Chapter 47 : Evolution of Pathogenic Candida Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Evolution of Pathogenic Candida Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815639/9781555814144_Chap47-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815639/9781555814144_Chap47-2.gif


The evolutionary relationships between Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis are obviously very close, since the species are morphologically indistinguishable, and C. dubliniensis was discovered mainly as a consequence of molecular phylogenetic approaches. The pathogenic Candida species share a few common properties beyond their status as budding, fermentative yeasts. In this chapter, separate descriptions of each species is followed by a general overview of the evolutionary history of yeasts and of pathogenic Candida species. The chapter ends with a consideration of the evolutionary significance of interspecies differences to the clinically important considerations of pathogenicity and of antifungal susceptibility and resistance. In evolutionary terms C. glabrata is a close relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thus differs from most other pathogenic Candida species, which diverged from the S. cerevisiae lineage before the whole-genome duplication event. The presumed evolutionary changes that led to the emergence of the pathogenic Candida species have mainly to do with adaptation to commensal existence in warm-blooded animals, rather than with causation of invasive infection.

Citation: Odds F. 2008. Evolution of Pathogenic Candida Species, p 567-580. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch47
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Phylogenetic overview of evolutionary relationships between the pathogenic Candida species. The tree depicted shows the approximate relative similarities of the seven Candida species reviewed in this chapter, plus S. cerevisiae as a reference point. It is drawn to illustrate commonalities between several published phylogenetic trees that are variously based on codon usage differences (Sugita and Nakase, 1999), actin gene sequences (Daniel et al., 2001), and rDNA sequences, including ITS sequences (Tavanti et al., 2005; Alcoba-Flórez et al., 2005b; Gilfillan et al., 1998; Diezmann et al., 2004). Common to most or all of these publications is a cluster composed of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. parapsilosis (plus C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis), and C. tropicalis; a separate branch containing S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata; and divergence points for C. krusei and C. lusitaniae that precede the branches to the albicans group and the cerevisiae group. The evolutionary distances suggested in this adaptation are only approximate.

Citation: Odds F. 2008. Evolution of Pathogenic Candida Species, p 567-580. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch47
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Alcoba-Florez, J.,, M. D. Arevalo,, F. J. Gonzalez-Paredes,, J. Cano,, J. Guarro,, E. Perez-Roth, and, S. Mendez-Alvarez. 2005a. PCR protocol for specific identification of Candida nivariensis, a recently described pathogenic yeast. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 61946196.
2. Alcoba-Florez, J.,, S. Mendez-Alvarez,, J. Cano,, J. Guarro,, E. Perez-Roth, and, M. D. Arevalo. 2005b. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Candida nivariensis sp nov., a possible new opportunistic fungus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 41074111.
3. Al Mosaid, A.,, D. J. Sullivan,, I. Polacheck,, F. A. Shaheen,, O. Soliman,, S. Al Hedaithy,, S. Al Thawad,, M. Kabadaya, and, D. C. Coleman. 2005. Novel 5-flucytosine-resistant clade of Candida dubliniensis from Saudi Arabia and Egypt identified by Cd25 fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 40264036.
4. Alves, S. H.,, E. P. Milan,, P. D. Sant’Ana,, L. O. Oliveira,, J. M. Santurio, and, A. L. Colombo. 2002. Hypertonic Sabouraud broth as a simple and powerful test for Candida dubliniensis screening. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 43: 8586.
5. Anaissie, E. J.,, M. R. McGinnis, and, M. A. Pfaller. 2003. Clinical Mycology. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
6. Arabatzis, M.,, K. Kollia,, P. Menounos,, M. Logotheti, and, A. Velegraki. 2004. Delineation of Clavispora lusitaniae clinical isolates by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the ITS1 region: a retrospective study comparing five typing methods. Med. Mycol. 42: 2734.
7. Barousse, M. M.,, B. J. Van Der Pol,, D. Fortenberry,, D. Orr, and, P. L. Fidel. 2004. Vaginal yeast colonisation, prevalence of vaginitis, and associated local immunity in adolescents. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80: 4853.
8. Bauters, T. G. M.,, M. A. Dhont,, M. I. L. Temmerman, and, H. J. Nelis. 2002. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and susceptibility to fluconazole in women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187: 569574.
9. Blignaut, E.,, C. Pujol,, S. Lockhart,, S. Joly, and, D. R. Soll. 2002a. A new clade of Candida albicans among South African oral yeast isolates. J. Dent. Res. 81: 2231.
10. Blignaut, E.,, C. Pujol,, S. Lockhart,, S. Joly, and, D. R. Soll. 2002b. Ca3 fingerprinting of Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive and healthy individuals reveals a new clade in South Africa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 826836.
11. Bonassoli, L. A.,, M. Bertoli, and, T. I. E. Svidzinski. 2005. High frequency of Candida parapsilosis on the hands of healthy hosts. J. Hosp. Infect. 59: 159162.
12. Butler, G.,, C. Kenny,, A. Fagan,, C. Kurischko,, C. Gaillardin, and, K. H. Wolfe. 2004. Evolution of the MAT locus and its Ho endonuclease in yeast species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 16321637.
13. Calderone, R. A. 2002. Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
14. Chibana, H.,, J. L. Beckerman, and, P. T. Magee. 2000. Fine-resolution physical mapping of genomic diversity in Candida albicans. Genome Res. 10: 18651877.
15. Chibana, H.,, N. Oka,, H. Nakayama,, T. Aoyama,, B. B. Magee,, P. T. Magee, and, Y. Mikami. 2005. Sequence finishing and gene mapping for Candida albicans chromosome 7 and syntenic analysis against the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Genetics 170: 15251537.
16. Chu, W.,, B. Magee, and, P. Magee. 1993. Construction of an SfiI macrorestriction map of the Candida albicans genome. J. Bacteriol. 175: 66376651.
17. Correia, A.,, P. Sampaio,, S. James, and, C. Pais. 2006. Candida bracarensis sp nov., a novel anamorphic yeast species phenotypically similar to Candida glabrata. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56: 313317.
18. Coste, A. T.,, M. Karababa,, F. Ischer,, J. Bille, and, D. Sanglard. 2004. TAC1, transcriptional activator of CDR genes, is a new transcription factor involved in the regulation of Candida albicans ABC transporters CDR1 and CDR2. Eukaryot. Cell. 3: 16391652.
19. Cowen, L. E., and, S. Lindquist. 2005. Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi. Science 309: 21852189.
20. Cowen, L. E.,, D. Sanglard,, D. Calabrese,, C. Sirjusingh,, J. B. Anderson, and, L. M. Kohn. 2000. Evolution of drug resistance in experimental populations of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 182: 15151522.
21. Daniel, H. M.,, T. C. Sorrell, and, W. Meyer. 2001. Partial sequence analysis of the actin gene and its potential for studying the phylogeny of Candida species and their teleomorphs. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51: 15931606.
22. Dassanayake, R. S.,, Y. H. Samaranayake, and, L. P. Samaranayake. 2000. Genomic diversity of oral Candida krusei isolates as revealed by DNA fingerprinting and electrophoretic karyotyping. APMIS 108: 697704.
23. De Hoog, G. S.,, J. Guarro,, J. Gené, and, M. J. Figueras. 2000. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
24. DeBernardis, F.,, F. Mondello,, R. San Millan,, J. Ponton, and, A. Cassone. 1999. Biotyping and virulence properties of skin isolates of Candida parapsilosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 34813486.
25. Diezmann, S.,, C. J. Cox,, G. Schonian,, R. J. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2004. Phylogeny and evolution of medical species of Candida and related taxa: a multigenic analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 56245635.
26. Dismukes, W. E.,, P. G. Pappas, and, J. D. Sobel. 2003. Clinical Mycology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
27. Dodgson, A. R.,, K. J. Dodgson,, C. Pujol,, M. A. Pfaller, and, D. R. Soll. 2004. Clade-specific flucytosine resistance is due to a single nucleotide change in the FUR1 gene of Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 22232227.
28. Dodgson, A. R.,, C. Pujol,, D. W. Denning,, D. R. Soll, and, A. J. Fox. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing of Candida glabrata reveals geographically enriched clades. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 57095717.
29. Dodgson, A. R.,, C. Pujol,, M. A. Pfaller,, D. W. Denning, and, D. R. Soll. 2005. Evidence for recombination in Candida glabrata. Fungal Genet. Biol. 42: 233243.
30. Doi, M.,, M. Homma,, A. Chindamporn, and, K. Tanaka. 1992. Estimation of chromosome number and size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in medically important Candida species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138: 22432251.
31. Donnelly, S. M.,, D. J. Sullivan,, D. B. Shanley, and, D. C. Coleman. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis and rapid identification of Candida dubliniensis based on analysis of ACT1 intron and exon sequences. Microbiology 145: 18711882.
32. Dujon, B.,, D. Sherman,, G. Fischer,, P. Durrens,, S. Casaregola,, I. Lafontaine,, J. De Montigny,, C. Marck,, C. Neuveglise,, E. Talla,, N. Goffard,, L. Frangeul,, M. Aigle,, V. Anthouard,, A. Babour,, V. Barbe,, S. Barnay,, S. Blanchin,, J. M. Beckerich,, E. Beyne,, C. Bleykasten,, A. Boisrame,, J. Boyer,, L. Cattolico,, F. Confanioleri,, A. De Daruvar,, L. Despons,, E. Fabre,, C. Fairhead,, H. Ferry-Dumazet,, A. Groppi,, F. Hantraye,, C. Hennequin,, N. Jauniaux,, P. Joyet,, R. Kachouri,, A. Kerrest,, R. Koszul,, M. Lemaire,, I. Lesur,, L. Ma,, H. Muller,, J. M. Nicaud,, M. Nikolski,, S. Oztas,, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos,, S. Pellenz,, S. Potier,, G. F. Richard,, M. L. Straub,, A. Suleau,, D. Swennen,, F. Tekaia,, M. Wesolowski-Louvel,, E. Westhof,, B. Wirth,, M. Zeniou-Meyer,, I. Zivanovic,, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara,, A. Thierry,, C. Bouchier,, B. Caudron,, C. Scarpelli,, C. Gaillardin,, J. Weissenbach,, P. Wincker, and, J. L. Souciet. 2004. Genome evolution in yeasts. Nature 430: 3544.
33. Elie, C. M.,, T. J. Lott,, E. Reiss, and, C. J. Morrison. 1998. Rapid identification of Candida species with species-specific DNA probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 32603265.
34. Fabre, E.,, H. Muller,, P. Therizols,, I. Lafontaine,, B. Dujon, and, C. Fairhead. 2005. Comparative genomics in hemiascomycete yeasts: evolution of sex, silencing, and subtelomeres. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 856873.
35. Faggi, E.,, G. Pini,, E. Campisi,, C. Martinelli, and, E. Difonzo. 2005. Detection of Candida dubliniensis in oropharyngeal samples from human immunodeficiency virus infected and non-infected patients and in a yeast culture collection. Mycoses 48: 211215.
36. Forche, A.,, G. May, and, P. T. Magee. 2005. Demonstration of loss of heterozygosity by single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis and alterations in strain morphology in Candida albicans strains during infection. Eukaryot. Cell. 4: 156165.
37. Francois, F.,, T. Noel,, R. Pepin,, A. Brulfert,, C. Chastin,, A. Favel, and, J. Villard. 2001. Alternative identification test relying upon sexual reproductive abilities of Candida lusitaniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 39063914.
38. Fundyga, R. E.,, R. J. Kuykendall,, W. Lee-Yang, and, T. J. Lott. 2004. Evidence for aneuploidy and recombination in the human commensal yeast Candida parapsilosis. Infect. Genet. Evol. 4: 3743.
39. Fundyga, R. E.,, T. J. Lott, and, J. Arnold. 2002. Population structure of Candida albicans, a member of the human flora, as determined by microsatellite loci. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2: 5768.
40. Gargeya, I. B.,, W. R. Pruitt,, R. B. Simmons,, S. A. Meyer, and, D. G. Ahearn. 1990. Occurrence of Clavispora lusitaniae, the teleomorph of Candida lusitaniae, among clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 22242227.
41. Gee, S. F.,, S. Joly,, D. R. Soll,, J. F. G. M. Meis,, P. E. Verweij,, I. Polacheck,, D. J. Sullivan, and, D. C. Coleman. 2002. Identification of four distinct genotypes of Candida dubliniensis and detection of microevolution in vitro and in vivo. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 556574.
42. Gilfillan, G. D.,, D. J. Sullivan,, K. Haynes,, T. Parkinson,, D. C. Coleman, and, N. A. R. Gow. 1998. Candida dubliniensis—phylogeny and putative virulence factors. Microbiology 144: 829838.
43. Girmenia, C.,, P. Martino,, F. De Bernardis,, G. Gentile,, M. Boccanera,, M. Monaco,, G. Antonucci, and, A. Cassone. 1996. Rising incidence of Candida parapsilosis fungemia in patients with hematologic malignancies—clinical aspects, predisposing factors, and differential pathogenicity of the causative strains. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 506514.
44. Goswami, R.,, V. Dadhwal,, S. Tejaswi,, K. Datta,, A. Paul,, R. N. Haricharan,, U. Banerjee, and, N. P. Kochupillai. 2000. Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status. J. Infect. 41: 162166.
45. Gow, N. A. R.,, A. J. P. Brown, and, F. C. Odds. 2002. Fungal morphogenesis and host invasion. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5: 366371.
46. Graser, Y.,, M. Volovsek,, J. Arrington,, G. Schonian,, W. Presber,, T. G. Mitchell,, R. Vilgalys. 1996. Molecular markers reveal that population structure of the human pathogen Candida albicans exhibits both clonality and recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 1247312477.
47. Hajjeh, R. A.,, A. N. Sofair,, L. H. Harrison,, G. M. Lyon,, B. A. Arthington-Skaggs,, S. A. Mirza,, M. Phelan,, J. Morgan,, W. Lee-Yang,, M. A. Ciblak,, L. E. Benjamin,, L. T. Sanza,, S. Huie,, S. F. Yeo,, M. E. Brandt, and, D. W. Warnock. 2004. Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 15191527.
48. Hall, C.,, S. Brachat,, F. S. Dietrich. 2005. Contribution of horizontal gene transfer to the evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot. Cell. 4: 11021115.
49. Hedderwick, S. A.,, M. J. Lyons,, M. Liu,, J. A. Vazquez, and, C. A. Kauffman. 2000. Epidemiology of yeast colonization in the intensive care unit. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 663670.
50. Hedges, S. B.,, J. E. Blair,, M. L. Venturi, and, J. L. Shoe. 2004. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life. BMC Evol. Biol. 4: 2.
51. Hilton, C.,, D. Markie,, B. E. Corner,, E. H. A. Rikkerink, and, R. Poulter. 1985. Heat shock induces chromosome loss in the yeast Candida albicans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 200: 162168.
52. Holzschu, D. L.,, H. L. Presley,, M. Miranda, and, H. J. Phaff. 1979. Identification of Candida lusitaniae as an opportunistic yeast in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 202205.
53. Hoyer, L. L.,, R. Fundyga,, J. E. Hecht,, J. C. Kapteyn,, F. M. Klis, and, J. Arnold. 2001. Characterization of agglutinin-like sequence genes from non- albicans Candida and phylogenetic analysis of the ALS family. Genetics 157: 15551567.
54. Hsueh, P. R.,, Y. J. Lau,, Y. C. Chuang,, J. H. Wan,, W. K. Huang,, J. M. Shyr,, J. J. Yan,, K. W. Yu,, J. J. Wu,, W. C. Ko,, Y. C. Yang,, Y. C. Liu,, L. J. Teng,, C. Y. Liu, and, K. T. Luh. 2005. Antifungal susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus species from Taiwan: surveillance of multicenter antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan program data from 2003. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 512517.
55. Hull, C. M., and, A. D. Johnson. 1999. Identification of a mating type-like locus in the asexual pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Science 285: 12711275.
56. Hull, C. M.,, R. M. Raisner, and, A. D. Johnson. 2000. Evidence for mating of the ‘’asexual’’ yeast Candida albicans in a mammalian host. Science 289: 307310.
57. Ihmels, J.,, S. Bergmann,, J. Berman, and, N. Barkai. 2005a. Comparative gene expression analysis by a differential clustering approach: application to the Candida albicans transcription program. PLOS Genet. 1: 380393.
58. Ihmels, J.,, S. Bergmann,, M. Gerami-Nejad,, I. Yanai,, M. McClellan,, J. Berman, and, N. Barkai. 2005b. Rewiring of the yeast transcriptional network through the evolution of motif usage. Science 309: 938940.
59. Jacobsen, M. D.,, N. A. R. Gow,, M. C. J. Maiden,, D. J. Shar, and, F. C. Odds. 2007. Strain typing and determination of population structure of Candida krusei by multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 317323.
60. Joly, S.,, C. Pujol,, M. Rysz,, K. Vargas, and, D. R. Soll. 1999. Development and characterization of complex DNA fingerprinting probes for the infectious yeast Candida dubliniensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 10351044.
61. Jones, T.,, N. A. Federspiel,, H. Chibana,, J. Dungan,, S. Kalman,, B. B. Magee,, G. Newport,, Y. R. Thorstenson,, N. Agabian,, P. T. Magee,, R. W. Davis, and, S. Scherer. 2004. The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 73297334.
62. Kabir, M. A.,, A. Ahmad,, J. R. Greenberg,, Y. K. Wang, and, E. Rustchenko. 2005. Loss and gain of chromosome 5 controls growth of Candida albicans on sorbose due to dispersed redundant negative regulators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 1214712152.
63. Kachouri, R.,, S. Stribinskis,, Y. G. Zhu,, K. S. Ramos,, E. Westhof, and, Y. Li. 2005. A surprisingly large RNase P RNA in Candida glabrata. RNA 11: 10641072.
64. Kamran, M.,, A. M. Calcagno,, H. Findon,, E. Bignell,, M. D. Jones,, P. Warn,, P. Hopkins,, D. W. Denning,, G. Butler,, T. Rogers,, F. A. Muhlschlegel, and, K. Haynes. 2004. Inactivation of transcription factor gene ACE2 in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata results in hypervirulence. Eukaryot. Cell 3: 546552.
65. Kao, A.,, M. E. Brandt,, W. R. Pruitt,, L. A. Conn,, B. A. Perkins,, D. S. Stephens,, W. S. Baughman,, A. L. Reingold,, G. A. Rothrock,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. W. Pinner, and, R. A. Hajjeh. 1999. The epidemiology of candidemia in two United States cities: results of a population-based active surveillance. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 11641170.
66. Karahan, Z. C.,, H. Güriz,, H. Agirbasli,, N. Balaban,, J. S. Göçmen,, D. Aysev, and, N. Akar. 2004. Genotype distribution of Candida albicans isolates by 25S intron analysis with regard to invasiveness. Mycoses 47: 465469.
67. Kato, M.,, M. Ozeki,, A. Kikuchi, and, T. Kanbe. 2001. Phylogenetic relationship and mode of evolution of yeast DNA topoisomerase II gene in the pathogenic Candida species. Gene 272: 275281.
68. Kibbler, C. C. 1996. Fungaemia and disseminated fungal infection, p. 143164. In C. C. Kibbler, D., W. R. Mackenzie,, F. C. Odds (ed.), Principles and Practice of Clinical Mycology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.
69. King, D.,, J. Rhine-Chalberg,, M. A. Pfaller,, S. A. Moser, and, W. G. Merz. 1995. Comparison of four DNA-based methods for strain delineation of Candida lusitaniae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 14671470.
70. King, R. D.,, J. C. Lee, and, A. L. Morris. 1980. Adherence of Candida albicans and other Candida species to mucosal epithelium. Infect. Immun. 27: 667674.
71. Kojic, E. M., and, R. O. Darouiche. 2003. Comparison of adherence of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis to silicone catheters in vitro and in vivo. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9: 684690.
72. Kuhn, D. M.,, J. Chandra,, P. K. Mukherjee, and, M. A. Ghannoum. 2002. Comparison of biofilms formed by Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis on bioprosthetic surfaces. Infect. Immun. 70: 878888.
73. Kurtzman, C. P., and, J. W. Fell. 1998. The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 4th ed. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
74. Kurzai, O.,, W. J. Heinz,, D. J. Sullivan,, D. C. Coleman,, M. Frosch, and, F. A. Muhlschegel. 1999. Rapid PCR test for discriminating between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates using primers derived from the pH-regulated PHR1 and PHR2 genes of C. albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 15871590.
75. Lachke, S. A.,, S. R. Lockhart,, K. J. Daniels, and, D. R. Soll. 2003. Skin facilitates Candida albicans mating. Infect. Immun. 71: 49704976.
76. Legrand, M.,, P. Lephart,, A. Forche,, F. M. C. Mueller,, T. Walsh,, P. T. Magee, and, B. B. Magee. 2004. Homozygosity at the MTL locus in clinical strains of Candida albicans: karyotypic rearrangements and tetraploid formation. Mol. Microbiol. 52: 14511462.
77. Levin, A. S.,, S. F. Costa,, N. S. Mussi,, M. Basso,, S. I. Sinto,, C. Machado,, D. C. Geiger,, M. C. B. Villares,, A. Z. Schreiber,, A. A. Barone, and, M. L. M. Branchini. 1998. Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with implantable and semi-implantable central venous catheters and the hands of health-care workers. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 30: 243249.
78. Levy, I.,, L. G. Rubin,, S. Vasishtha,, V. Tucci, and, S. K. Sood. 1998. Emergence of Candida parapsilosis as the predominant species causing candidemia in children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 10861088.
79. Lin, D. M.,, L. C. Wu,, M. G. Rinaldi, and, P. F. Lehmann. 1995. Three distinct genotypes within Candida parapsilosis from clinical sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 18151821.
80. Lischewski, A.,, D. Harmsen,, K. Wilms,, G. Baier,, U. Gunzer, and, H. Klinker,, M. Wilhelm,, A. Schwinn, and, J. Hacker. 1999. Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS and cancer patients using a novel standardized CARE-2 DNA fingerprinting technique. Mycoses 42: 371383.
81. Lockhart, S. R.,, K. J. Daniels,, R. Zhao,, D. Wessels, and, D. R. Soll. 2003. Cell biology of mating in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 2: 4961.
82. Lockhart, S. R.,, J. J. Fritch,, A. S. Meier,, K. Schroppel,, T. Srikantha,, R. Galask, and, D. R. Soll. 1995. Colonizing populations of Candida albicans are clonal in origin but undergo microevolution through C1 fragment reorganization as demonstrated by DNA fingerprinting and C1 sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 15011509.
83. Lockhart, S. R.,, B. D. Reed,, C. L. Pierson, and, D. R. Soll. 1996. Most frequent scenario for recurrent Candida vaginitis is strain maintenance with substrain shuffling—demonstration by sequential DNA fingerprinting with probes Ca3, C1, and CARE2. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 767777.
84. Logue, M. E.,, S. Wong,, K. H. Wolfe, and, G. Butler. 2005. A genome sequence survey shows that the pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis has a defective MTLa1 allele at its mating type locus. Eukaryot. Cell 4: 10091017.
85. Lorenz, M. C.,, J. A. Bender, and, G. R. Fink. 2004. Transcriptional response of Candida albicans upon internalization by macrophages. Eukaryot. Cell 3: 10761087.
86. Lott, T. J., and, M. M. Effat. 2001. Evidence for a more recently evolved clade within a Candida albicans North American population. Microbiology 147: 16871692.
87. Lott, T. J.,, R. E. Fundyga,, R. J. Kuykendall, and, J. Arnold. 2005. The human commensal yeast, Candida albicans, has an ancient origin. Fungal Genet. Biol. 42: 444451.
88. Magee, B. B., and, P. T. Magee. 2000. Induction of mating in Candida albicans by construction of MTLa and MTL α strains. Science 289: 310313.
89. Marichal, P.,, H. Vanden Bossche,, F. C. Odds,, G. Nobels,, D. W. Warnock,, V. Timmerman,, S. Fey, and, P. Mose-Larsen. 1997. Molecular-biological characterization of an azole-resistant Candida glabrata isolate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 22292237.
90. McCullough, M.,, K. V. Clemons, and, D. A. Stevens. 1999a. Molecular epidemiology of the global and temporal diversity of Candida albicans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 12201225.
91. McCullough, M. J.,, K. V. Clemons, and, D. A. Stevens. 1999b. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of genotypic Candida albicans subgroups and comparison with Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 417421.
92. McCullough, M. J.,, B. C. Ross,, B. D. Dwyer, and, P. C. Reade. 1994. Genotype and phenotype of oral Candida albicans from patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Microbiology 140: 11951202.
93. McNeil, M. M.,, S. L. Nash,, R. A. Hajjeh,, M. A. Phelan,, L. A. Conn,, B. D. Plikaytis, and, D. W. Warnock. 2001. Trends in mortality due to invasive mycotic diseases in the United States, 1980–1997. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 641647.
94. Merz, W. G.,, U. Khazan,, M. A. Jabra-Rizk,, L. C. Wu,, G. J. Osterhout, and, P. F. Lehmann. 1992. Strain delineation and epidemiology of Candida ( Clavispora) lusitaniae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 449454.
95. Merz, W. G., and, G. R. Sandford. 1979. Isolation and characterization of a polyene-resistant variant of Candida tropicalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 677680.
96. Montour, L.,, R. Tey, and, J. P. Xu. 2003. Isolation of Candida dubliniensis in an Aboriginal community in Ontario, Canada. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 34233426.
97. Moran, G.,, C. Stokes,, S. Thewes,, B. Hube,, D. C. Coleman, and, D. Sullivan. 2004. Comparative genomics using Candida albicans DNA microarrays reveals absence and divergence of virulence-associated genes in Candida dubliniensis. Microbiology 150: 33633382.
98. Moran, G. P.,, D. J. Sullivan,, M. C. Henman,, C. E. Mccreary,, B. J. Harrington,, D. B. Shanley, and, D. C. Coleman. 1997. Antifungal drug susceptibilities of oral Candida dubliniensis isolates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects and generation of stable fluconazole-resistant derivatives in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 617623.
99. Nolting, S.,, M. Brautigam, and, G. Weidinger. 1994. Terbinafine in onychomycosis with involvement by nondermatophytic fungi. Br. J. Dermatol. 130: 1621.
100. Odds, F. C.,, M.-E. Bougnoux,, D. J. Shaw,, J. M. Bain,, A. D. Davidson,, D. Diego,, M. D. Jacobsen,, M. Lecomte,, S.-Y. Li,, A. Tavanti,, M. C. J. Maiden,, N. A. R. Gow, and, C. d’Enfert. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 6: 10411052.
101. Odds, F. C.,, L. Van Nuffel, and, N. A. R. Gow. 2000. Survival in experimental Candida albicans infections depends on inoculum growth conditions as well as animal host. Microbiology 146: 18811889.
102. Odds, F. C. 1988. Candida and Candidosis, 2nd ed. London, Bailliere Tindall, United Kingdom.
103. Pappagianis, D.,, M. S. Collins,, R. Hector, and, J. Remington. 1979. Development of resistance to amphotericin B in Candida lusitaniae infecting a human. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16: 123126.
104. Park, S.,, R. Kelly,, J. N. Kahn,, J. Robles,, M. J. Hsu,, E. Register,, W. Li,, V. Vyas,, H. Fan,, G. Abruzzo,, A. Flattery,, C. Gill,, G. Chrebet,, S. A. Parent,, A. Kurtz,, H. Teppler,, C. A. Douglas, and, D. S. Perlin. 2005. Specific substitutions in the echinocandin target Fks1p account for reduced susceptibility of rare laboratory and clinical Candida sp isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 32643273.
105. Park, S.,, M. Wong,, S. A. E. Marras,, E. W. Cross,, T. E. Kiehn,, V. Chaturvedi,, S. Tyagi, and, D. S. Perlin. 2000. Rapid identification of Candida dubliniensis using a species-specific molecular beacon. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 28292836.
106. Pfaller, M. A.,, L. Boyken,, S. A. Messer,, S. Tendolkar,, R. J. Hollis, and, D. J. Diekema. 2004. Evaluation of the Etest method using Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue for determining amphotericin B MICs for 4,936 clinical isolates of Candida species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 49774979.
107. Pfaller, M. A., and, D. J. Diekema. 2004. Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice: global trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10 (Suppl. 1): 1123.
108. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, H. S. Sader,, S. A. Messer,, A. Houston,, S. Coffman, and, R. J. Hollis. 2000. Bloodstream infections due to Candida species: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America and Latin America, 1997–1998. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 747751.
109. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, L. Boyken,, H. Huynh,, R. J. Hollis, and, D. J. Diekema. 2002. In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 35183521.
110. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, R. J. Hollis,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, M. E. Brandt, and, R. A. Hajjeh. 1999. Trends in species distribution and susceptibility to fluconazole among blood stream isolates of Candida species in the United States. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 33: 217222.
111. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, A. Houston,, M. S. Rangel-Frausto,, T. Wiblin,, H. M. Blumberg,, J. E. Edwards,, W. Jarvis,, M. A. Martin,, H. C. Neu,, L. Saiman,, J. E. Patterson,, J. C. Dibb,, C. M. Roldan,, M. G. Rinaldi, and, R. P. Wenzel. 1998. National Epidemiology of Mycoses Survey—a multicenter study of strain variation and antifungal susceptibility among isolates of Candida species. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 31: 289296.
112. Pinjon, E.,, C. J. Jackson,, S. L. Kelly,, D. Sanglard,, G. Moran,, D. C. Coleman, and, D. J. Sullivan. 2005. Reduced azole susceptibility in genotype 3 Candida dubliniensis isolates associated with increased CdCDR1 and CdCDR2 expression. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 13121318.
113. Pinjon, E.,, D. Sullivan,, I. Salkin,, D. Shanley, and, D. Coleman. 1998. Simple, inexpensive, reliable method for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 20932095.
114. Pontieri, E.,, L. Gregori,, M. Gennarelli,, T. Ceddia,, G. Novelli,, B. Dallapiccola,, F. De Bernardis, and, G. Carruba. 1996. Correlation of SfiI macrorestriction endonuclease fingerprint analysis of Candida parapsilosis isolates with source of isolation. J. Med. Microbiol. 45: 173178.
115. Pujol, C.,, K. J. Daniels,, S. R. Lockhart,, T. Srikantha,, J. B. Radke,, J. Geiger, and, D. R. Soll. 2004a. The closely related species Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis can mate. Eukaryot. Cell 3: 10151027.
116. Pujol, C.,, S. Joly,, B. Nolan,, T. Srikantha, and, D. R. Soll. 1999. Microevolutionary changes in Candida albicans identified by the complex Ca3 fingerprinting probe involve insertions and deletions of the full-length repetitive sequence RPS at specific genomic sites. Microbiology 145: 26352646.
117. Pujol, C.,, M. Pfaller, and, D. R. Soll. 2002. Ca3 fingerprinting of Candida albicans bloodstream isolates from the United States, Canada, South America, and Europe reveals a European clade. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 27292740.
118. Pujol, C.,, M. A. Pfaller, and, D. R. Soll. 2004b. Flucytosine resistance is restricted to a single genetic clade of Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 262266.
119. Pujol, C.,, J. Reynes,, F. Renaud,, M. Raymond,, M. Tibayrenc,, F. J. Ayala,, F. Janbon,, M. Mallie, and, J. M. Bastide. 1993. The yeast Candida albicans has a clonal mode of reproduction in a population of infected human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 94569459.
120. Rangel-Frausto, M. S.,, T. Wiblin,, H. M. Blumberg,, L. Saiman,, J. Patterson,, M. Rinaldi,, M. Pfaller,, J. E. Edwards,, W. Jarvis,, J. Dawson, and, R. P. Wenzel. 1999. National Epidemiology of Mycoses Survey (NEMIS): variations in rates of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in seven surgical intensive care units and six neonatal intensive care units. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 253258.
121. Rho, J.,, J. H. Shin,, J. W. Song,, M. R. Park,, S. J. Kee,, S. J. Jang,, Y. K. Park,, S. P. Suh, and, D. W. Ryang. 2004. Molecular investigation of two consecutive nosocomial clusters of Candida tropicalis candiduria using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Microbiol. 42: 8086.
122. Ribeiro, M. A.,, A. E. Miranda,, W. Gambale, and, C. R. Paula. 2004. Prevalence and exoenzyme secretion by Candida albicans isolates from oral and vaginal mucosas of HIV-infected women. Mycopathologia 157: 255261.
123. Richter, S. S.,, R. P. Galask,, S. A. Messer,, R. J. Hollis,, D. J. Diekema, and, M. A. Pfaller. 2005. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis and epidemiology of recurrent cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 21552162.
124. Roy, B., and, S. A. Meyer. 1998. Confirmation of the distinct genotype groups within the form species Candida parapsilosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 216218.
125. Rustad, T. R.,, D. A. Stevens,, M. A. Pfaller, and, T. C. White. 2002. Homozygosity at the Candida albicans MTL locus associated with azole resistance. Microbiology 148: 10611072.
126. Rustchenko, E. P.,, D. H. Howard, and, F. Sherman. 1994. Chromosomal alterations of Candida albicans are associated with the gain and loss of assimilating functions. J. Bacteriol. 176: 32313241.
127. Samaranayake, Y. H.,, L. P. Samaranayake,, R. S. Dassanayake,, J. Y. Y. Yau,, W. K. Tsang,, P. B. K. Cheung, and, K. W. S. Yeung. 2003. ‘Genotypic shuffling’ of sequential clones of Candida albicans in HIV-infected individuals with and without symptomatic oral candidiasis. J. Méd. Microbiol. 52: 349359.
128. Sampaio, P.,, L. Gusmao,, A. Correia,, C. Alves,, A. G. Rodrigues,, C. Pina-Vaz,, A. Amorim, and, C. Pais. 2005. New microsatellite multiplex PCR for Candida albicans strain typing reveals microevolutionary changes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 38693876.
129. Sanchez-Vargas, L. O.,, N. G. Ortiz-Lopez,, M. Villar,, M. D. Moragues,, J. M. Aguirre,, M. Cashat-Cruz,, J. L. Lopez-Ribot,, L. A. Gaitan-Cepeda, and, G. Quindos. 2005. Oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting human immunodeficiency virus-infected and healthy persons in Mexico. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 41594162.
130. Sandven, P. 2000. Epidemiology of candidemia. Revista Iberoamericano de Micología 17: 7381.
131. Sanglard, D.,, K. Kuchler,, F. Ischer,, J. L. Pagani,, M. Monod, and, J. Bille. 1995. Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 23782386.
132. Sanglard, D., and, F. C. Odds. 2002. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2: 7385.
133. Sanyal, K.,, M. Baum, and, J. Carbon. 2004. Centromeric DNA sequences in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans are all different and unique. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 1137411379.
134. Scannell, D. R.,, K. P. Byrne,, J. L. Gordon,, S. Wong, and, K. H. Wolfe. 2006. Multiple rounds of speciation associated with reciprocal gene loss in polyploid yeasts. Nature 440: 341345.
135. Schoofs, A.,, F. C. Odds,, R. Colebunders,, M. Ieven,, L. Wouters, and, H. Goossens. 1997. Isolation of Candida species on media with and without added fluconazole reveals high variability in relative growth susceptibility phenotypes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 16251635.
136. Schroppel, K.,, M. Rotman,, R. Galask,, K. Mac, and, D. R. Soll. 1994. Evolution and replacement of Candida albicans strains during recurrent vaginitis demonstrated by DNA fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 26462654.
137. Selmecki, A.,, S. Bergmann, and, J. Berman. 2005. Comparative genome hybridization reveals widespread aneuploidy in Candida albicans laboratory strains. Mol. Microbiol. 55: 15531565.
138. Selvarangan, R.,, A. P. Limaye, and, B. T. Cookson. 2002. Rapid identification and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis by capillary-based amplification and fluorescent probe hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 43084312.
139. Seoighe, C.,, N. Federspiel,, T. Jones,, N. Hansen,, V. Bivolarovic,, R. Surzycki,, R. Tamse,, C. Komp,, L. Hulzar,, R. W. Davis,, S. Scherer,, E. Tait,, D. J. Shaw,, D. Harris,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, K. Taylor,, M. A. Rajandream,, B. G. Barrell, and, K. H. Wolfe. 2000. Prevalence of small inversions in yeast gene order evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 976: 1443314437.
140. Shin, J. H.,, M. R. Park,, J. W. Song,, D. H. Shin,, S. I. Jung,, D. Cho,, S. J. Kee,, M. G. Shin,, S. P. Suh, and, D. W. Ryang. 2004. Microevolution of Candida albicans strains during catheter-related candidemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 40254031.
141. Soll, D. R., and, C. Pujol. 2003. Candida albicans clades. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 39: 17.
142. Song, J. W.,, J. H. Shin,, D. H. Shin,, S. I. Jung,, D. Cho,, S. J. Kee,, M. G. Shin,, S. P. Suh, and, D. W. Ryang. 2005. Differences in biofilm production by three genotypes of Candida parapsilosis from clinical sources. Med. Mycol. 43: 657661.
143. Stead, D.,, H. Findon,, Z. K. Yin,, J. Walker,, L. Selway,, P. Cash,, D. A. Dujon,, C. Hennequin,, A. J. P. Brown, and, K. Haynes. 2005. Proteomic changes associated with inactivation of the Candida glabrata ACE2 virulence-moderating gene. Proteomics 5: 18381848.
144. Stoyan, T., and, J. Carbon. 2004. Inner kinetochore of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. Eukaryot. Cell 3: 11541163.
145. Sudbery, P.,, N. Gow, and, J. Berman. 2004. The distinct morphogenic states of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiol. 12: 317324.
146. Sugita, T., and, T. Nakase. 1999. Non-universal usage of the leucine CUG codon and the molecular phylogeny of the genus Candida. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 7986.
147. Sullivan, D. J.,, G. P. Moran, and, D. C. Coleman. 2005. Candida dubliniensis: ten years on. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 253: 917.
148. Sullivan, D. J.,, T. J. Westerneng,, K. A. Haynes,, D. E. Bennett, and, D. C. Coleman. 1995. Candida dubliniensis sp nov: phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel species associated with oral candidosis in HIV-infected individuals. Microbiology 141: 15071521.
149. Tavanti, A.,, A. D. Davidson,, M. J. Fordyce,, N. A. R. Gow,, M. C. J. Maiden, and, F. C. Odds. 2005a. Population structure and properties of Candida albicans, as determined by multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 56015613.
150. Tavanti, A.,, A. D. Davidson,, N. A. R. Gow,, M. C. J. Maiden, and, F. C. Odds. 2005b. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 284292.
151. Tavanti, A.,, A. D. Davidson,, E. M. Johnson,, M. C. J. Maiden,, D. J. Shaw,, N. A. R. Gow, and, F. C. Odds. 2005c. Multilocus sequence typing for differentiation of strains of Candida tropicalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 55935600.
152. Tavanti, A.,, N. A. R. Gow,, M. C. J. Maiden,, F. C. Odds, and, D. J. Shaw. 2004. Genetic evidence for recombination in Candida albicans based on haplotype analysis. Fungal Genet. Biol. 41: 553562.
153. Trick, W. E.,, S. K. Fridkin,, J. R. Edwards,, R. A. Hajjeh, and, R. P. Gaynes. 2002. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 627630.
154. Tsang, P. W. K.,, B. Cao,, P. Y. L. Siu, and, J. Wang. 1999. Loss of heterozygosity, by mitotic gene conversion and crossing over, causes strain-specific adenine mutants in constitutive diploid Candida albicans. Microbiology 145: 16231629.
155. Vargas, K. G.,, R. Srikantha,, A. Holke,, T. Sifri,, R. Morris, and, S. Joly. 2004. Candida albicans switch phenotpes display differential levels of fitness. Med. Sci. Monitor 10: BR198BR206.
156. Vilela, M. M.,, K. Kamei,, A. Sano,, R. Tanaka,, J. Uno,, I. Takahashi,, J. Ito,, K. Yarita, and, M. Miyaji. 2002. Pathogenicity and virulence of Candida dubliniensis: comparison with C. albicans. Med. Mycol. 40: 249257.
157. Warnock, D. W.,, J. Burke,, J. Cope,, E. Johnson, Fraunhofer, and, E. W. Williams. 1988. Fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata. Lancet 2: 1310.
158. Willemsen, M. 1993. Changing pattern in superficial infections: focus on onychomycosis. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2 (Suppl. 1): S6S11.
159. Wolfe, K. H., and, D. C. Shields. 1997. Molecular evidence for an ancient duplication of the entire yeast genome. Nature 387: 708713.
160. Wu, W.,, C. Pujol,, S. R. Lockhart, and, D. R. Soll. 2002. Chromosome loss followed by duplication is the major mechanism of spontaneous mating-type locus homozygosis in Candida albicans. Genetics 169: 13111327.
161. Yang, J.,, Z. L. Gu, and, W. H. Li. 2003. Rate of protein evolution versus fitness effect of gene deletion. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20: 772774.
162. Yoon, S. A.,, J. A. Vazquez,, P. E. Steffan,, J. D. Sobel, and, R. A. Akins. 1999. High-frequency, in vitro reversible switching of Candida lusitaniae clinical isolates from amphotericin B susceptibility to resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 836845.
163. Zaugg, C.,, M. Borg von Zepelin,, U. Reichard,, D. Sanglard, and, M. Monod. 2001. Secreted aspartic proteinase family of Candida tropicalis. Infect. Immun. 69: 405412.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Chromosomes and genomic information on pathogenic Candida species

Citation: Odds F. 2008. Evolution of Pathogenic Candida Species, p 567-580. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch47

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error