coding regions of active genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 86958700.
9. Borges-Walmsley, M. I.,, D. Chen,, X. Shu, and, A. R. Walmsley. 2002. The pathobiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Trends Microbiol. 10: 8087.
10. Bowman,, B. H.,, J. W. Taylor, and, T. J. White. 1992. Molecular evolution of the fungi: human pathogens. Mol. Biol. Evol. 9: 893904.
11. Bowman,, B. H.,, T. J. White, and, J. W. Taylor. 1996. Human pathogenic fungi and their close nonpathogenic relatives. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6: 8996.
12. Brandt,, M.,, L. C. Hutwagner,, L. A. Klug,, W. S. Baughman,, D. Rimland,, E. A. Graviss,, R. J. Hamill,, C. Thomas,, P. G. Pappas,, A. L. Reingold, and, R. W. Pinner. 1996. Molecular subtype distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in four areas of the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 912917.
13. Brass,, C.,, C. M. Volkmann,, D. E. Philpott,, H. P. Klein,, C. J. Halde, and, D. A. Stevens. 1982. Spontaneous mutant of Blastomyces dermatitidis attenuated in virulence for mice. Sabouraudia 20: 145158.
14. Brummer, E.,, A. Restrepo,, L. H. Hanson, and, D. A. Stevens. 1990. Virulence of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis: the influence of in vitro passage and storage. Mycopathologia 109: 1317.
15. Buchanan,, K. L., and, J. W. Murphy. 1998. What makes Cryptococcus neoformans a pathogen? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 7183.
16. Bunting,, L. A.,, J. B. Neilson, and, G. S. Bulmer. 1979. Cryptococcus neoformans: gastronomic delight of a soil ameba. Sabouraudia 17: 225232.
17. Burt,, A.,, B. M. Dechairo,, G. L. Koenig,, D. A. Carter,, T. J. White, and, J. W. Taylor. 1997. Molecular markers reveal differentiation among isolates of Coccidioides immitis from California, Arizona and Texas. Mol. Ecol. 6: 781786.
18. Cailliez,, J. C.,, N. Seguy,, C. M. Denis,, E. M. Aliouat,, E. Mazars,, L. Polonelli,, D. Camus, and, E. Dei-Cas. 1996. Pneumocystis carinii: an atypical fungal micro-organism. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 34: 227239.
19. Carter,, D. A.,, A. Burt,, J. W. Taylor,, G. L. Koenig, and, T. J. White. 1996. Clinicalisolates of Histoplasma capsulatum from Indianapolis, Indiana, have a recombining population structure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 25772584.
20. Casadevall, A., and, J. R. Perfect. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C.
21. Casadevall,, A., and, L. Pirofski. 1999. Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 67: 37033713.
22. Casadevall,, A., and, L. Pirofski. 2001. Host-pathogen interactions: the attributes of virulence. J. Infect. Dis. 184: 337344.
23. Casadevall,, A., and, L. Pirofski. 2000. Host-pathogen interactions: the basic concepts of microbial commensalism, colonization, infection, and disease. Infect. Immun. 68: 65116518.
24. Casadevall,, A.,, A. L. Rosas, and, J. D. Nosanchuk. 2000. Melanin and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3: 354358.
25. Chen, F.,, B. P. Currie,, L.-C. Chen,, S. G. Spitzer,, E. D. Spitzer, and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Genetic relatedness of Cryptococcus neofor-mans clinical isolates grouped with the repetitive DNA probe CNRE-1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 28181822.
26. Chen,, L.-C.,, E. Blank, and, A. Casadevall. 1996. Extracellular proteinase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 3: 570574.
27. Chen,, L.-C., and, A. Casadevall. 1999. Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6: 266268.
28. Cleaveland,, S.,, M. K. Laurenson, and, L. H. Taylor. 2001. Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond B Biol. Sci. 356: 991999.
29. Connole,, M. D.,, H. Yamaguchi,, D. Elad,, A. Hasegawa,, E. Segal, and, J. M. Torres-Rodriguez. 2000. Natural pathogens of laboratory animals and their effects on research. Med. Mycol. 38 (Suppl. 1): 5965.
30. Cowen,, L. E.,, A. Nantel,, M. S. Whiteway,, D. Y. Thomas,, D. C. Tessier,, L. M. Kohn, and, J. B. Anderson. 2002. Population genomics of drug resistance in Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 92849289.
31. Cox,, G. M.,, H. C. McDade,, S. C. Chen,, S. C. Tucker,, M. Gottfredsson,, L. C. Wright,, T. C. Sorrell,, S. D. Leidich,, A. Casadevall,, M. A. Ghannoum, and, J. R. Perfect. 2001. Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 166175.
32. Cox,, G. M.,, J. Mukherjee,, G. T. Cole,, A. Casadevall, and, J. R. Perfect. 2000. Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 68: 443448.
33. Currie, B. P., and, A. Casadevall. 1994. Estimation of the prevalence of cryptococcal infection among HIV infected individuals in New York City. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 10291033.
34. DiDomenico, B. 1999. Novel antifungal drugs. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2: 509515.
35. Edwards, L. B.,, F. A. Acquaviva,, V. T. Livesay,, F. W. Cross, and, C. E. Palmer. 1969. An atlas of sensitivity to tuberculin, PPD-B, and histoplasmin in the United States. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 99(Suppl.): 132.
36. Eschenbach,, D. A.,, S. S. Thwin,, D. L. Patton,, T. M. Hooton,, A. E. Stapleton,, K. Agnew,, C. Winter,, A. Meier, and, W. E. Stamm. 2000. Influence of the normal menstrual cycle on vaginal tissue, discharge, and microflora. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 901907.
37. Etana, D. 1999. Isolates of fungi from symptomatic carthorses in Awassa, Ethiopia. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B 46: 443451.
38. Fan,, M.,, B. P. Currie,, R. R. Gutell,, M. A. Ragan, and, A. Casadevall. 1994. The 16S-like, 5.8S, and 23S-like rRNAs of the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans: sequence, secondary structure, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction fragment polymorphisms. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 32: 163180.
39. Feldmesser, M.,, Y. Kress,, P. Novikoff, and, A. Casadevall. 2000. Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in murine pulmonary infection. Infect. Immun. 68: 42254237.
40. Fisher, M. C.,, G. L. Koenig,, T. J. White, and, J. W. Taylor. 2000. Pathogenic clones versus environmentally driven population increase: analysis of an epidemic of the human fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 807813.
41. Forche, A.,, G. Schonian,, Y. Graser,, R. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 1999. Genetic structure of typical and atypical populations of Candida albicans from Africa. Fungal Genet. Biol. 28: 107125.
42. Franz,, R.,, S. L. Kelly,, D. C. Lamb,, D. E. Kelly,, M. Ruhnke, and, J. Morschhauser. 1998. Multiple molecular mechanisms contribute to a stepwise development of fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida albicans strains. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 30653072.
43. Franzot,, S. P.,, B. C. Fries,, W. Cleare, and, A. Casadevall. 1998. Genetic relationship between Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans strains of serotypes A and D. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 22002204.
44. Franzot, S. P.,, J. S. Hamdan,, B. P. Currie, and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans in Brazil and the United States: evidence for both local genetic differences and a global clonal population structure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 22432251.
45. Franzot,, S. P.,, J. Mukherjee,, R. Cherniak,, L. Chen,, J. S. Hamdan, and, A. Casadevall. 1998. Microevolution of a standard strain of Cryptococcus neoformans resulting in differences in virulence and other phenotypes. Infect. Immun. 66: 8997.
46. Friedman,, G. D. 1983. The rarity of cryptococcosis in Northern California: the 10-year experience of a large defined population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 117: 230234.
47. Garcia-Rivera, J., and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Melanization of Cryptococcus neoformans reduces the susceptibility to the antimicrobial effects of silver nitrate. Med. Mycol. 39: 353357.
48. Goldman, D. L.,, H. Khine,, J. Abadi,, D. J. Lindenberg,, L. Pirofski,, R. Niang, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Serologic evidence for Cryptococcus infection in early childhood. Pediatrics 107, E66.
49. Graser,, Y.,, M. Volovsek,, J. Arrington,, G. Schonian,, W. Presber,, T. G. Mitchell, and, R. Vilgalys. 1996. Molecular markers reveal that population structure of the human pathogen Candida albicans exhibits both clonality and recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 1247312477.
50. Guarro,, J.,, J. Gene, and, A. M. Stchigel. 1999. Developments in fungal taxonomy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 454500.
51. Guillot,, J., and, E. Gueho. 1995. The diversity of Malassezia yeasts confirmed by rRNA sequence and nuclear DNA comparisons. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 67: 297314.
52. Gustafson,, T. L.,, L. Kaufman,, R. Weeks,, L. Ajello,, R. H. Hutcheson, Jr.,, S. L. Wiener,, D. W. Lambe, Jr.,, T. A. Sayvetz, and, W. Schaffner. 1981. Outbreak of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis in members of a wagon train. Am. J. Med. 71: 759765.
53. Haddad,, N. E., and, W. G. Powderly. 2001. The changing face of mycoses in patients with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Read. 11: 365368.
54. Hajjeh,, R. A.,, L. A. Conn,, D. S. Stephens,, W. Baughman,, R. Hamill,, E. Graviss,, P. G. Pappas,, C. Thomas,, A. Reingold,, G. Rothrock,, L. C. Hutwagner,, A. Schuchat,, M. E. Brandt, and, R. W. Pinner. 1999. Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveil-lance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 449454.
55. Hajjeh,, R. A., and, D. W. Warnock. 2001. Counterpoint: invasive aspergillosis and the environment—rethinking our approach to prevention. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 15491552.
56. Haynes, K. 2001. Virulence in Candida species. Trends Microbiol. 9: 591596.
57. Hellstein, J.,, H. Vawter-Hugart,, P. Fotos,, J. Schmid, and, D. R. Soll. 1993. Genetic similarity and phenotypic diversity of commensal and pathogenic strains of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 31903199.
58. Hoang, L. M.,, J. A. Maguire,, P. Doyle,, M. Fyfe, and, D. L. Roscoe. 2004. Cryptococcus neoformans infections at Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (1997–2002): epidemiology, microbiology and histopathology. J. Med. Microbiol. 53: 935940.
59. Hogan,, L. H.,, S. M. Levitz, and, B. S. Klein. 1996. Virulence factors of medically important fungi. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 469488.
60. Huffnagle,, G. B.,, G.-H. Chen,, J. L. Curtis,, R. A. McDonald,, R. M. Strieter, and, G. B. Toews. 1995. Down-regulation of the afferent phase of T cell-mediated pulmonary inflammation and immunity by a high melanin-producing strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 155: 35073516.
61. Jacobson,, E. S., and, J. D. Hong. 1997. Redox buffering by melanin and Fe(II) in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 179: 53405346.
62. Jeltsch, A. 2002. Beyond Watson and Crick: DNA methylation and molecular enzymology of DNA methyltransferases. Chembiochem 3: 274293.
63. Klein, B. S. 2000. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in Blastomyces dermatitidis: the importance of adhesion. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3: 339343.
64. Koufopanou, V.,, A. Burt, and, J. W. Taylor. 1997. Concordance of gene genealogies reveals reproductive isolation in the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 54785482.
65. Kouzarides, T. 2002. Histone methylation in transcriptional control. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 12: 198209.
66. Krockenberger, M. B.,, P. J. Canfield, and, R. Malik. 2002. Cryptococcus neoformans in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): colonization by C n. var. gattii and investigation of environmental sources. Med. Mycol. 40: 263272.
67. Krockenberger,, M. B.,, P. J. Canfield, and, R. Malik. 2003. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a review of 43 cases of cryptococcosis. Med. Mycol. 41: 225234.
68. Kwon-Chung,, K. J. 1994. Phylogenetic spectrum of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19 (Suppl. 1): S1S7.
69. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1984. High prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in tropical and subtropical regions. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. A 257: 213218.
70. Kwon-Chung,, K. J.,, B. L. Wickes,, L. Stockman,, G. D. Roberts,, D. Ellis, and, D. H. Howard. 1992. Virulence, serotype, and molecular characteristics of environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Infect. Immun. 60: 18691874.
71. Latge,, J. P. 1999. Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 310350.
72. Legendre, U.,, M. Battegay,, I. Nuttli,, P. Dalquen, and, P. Nuesch. 2002. Simultaneous occurrence of 2 HIV-related immune reconstitution diseases after initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33: 388389.
73. Liu,, L.,, R. P. Tewari, and, P. R. Williamson. 1999. Laccase protects Cryptococcus neoformans from antifungal activity of alveolar macrophages. Infect. Immun. 67: 60346039.
74. Lockhart, S. R.,, B. D. Reed,, C. L. Pierson, and, D. R. Soll. 1996. Most frequent scenario for recurrent Candida vaginitis is strain maintenance with “substrain shuffling”: demonstration by sequential DNA fingerprinting with probes Ca3, C1, and CARE2. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 767777.
75. Marques,, S. A.,, A. M. Robles,, A. M. Tortorano,, M. A. Tuculet,, R. Negroni, and, R. P. Mendes. 2000. Mycoses associated with AIDS in the Third World. Med. Mycol. 38 (Suppl. 1): 269279.
76. McNeil,, M. M.,, S. L. Nash,, R. A. Hajjeh,, M. A. Phelan,, L. A. Conn,, B. D. Plikaytis, and, D. W. Warnock. 2001. Trendsin mortality due to invasive mycotic diseases in the United States, 1980–1997. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 641647.
77. Meyer,, W.,, K. Marszewska,, M. Amirmostofian,, R. P. Igreja,, C. Hardtke,, K. Methling,, M. A. Viviani,, A. Chindamporn,, S. Sukroongreung,, M. A. John,, D. H. Ellis, and, T. C. Sorrell. 1999. Molecular typing of global isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans by polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA—a pilot study to standardize techniques on which to base a detailed epidemiological survey. Electrophoresis 20: 17901799.
78. Morschhauser,, J.,, G. Kohler,, W. Ziebuhr,, G. Blum-Oehler,, U. Dobrindt, and, J. Hacker. 2000. Evolution of microbial pathogens. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond B Biol. Sci. 355: 695704.
79. Mylonakis,, E.,, F. M. Ausubel,, J. R. Perfect,, J. Heitman, and, S. B. Calderwood. 2002. Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 1567515680.
80. Nagy,, P. L.,, J. Griesenbeck,, R. D. Kornberg, and, M. L. Cleary. 2002. A trithorax-group complex purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for methylation of histone H3. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 9094.
81. Nakamura,, Y., and, M. Wada. 1998. Molecular pathobiology and antigenic variation of Pneumocystis carinii. Adv. Parasitol. 41: 63107.
82. Neilson,, J. B.,, R. A. Fromtling, and, G. S. Bulmer. 1981. Pseudohyphal forms of Cryptococcus neoformans: decreased survival in vivo. Mycopathologia 73: 5759.
83. Nelson,, A. L. 1997. The impact of contraceptive methods on the onset of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis within the menstrual cycle. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176: 13761380.
84. Nguyen, M. H.,, J. E. Peacock, Jr.,, A. J. Morris,, D. C. Tanner,, M. L. Nguyen,, D. R. Snydman,, M. M. Wagener,, M. G. Rinaldi, and, V. L. Yu. 1996. The changing face of candidemia: emergence of non-Candida albicans species and anti-fungal resistance. Am. J. Med. 100: 617623.
85. Ono,, M. A.,, A. P. Bracarense,, H. S. Morais,, S. M. Trapp,, D. R. Belitardo, and, Z. P. Camargo. 2001. Canine paracoccidioidomycosis: a seroepidemiologic study. Med. Mycol. 39: 277282.
86. Ophir,, T., and, D. L. Gutnick. 1994. A role for exopolysaccharides in the protection of microorganisms from desiccation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 740745.
87. Rodrigues,, M. L.,, C. S. Alviano, and, L. R. Travassos. 1999. Pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans: virulence factors and immunological mechanisms. Microbes Infect. 1: 293301.
88. Rodriguez-Zaragoza, S. 1994. Ecology of free-living amoebae. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 20: 225241.
89. Rosas, A. L., and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Melanin decreases the susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to enzymatic degradation. Mycopathologia 151: 5356.
90. Rosas,, A. L., and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Melanization affects susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to heat and cold. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 153: 265272.
91. Ruiz,, A.,, J. B. Neilson, and, G. S. Bulmer. 1982. Control of Cryptococcus neoformans in nature by biotic factors. Sabouraudia 20: 2129.
92. Sanglard, D.,, F. Ischer,, L. Koymans, and, J. Bille. 1998. Amino acid substitutions in the cytochrome P-450 lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51A1) from azole-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates contribute to resistance to azole antifungal agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 241253.
93. Santos, M. A.,, C. Cheesman,, V. Costa,, P. Moradas-Ferreira, and, M. F. Tuite. 1999. Selective advantages created by codon ambiguity allowed for the evolution of an alternative genetic code in Candida spp. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 937947.
94. Santos,, M. A., and, M. F. Tuite. 1995. The CUG codon is decoded in vivo as serine and not leucine in Candida albicans. Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 14811486.
95. Schmid,, J.,, M. Rotman,, B. Reed,, C. L. Pierson, and, D. R. Soll. 1993. Genetic similarity of Candida albicans strains from vaginitis patients and their partners. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 3946.
96. Schneider,, E.,, R. A. Hajjeh,, R. A. Spiegel,, R. W. Jibson,, E. L. Harp,, G. A. Marshall,, R. A. Gunn,, M. M. McNeil,, R. W. Pinner,, R. C. Baron,, R. C. Burger,, L. C. Hutwagner,, C. Crump,, L. Kaufman,, S. E. Reef,, G. M. Feldman,, D. Pappagianis, and, S. B. Werner. 1997. A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. JAMA 277: 904908.
97. Soll,, D. R. 2002. Candida commensalism and virulence: the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Acta Trop. 81: 101110.
98. Soll, D. R.,, R. Galask,, J. Schmid,, C. Hanna,, K. Mac, and, B. Morrow. 1991. Genetic dissimilarity of commensal strains of Candida spp. carried in different anatomical locations of the same healthy women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 17021710.
99. Soll,, D. R.,, C. J. Langtimm,, J. McDowell,, J. Hicks, and, R. Galask. 1987. High-frequency switching in Candida strains isolated from vaginitis patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 16111622.
100. Spitzer, E. D.,, B. A. Lasker,, S. J. Travis,, G. S. Kobayashi, and, G. Medoff. 1989. Use of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA polymorphisms to classify clinical and soil isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect. Immun. 57: 14091412.
101. Steenbergen,, J. N.,, J. D. Nosanchuk, S. D. Malliaris, and, A. Casadevall. 2003. Cryptococcus neoformans virulence is enhanced after intra-cellular growth in the genetically malleable host Dictyostelium discoideum. Infect. Immun. 71: 48624872.
102. Steenbergen,, J. N.,, J. D. Nosanchuk, S. D. Malliaris, and, A. Casadevall. 2004. Interaction of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Histoplasma capsulatum with Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infect. Immun. 72: 34783488.
103. Steenbergen, J. N.,, H. A. Shuman, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic strategy in macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 18: 1524515250.
104. Sternberg, S. 1994. The emerging fungal threat. Science 266: 16321634.
105. Taylor, J. W.,, D. M. Geiser,, A. Burt, and, V. Koufopanou. 1999. The evolutionary biology and population genetics underlying fungal strain typing. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 126146.
106. Taylor,, J. W.,, D. J. Jacobson,, S. Kroken,, T. Kasuga,, D. M. Geiser,, D. S. Hibbett, and, M. C. Fisher. 2000. Phylogenetic species recognition and species concepts in fungi. Fungal Genet. Biol. 31: 2132.
107. Taylor,, L. H.,, S. M. Latham, and, M. E. Woolhouse. 2001. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond B Biol. Sci. 356: 983989.
108. Vecchiarelli,, A. 2000. Immunoregulation by capsular components of Cryptococcus neoformans. Med. Mycol. 38: 407417.
109. Vergara, M. L., and, R. Martinez. 1998. Role of the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus in the epidemiology of paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia 144: 131133.
110. Vincent,, R. D.,, R. Goewert,, W. E. Goldman,, G. S. Kobayashi,, A. M. Lambowitz, and, G. Medoff. 1986. Classification of Histoplasma capsulatum isolates by restriction fragment polymorphisms. J. Bacteriol. 165: 813818.
111. Visvesvara,, G. S., and, W. Balamuth. 1975. Comparative studies on related free-living and pathogenic amebae with special reference to Acanthamoeba. J. Protozool. 22: 245256.
112. Walton,, J. D. 2000. Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of secondary metabolite gene clusters in fungi: an hypothesis. Fungal Genet. Biol. 30: 167171.
113. Wey, S. B.,, M. Mori,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. F. Woolson, and, R. P. Wenzel. 1988. Hospital-acquired candidemia. The attributable mortality and excess length of stay. Arch. Intern. Med. 148: 26422645.
114. White,, T. C.,, K. A. Marr, and, R. A. Bowden. 1998. Clinical, cellular, and molecular factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 382402.
115. Wickes,, B. L.,, M. E. Mayorga,, U. Edman, and, J. C. Edman. 1996. Dimorphism and haploid fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans: association with the alpha-mating type. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 73277331.
116. Williams,, B.,, M. Fojtasek,, P. ConnollyStringfield, and, J. Wheat. 1994. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis by antigen detection during an outbreak in Indianapolis, Ind. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118: 1205208.
117. Williamson,, P. R. 1994. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the diphenol oxidase of Cryptococcus neoformans: identification as a laccase. J. Bacteriol. 176: 656664.
118. Williamson, P. R. 1997. Laccase and melanin in the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Front. Biosci. 2: e99e107.
119. Woods, J. P. 2002. Histoplasma capsulatum molecular genetics, pathogenesis, and responsiveness to its environment. Fungal Genet. Biol. 35: 8197.
120. Woolhouse,, M. E.,, L. H. Taylor, and, D. T. Haydon. 2001. Population biology of multihost pathogens. Science 292: 11091112.
121. Xu,, J.,, R. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2000. Multiple gene genealogies reveal recent dispersion and hybridization in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Ecol. 9: 14711481.
122. Yates-Siilata,, K. E.,, D. M. Sander, and, E. J. Keath. 1995. Genetic diversity in clinical isolates of the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis detected by a PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 21712175.


Generic image for table

Fungal pathogens, disease, and virulence

Citation: Steenbergen J, Casadevall A. 2006. The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, p 327-346. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch17
Generic image for table

virulence factors and their possible role in the environment

Citation: Steenbergen J, Casadevall A. 2006. The Evolution of Human Fungal Pathogens, p 327-346. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error