Chapter 3 : The Big Eight Foods: Clinical and Epidemiological Overview

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Big Eight Foods: Clinical and Epidemiological Overview, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815721/9781555813758_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815721/9781555813758_Chap03-2.gif


Peanuts, tree nuts, cow’s milk, soy, wheat, hen’s egg, fish, and crustaceans are considered the “Big Eight” foods in discussions of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or -associated food allergy both internationally and in the United States. These foods account for approximately 90% of food allergies in the best-studied group in the United States: children with atopic dermatitis. Although the Big Eight foods account for about 90% of clinical reactions in children with atopic dermatitis in referral centers, the pattern of foods causing reactions prompting emergency department visits is somewhat different in the United States. However, the Big Eight foods remain highly useful for labeling rules because the vast majority of individuals with food allergy will be helped, and specific fruits or vegetables are easier to avoid once the allergy is identified and the patient receives appropriate education on avoidance. The chapter reviews the eight dominant foods associated with food allergic reactions along with sesame. Cow's milk allergy is the most common food allergy in infants reported from developed Western nations. Most infants with IgE-mediated or IgE-associated allergy to cow’s milk protein will do well on isolated soy protein-based formula and that there is no need to spend money on more expensive, less-palatable formulas.

Citation: Teuber S, Beyer K, Comstock S, Wallowitz M. 2006. The Big Eight Foods: Clinical and Epidemiological Overview, p 49-79. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch3
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Agne, P. S.,, E. Bidat,, P. S. Agne,, F. Rance, and, E. Paty. 2004. Sesame seed allergy in children. Allerg. Immunol. (Paris) 36: 300305.
2. Ahn, K. M.,, Y. S. Han,, S. Y. Nam,, H. Y. Park,, M. Y. Shin, and, S. I. Lee. 2003. Prevalence of soy protein hypersensitivity in cow’s milk protein-sensitive children in Korea. J. Korean Med. Sci. 18: 473477.
3. Alday, E.,, G. Curiel,, M. J. Lopez-Gil,, D. Carreno, and, I. Moneo. 1996. Occupational hypersensitivity to sesame seeds. Allergy 51: 6970.
4. Anibarro, B.,, F. J. Seoane,, C. Vila, and, M. Lombardero. 2000. Allergy to eggs from duck and goose without sensitization to hen egg protein. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105: 834836.
5. Asero, R. 2005. Lack of de novo sensitization to tropomyosin in a group of mite-allergic patients treated by house dust mite-specific immunotherapy. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 137: 6265.
6. Asero, R.,, G. Mistrello,, D. Roncarolo, P. L. Antoniotti, and, P. Falagiani. 1999. A case of sesame seed-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 54: 526527.
7. Asero, R.,, G. Mistrello,, D. Roncarolo, and, S. Amato. 2004. Walnut-induced anaphylaxis with cross-reactivity to hazelnut and Brazil nut. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113: 358360.
8. Astwood, J. D.,, A. Silvanovich, and, G. A. Bannon. 2002. Vicilins: a case study in allergen pedigrees. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 2627.
9. Avery, N. J.,, R. M. King,, S. Knight, and, J. O. Hourihane. 2003. Assessment of quality of life in children with peanut allergy. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 14: 378382.
10. Awazuhara, H.,, H. Kawai, and, N. Maruchi. 1997. Major allergens in soybean and clinical significance of IgG4 antibodies investigated by IgE- and IgG4-immunoblotting with sera from soybean-sensitive patients. Clin. Exp. Allergy 27: 325332.
11. Bahna, S. L. 2002. Cow’s milk allergy versus cow milk intolerance. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 89 (Suppl.): 5660.
12. Bellioni-Businco,, B.,, R. Paganelli,, P. Lucenti,, P. G. Giampietro,, H. Perborn, and, L. Businco. 1999. Allergenicity of goat’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103: 11911194.
13. Bernhisel-Broadbent,, J., and, H. A. Sampson. 1989. Cross-allergenicity in the legume botanical family in children with food hypersensitivity. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 83: 435440.
14. Bernhisel-Broadbent,, J.,, S. Taylor, and, H. A. Sampson. 1989a. Cross-allergenicity in the legume botanical family in children with food hypersensitivity. II. Laboratory correlates. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 84: 701709.
15. Bernhisel-Broadbent,, J.,, S. M. Scanlon, and, H. A. Sampson. 1992a. Fish hypersensitivity. I. In vitro and oral challenge results in fish-allergic patients. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 89: 730737.
16. Bernhisel-Broadbent,, J.,, D. Strause, and, H. A. Sampson. 1992b. Fish hypersensitivity. II. Clinical relevance of altered fish allergenicity caused by various preparation methods. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 90: 622629.
17. Beyer, K.,, L. Bardina,, G. Grishina, and, H. A. Sampson. 2002. Identification of sesame seed allergens by 2-dimensional proteomics and Edman sequencing: seed storage proteins as common food allergens. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 154159.
18. Beyer, K.,, E. Morrow,, X. M. Li,, L. Bardina,, G. A. Bannon,, A. W. Burks, and, H. A. Sampson. 2001. Effects of cooking methods on peanut allergenicity. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107: 10771081.
19. Bishop, J. M.,, D. J. Hill, and, C. S. Hosking. 1990. Natural history of cow milk allergy: clinical outcome. J. Pediatr. 116: 862867.
20. Bock, S. A. 1985. Natural history of severe reactions to foods in young children. J. Pediatr. 107: 676680.
21. Bock, S. A., and, F. M. Atkins. 1989. The natural history of peanut allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 83: 900904.
22. Bock, S. A., and, F. M. Atkins. 1990. Patterns of food hypersensitivity during sixteen years of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. J. Pediatr. 117: 561567.
23. Bock, S. A.,, A. Munoz-Furlong, and, H. A. Sampson. 2001. Fatalities due to anaphylactic reactions to foods. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107: 191193.
24. Bruno, G.,, P. G. Giampietro,, M. J. Del Guercio,, P. Gallia,, L. Giovannini,, C. Lovati,, P. Paolucci,, L. Quaglio,, E. Zoratto, and, L. Businco. 1997. Soy allergy is not common in atopic children: a multicenter study. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 8: 190193.
25. Burket, S. 2000. Industry & Trade Summary: Edible Nuts. U.S. International Trade Commission, Washington, D.C.
26. Burks, A. W.,, H. B. Casteel,, S. C. Fiedorek,, L. W. Williams, and, C. L. Pumphrey. 1994. Prospective oral food challenge study of two soybean protein isolates in patients with possible milk or soy protein enterocolitis. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 5: 4045.
27. Burks, A. W.,, J. M. James,, A. Hiegel,, G. Wilson,, J. G. Wheeler,, S. M. Jones, and, N. Zuelein. 1998. Atopic dermatitis and food hypersensitivity reactions. J. Pediatr. 132: 132136.
28. Businco, L.,, P. G. Giampietro,, P. Lucenti,, F. Lucaroni,, C. Pini,, G. Di Felice,, P. Iacovacci,, C. Curadi, and, M. Orlandi. 2000. Allergenicity of mare’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105: 10311034.
29. Busse, P. J.,, A. H. Nowak-Wegrzyn,, S. A. Noone,, H. A. Sampson, and, S. H. Sicherer. 2002. Recurrent peanut allergy. N. Engl. J. Med. 347: 15351536.
30. Cartier, A.,, J. L. Malo,, F. Forest,, M. Lafrance,, L. Pineau,, J. J. St. Aubin, and, J. Y. Dubois. 1984. Occupational asthma in snow crab-processing workers. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 74: 261269.
31. Chiu, J. T., and, I. B. Haydik. 1991. Sesame seed oil anaphylaxis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 88: 414415.
32. Chung, S. Y.,, C. L. Butts,, S. J. Maleki, and, E. T. Champagne. 2000. Linking peanut allergenicity to the processes of maturation, curing, and roasting. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 42734277.
33. Clark, A. T., and, P. W. Ewan. 2003a. Food allergy in childhood. Arch. Dis. Child 88: 7981.
34. Clark, A. T., and, P. W. Ewan. 2003b. Interpretation of tests for nut allergy in one thousand patients, in relation to allergy or tolerance. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33: 10411045.
35. Clark, S.,, S. A. Bock,, T. J. Gaeta,, B. E. Brenner,, R. K. Cydulka,, C. A. Camargo, and the MARC-8 Investigators. 2004. Multicenter study of emergency department visits for food allergies. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113: 347352.
36. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1999. Report of the Twenty-Third Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Alinorm 99/37. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy.
37. Collin, P.,, L. Thorell,, K. Kaukinen, and, M. Maki. 2004. The safe threshold for gluten contamination in gluten-free products. Can trace amounts be accepted in the treatment of celiac disease? Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 19: 12771283.
38. Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics. 1998. Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding. Pediatrics 101: 148153.
39. Crespo, J. F.,, C. Pascual,, A. W. Burks,, R. M. Helm, and, M. M. Esteban. 1995. Frequency of food allergy in a pediatric population from Spain. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 6: 3943.
40. Dalal, I.,, I. Binson,, A. Levine,, E. Somekh,, A. Ballin, and, R. Reifen. 2003. The pattern of sesame sensitivity among infants and children. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 14: 312316.
41. Dalal, I.,, I. Binson,, R. Reifen,, Z. Amitai,, T. Shohat,, S. Rahmani,, A. Levine,, A. Ballin, and, E. Somekh. 2002. Food allergy is a matter of geography after all: sesame as a major cause of severe IgE-mediated food allergic reactions among infants and young children in Israel. Allergy 57: 362365.
42. De Leon,, M. P.,, I. N. Glaspole,, A. C. Drew,, J. M. Rolland,, R. E. O’Hehir, and, C. Suphioglu. 2003. Immunologic analysis of allergenic cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nuts. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33: 12731280.
43. Ellman, L.K.,, P. Chatchatee,, S. H. Sicherer, and, H. A. Sampson. 2002. Food hypersensitivity in two groups of children and young adults with atopic dermatitis evaluated a decade apart. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13: 295298.
44. Emmett, S. E.,, F. J. Angus,, J. S. Fry, and, P. N. Lee. 1999. Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in Great Britain and its association with other atopic conditions and with peanut allergy in other household members. Allergy 54: 380385.
45. Errahali, Y.,, M. Morisset,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, G. Kanny,, M. Metche,, J. P. Nicolas, and, S. Fremont. 2002. Allergen in soy oils. Allergy 57: 648649.
46. Escudero, C.,, S. Quirce,, M. Fernandez-Nieto,, J. de Miguel,, J. Cuesta, and, J. Sastre. 2003. Egg white proteins as inhalant allergens associated with baker’s asthma. Allergy 58: 616620.
47. Etesamifar, M., and, B. Wüthrich. 1998. IgE-vermittelte Nahrungsmittelallergien bei 383 Patienten unter Berücksichtigung des oralen Allergie-Syndroms. Allergologie 21: 451457.
48. European Commission. 2003. Directive 2003/89/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2000/13/EC as Regards Indication of the Ingredients Present in Foodstuffs, p. 15. Official Journal L 308. 25.11.2003. Publications Office, Luxembourg.
49. European Commission. 2005. Directive 2005/26/EC establishing a list of food ingredients or substances provisionally excluded from Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, p. 0033–0034. Official Journal L 075. 22.03.2005. Publications Office, Luxembourg.
50. Ewan, P. W. 1996. Clinical study of peanut and nut allergy in 62 consecutive patients: new features and associations. Brit. Med. J. 312: 10741078.
51. Ewan, P. W., and, A. T. Clark. 2001. Long-term prospective observational study of patients with peanut and nut allergy after participation in a management plan. Lancet 357: 111115.
52. Fleischer, D. M.,, M. K. Conover-Walker,, L. Christie,, A. W. Burks, and, R. A. Wood. 2003. The natural progression of peanut allergy: resolution and the possibility of recurrence. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112: 183189.
53. Fleischer, D. M.,, M. K. Conover-Walker,, L. Christie,, A. W. Burks, and, R. A. Wood. 2004. Peanut allergy: recurrence and its management. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114: 11951201.
54. Foucard, T., and, I. Malmheden Yman. 1999. A study on severe food reactions in Sweden—is soy protein an underestimated cause of food anaphylaxis? Allergy 54: 261265.
55. Garcia, F.,, I. Moneo,, B. Fernandez,, J. M. Garcia-Menaya,, J. Blanco,, S. Juste, and, M. Gonzalo. 2000. Allergy to Anacardaceae: description of cashew and pistachio nut allergens. J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 10: 173177.
56. Giampietro, P. G.,, V. Ragno,, S. Daniele,, A. Cantani,, M. Ferrara, and, L. Businco. 1992. Soy hypersensitivity in children with food allergy. Ann. Allergy 69: 143146.
57. Goetz, D. W., and, B. A. Whisman. 2000. Occupational asthma in a seafood restaurant worker: cross-reactivity of shrimp and scallops. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 85: 461466.
58. Goh, D. L.,, Y. N. Lau,, F. T. Chew,, L. P. L. Shek, and, B. W. Lee. 1999. Pattern of food-induced anaphylaxis in children of an Asian community. Allergy 54: 8486.
59. Grundy, J.,, S. Matthews,, B. Bateman,, T. Dean, and, S. H. Arshad. 2002. Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: data from 2 sequential cohorts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 784789.
60. Gu, X.,, T. Beardslee,, M. Zeece,, G. Sarath, and, J. Markwell. 2001. Identification of IgE-binding proteins in soy lecithin. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 126: 218225.
61. Gustafsson, D.,, O. Sjoberg, and, T. Foucard. 2003. Sensitization to food and airborne allergens in children with atopic dermatitis followed up to 7 years of age. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 14: 448452.
62. Hallett, R.,, L. A. Haapanen, and, S. S. Teuber. 2002. Food allergies and kissing. N. Engl. J. Med. 46: 18331834.
63. Han, D. K.,, M. K. Kim,, J. E. Yoo,, S. Y. Choi,, B. C. Kwon,, M. H. Sohn,, K.-E. Kim, and, S. Y. Lee. 2004. Food sensitization in infants and young children with atopic dermatitis. Yonsei Med. J. 45: 803809.
64. Hansen, T. K.,, C. Bindslev-Jensen,, P. S. Skov, and, L. K. Poulsen. 1997. Codfish allergy in adults: IgE cross-reactivity among fish species. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 78: 187194.
65. Harada, S.,, T. Horikawa, and, M. Icihashi. 2000. A study of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis by analyzing the Japanese cases reported in the literature. Arerugi 49: 10661073.
66. Heine, R. G.,, S. Elsayed,, C. S. Hosking, and, D. J. Hill. 2002. Cow’s milk allergy in infancy. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2: 217225.
67. Herian, A. M.,, S. L. Taylor, and, R. K. Bush. 1990. Identification of soybean allergens by immunoblotting with sera from soy-allergic adults. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 92: 193198.
68. Hill, D. J.,, C. S. Hosking, and, R. G. Heine. 1999. Clinical spectrum of food allergy in children in Australia and South-East Asia: identification and targets for treatment. Ann. Med. 31: 272281.
69. Hirschwehr, R.,, R. Valenta,, C. Ebner,, F. Ferreira,, W. R. Sperr,, P Valent,, M. Robac,, H. Rumpold,, O. Scheiner, and, D. Kraft. 1992. Identification of common allergenic structures in hazel pollen and hazelnuts: a possible explanation for sensitivity to hazelnuts in patients allergic to tree pollen. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 90: 927936.
70. Hoffenberg, E.,, T. Mackenzie,, K. Barriga,, G. S. Eisenbarth,, F. Bao,, J. E. Haas,, H. Erlich,, T. I. T. Bugawan,, R. J. Sokol,, J. M. Norris, and, M. Rewers. 2003. A prospective study of the incidence of childhood celiac disease. J. Pediatr. 143: 308314.
71. Host, A., and, S. Halken. 1990. A prospective study of cow milk allergy in Danish infants during the first 3 years of life. Clinical course in relation to clinical and immunological type of hypersensitivity reaction. Allergy 45: 587596.
72. Hourihane, J. O. 2002. Recent advances in peanut allergy. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2: 227231.
73. Hourihane, J. O.,, S. A. Kilburn,, P. Dean, and, J. O. Warner. 1997a. Clinical characteristics of peanut allergy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 27: 634639.
74. Hourihane, J. O.,, S. A. Kilburn,, J. A. Nordlee,, S. L. Hefle,, S. L. Taylor, and, J. O. Warner. 1997b. An evaluation of the sensitivity of subjects with peanut allergy to very low doses of peanut protein: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 100: 596600.
75. Hourihane, J. O.,, S. A. Roberts, and, J. O. Warner. 1998. Resolution of peanut allergy: case-control study. Brit. Med. J. 316: 12711275.
76. Imai, T., and, Y. Iikura. 2003. The national survey of immediate type of food allergy. Arerugi 52: 10061013.
77. James, J. M.,, A. W. Burks,, P. K. Roberson, and, H. A. Sampson. 1995. Safe administration of the measles vaccine to children allergic to eggs. New Engl. J. Med. 332: 12621266.
78. James, J. M.,, R. S. Zeiger,, M. R. Lester,, M. B. Fasano,, J. E. Gern,, L. E. Mansfield,, H. J. Schwartz,, H. A. Sampson,, H. H. Windom,, S. B. Machtinger, and, S. Lensing. 1998. Safe administration of influenza vaccine to patients with egg allergy. J. Pediatr. 133: 624628.
79. Janatuinen, E. K.,, T. A. Kemppainen,, R. J. Julkunen,, V. M. Kosma,, M. Maki,, M. Heikkinen, and, M. I. Uusitupa. 2002. No harm from five year ingestion of oats in celiac disease. Gut 50: 332335.
80. Jarvinen, K. M.,, M. Turpeinen, and, H. Suomalainen. 2003. Concurrent cereal allergy in children with cow’s milk allergy manifested with atopic dermatitis. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33: 10601066.
81. Jones, S. M.,, C. F. Magnolfi,, S. K. Cooke, and, H. A. Sampson. 1995. Immunologic cross–reactivity among cereal grains and grasses in children with food hypersensitivity. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 96: 341351.
82. Kagi, M., and, B. Wuthrich. 1991. Falafel-burger anaphylaxis due to sesame seed allergy. Lancet 338: 582.
83. Kajosaari, M. 1982. Food allergy in Finnish children aged 1 to 6 years. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 71: 815819.
84. Kanny, G.,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, J. Flabbee,, E. Beaudouin,, M. Morisset, and, F. Thevenin. 2001. Population study of food allergy in France. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108: 133140.
85. Kanny, G.,, C. De Hauteclocque, and, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin. 1996. Sesame seed and sesame seed oil contain masked allergens of growing importance. Allergy 51: 952957.
86. Kelly, J. D., and, S. L. Hefle. 2000. 2S methionine-rich protein (SSA) from sunflower seed is an IgE-binding protein. Allergy 55: 556560.
87. Kelso, J. M.,, G. T. Mootrey, and, T. F. Tsai. 1999. Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103: 698701.
88. Kelso, J. M.,, L. Bardina, and, K. Beyer. 2003. Allergy to canned tuna. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111: 901.
89. Keskinen, H.,, P. Ostman, , et al 1991. A case of occupational asthma, rhinitis and urticaria due to sesame seed. Clin. Exp. Allergy 21: 623624.
90. Kleine-Tebbe,, J.,, L. Vogel, , et al 2002. Severe oral allergy syndrome and anaphylactic reactions caused by a Bet v 1-related PR-10 protein in soybean, SAM22. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 797804.
91. Klemola, T.,, T. Vanto,, K. Juntunen-Backman,, K. Kalimo,, R. Korpela, and, E. Varjonen. 2002. Allergy to soy formula and to extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with cow’s milk allergy: a prospective, randomized study with a follow-up to the age of 2 years. J. Pediatr. 140: 219224.
92. Kolopp-Sarda,, M. N.,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, B. Gobert,, G. Kanny,, M. Brodschii,, M. C. Bene, and, G. C. Faure. 1997. Specific humoral immune responses in 12 cases of food sensitization to sesame seed. Clin. Exp. Allergy 27: 12851291.
93. Lehane, L., and, J. Olley. 2000. Histamine fish poisoning revisited. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 58: 137.
94. Lehrer, S. B.,, R. Ayuso, and, G. Reese. 2002. Current understanding of food allergens. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 964: 6985.
95. Lehrer, S. B.,, R. Ayuso, and, G. Reese. 2003. Seafood allergy and allergens: a review. Mar. Biotechnol. 5: 339348.
96. Leser, C.,, A. L. Hartman,, G. Pramal and, B. Wuthrich. 2001. The “egg-egg” syndrome: occupational respiratory allergy to airborne egg proteins with consecutive ingestive egg allergy in the bakery and confectionery industry. J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 11: 8993.
97. Lundin, K. E. A.,, E. M. Nilsen,, H. G. Scott,, E. M. Loberg,, A. Gjoen,, J. Bratlie,, V. Skar,, E. Mendez,, A. Lovik, and, K. Kett. 2003. Oats induced villous atrophy in celiac disease. Gut 52: 16491652.
98. Magnolfi, C. F.,, G. Zani,, L. Lacava,, M. F. Patria, and, M. Bardare. 1996. Soy allergy in atopic children. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 77: 197201.
99. Maleki, S. J.,, S. Y. Chung,, E. T. Champagne, and, J. P. Raufman. 2000. The effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106: 763768.
100. Maleki, S. J.,, O. Viquez,, T. Jacks,, H. Dodo,, E. T. Champagne,, S. Y. Chung, and, S. J. Landry. 2003. The major peanut allergen, Ara h 2, functions as a trypsin inhibitor, and roasting enhances this function. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112: 190195.
101. Manzanedo, L.,, J. Blanco,, M. Fuentes,, M. L. Caballero, and, I. Moneo. 2004. Anaphylactic reaction in a patient sensitized to coriander seed. Allergy 59: 362363.
102. Menendez-Arias,, L.,, I. Moneo,, J. Dominguez, and, R. Rodriguez. 1988. Primary structure of the major allergen of yellow mustard ( Sinapsis alba L.) seed, Sin a 1. Eur. J. Biochem. 177: 159166.
103. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A., and, G. Kanny. 1992. Les allergies alimentaires. Elsevier, Paris, France.
104. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A.,, C. Aaghassian, , et al 1997. Anaphylaxie “idiopathique” recidivante au sesame. Un allergene alimentaire en expansion. Rev. Fr. Allergol. 34: 487489.
105. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A.,, L. Guerin,, G. Kanny,, J. Flabbee,, S. Fremont, and, M. Morisset. 1999. Crossallergenicity of peanut and lupine: the risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 104: 883888.
106. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A.,, G. Kanny,, M. Morrisset,, F. Rance,, M. F. Fardeau, and, E. Beaudouin. 2004. Severe food anaphylaxis: 107 cases registered in 2002 by the Allergy Vigilance Network. Allergy Immunol. (Paris) 36: 4651.
107. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A.,, G. Kanny, and, L. Parisot. 2001. Accidents graves par allergie alimentaire en France: frequence, caracteristiques cliniques et etiologiques. Rev. Fr. Allergol. Immunol. Clin. 41: 696700.
108. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A.,, M. Morisset,, J. Flabbee,, E. Beaudouin, and, G. Kanny. 2005. Epidemiology of life-threatening and lethal anaphylaxis: a review. Allergy 60: 443451.
109. Morcos, S. K., and, H. S. Thomsen. 2001. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. Eur. Radiol. 11: 12671275.
110. Morgan, J. E.,, C. E. O’Neil,, C. B. Daul, and, S. B. Lehrer. 1989. Species-specific shrimp allergens: RAST and RAST-inhibition studies. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 83: 11121117.
111. Morgan, J. E.,, C. B. Daul, and, S. B. Lehrer. 1990. Characterization of important shrimp allergens by immunoblot analysis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 85: 170.
112. Morisset, M.,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, G. Kanny,, L. Guenard,, E. Beaudouin,, J. Flabbee, and, R. Hatahet. 2003. Thresholds of clinical reactivity to milk, egg, peanut and sesame in immunoglobulin E-dependent allergies: evaluation by double-blind or single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenges. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33: 10461051.
113. Moro, G. E.,, A. Warm,, S. Arslanoglu, and, V. Miniello. 2002. Management of bovine protein allergy: new perspectives and nutritional aspects. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 89 (Suppl.): 9196.
114. Mortimer, E. Z. 1961. Anaphylaxis following ingestion of soybean. J. Pediatr. 58: 9092.
115. Nickel, R.,, M. Kulig,, J. Forster,, R. Bergmann,, C. P. Bauer,, S. Lau,, I. Guggenmoos-Holzmann, and, U. Wahn. 1997. Sensitization to hen’s egg at the age of twelve months is predictive for allergic sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens at the age of three years. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 99: 613617.
116. Novembre, E.,, A. Cianferoni,, R. Bernardini,, L. Mugnaini,, C. Caffarelli,, Gl Cavagni,, A. Giovane, and, A. Vierucci. 1998. Anaphylaxis in children: clinical and allergologic features. Pediatrics 101: E8.
117. Ortolani, C.,, B. K. Ballmer-Weber,, K. S. Hansen,, M. Ispano,, B. Wuthrich,, C. Bindslev-Jensen,, R., Ansaloni,, L. Vannucci,, V. Pravettoni,, J. Scibilia,, L. K. Poulsen, and, E. A. Pastorello. 2000. Hazelnut allergy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge multicenter study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105: 577581.
118. Osterballe, M., and, C. Bindslev-Jensen. 2003. Threshold levels in food challenges and specific IgE in patients with egg allergy: is there a relationship? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112: 196201.
119. Pajno, G. B.,, G. Passalacqua,, G. Magazzu,, G. Barberio,, D. Vita, and, G. W. Canonica. 2000. Anaphylaxis to sesame. Allergy 55: 199201.
120. Palm, M.,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, G. Kanny,, S. Denery-Papini, and, S. Fremont. 1999. Food allergy to egg and soy lecithins. Allergy 54: 114115.
121. Palosuo, K. 2003. Update on wheat hypersensitivity. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 3: 205209.
122. Palosuo, K.,, E. Varjonen,, O.-M. Kekki,, T. Klemola,, N. Kalkkinen,, H. Alenius, and, T. Reunala. 2001. Wheat omega-5 gliadin is a major allergen in children with immediate allergy to ingested wheat. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108: 634638.
123. Pastorello, E. A.,, L. Farioli,, V. Pravettoni,, A. M. Robino,, J. Scibilia,, D. Fortunato,, A. Conti,, L. Borgonovo,, A. Bengtsson, and, C. Ortolani. 2004. Lipid transfer protein and vicilin are important walnut allergens in patients not allergic to pollen. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114: 908914.
124. Perry, T. T.,, E. C. Matsui,, M. K. Conover-Walker, and, R. A. Wood. 2004. Risk of oral food challenges. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114: 11641168.
125. Pourpak, Z.,, M. Mesdaghi,, M. Mansouri,, A. Kazemnejad,, S. B. Toosi, and, A. Farhoudi. 2005. Which cereal is a suitable substitute for wheat in children with wheat allergy? Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 16: 262266.
126. Pumphrey, R. S. 2000. Lessons for management of anaphylaxis from a study of fatal reactions. Clin. Exp. Allergy 30: 11441150.
127. Rance, F.,, G. Kanny,, G. Dutau, and, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin. 1999. Food hypersensitivity in children: clinical aspects and distribution of allergens. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 10: 3338.
128. Rance, F.,, X. Grandmottet, and, H. Grandjean. 2005. Prevalence and main characteristics of schoolchildren diagnosed with food allergies in France. Clin. Exp. Allergy 35: 167172.
129. Ravelli, A. M.,, P. Tobanelli,, S. Volpi, and, A. G. Ugazio. 2001. Vomiting and gastric motility in infants with cow’s milk allergy. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 32: 5964.
130. Renaud, C.,, C. Cardiet, and, C. Dupont. 1996. Allergy to soy lecithin in a child. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 22: 328329.
131. Robotham, J. M.,, F. Wang,, V. Seamon,, S. S. Teuber,, S. K. Sathe,, H. A. Sampson,, K. Beyer,, M. Seavy, and, K. H. Roux. 2005. Ana o 3, an important cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) allergen of the 2S albumin family. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115: 12841290.
132. Rozenfeld, P.,, G. H. Docena,, M. C. Anon, and, C. A. Fossati. 2002. Detection and identification of a soy protein component that cross-reacts with caseins from cow’s milk. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 130: 4958.
133. Rubenstein, L. 1950. Sensitivity to sesame seed and sesame oil. N. Y. State J. Med. 50: 343.
134. Saarinen, U. M., and, M. Kajosaari. 1980. Does dietary elimination in infancy prevent or only postpone a food allergy? A study of fish and citrus allergy in 375 children. Lancet i: 166167.
135. Salcedo, G.,, A. Diaz-Perales, and, R. Sanchez-Monge. 2001. The role of plant panallergens in sensitization to natural rubber latex. Curr. Opin. Allergy Immunol. 1: 177183.
136. Sampson, H. A. 2004. Update on food allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113: 805819.
137. Sampson, H. A., and, C. C. McCaskill. 1985. Food hypersensitivity and atopic dermatitis. Evaluation of 113 patients. J. Pediatr. 107: 669675.
138. Sampson, H. A.,, L. Mendelson, and, J. P. Rosen. 1992. Fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to food in children and adolescents. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 380384.
139. Shek, L. P., and, B. W. Lee. 1999. Food allergy in children—the Singapore story. Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol. 17: 203206.
140. Shek, L.,, L. Bardina,, R. Castro,, H. A. Sampson, and, K. Beyer. 2005. Humoral and cellular responses to cow milk proteins in patients with milk-induced IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated disorders. Allergy 60: 912919.
141. Sicherer, S. H. 2001. Clinical implications of cross-reactive food allergens. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108: 881890.
142. Sicherer, S. H.,, A. W. Burks, and, H. A. Sampson. 1998. Clinical features of acute allergic reactions to peanut and tree nuts in children. Pediatrics 102: e6.
143. Sicherer, S. H.,, A. Munoz-Furlong,, A. W. Burks, and, H. A. Sampson. 1999a. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the US determined by a random digit dial telephone survey. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103: 559562.
144. Sicherer, S. H.,, T. J. Furlong,, J. DeSimone,, H. A. Sampson. 1999b. Self-reported allergic reactions to peanut on commercial airliners. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103: 186189.
145. Sicherer, S. H.,, E. H. Morrow, and, H. A. Sampson. 2000a. Dose-response in double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105: 582586.
146. Sicherer, S. H.,, H. A. Sampson, and, A. W. Burks. 2000b. Peanut and soy allergy: a clinical and therapeutic dilemma. Allergy. 55: 515521.
147. Sicherer, S. H.,, S. A. Noone, and, A. Munoz-Furlong. 2001a. The impact of childhood food allergy on quality of life. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 87: 461464.
148. Sicherer, S. H.,, T. J. Furlong,, A. Munoz-Furlong,, A. W. Burks, and, H. A. Sampson. 2001b. A voluntary registry for peanut and tree nut allergy: characteristics of the first 5149 registrants. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108: 128132.
149. Sicherer, S. H.,, A. Munoz-Furlong, and, H. A. Sampson. 2003. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the United States determined by means of a random digit dial telephone survey: a 5 year follow-up study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112: 12031207.
150. Sicherer, S. H.,, A. Munoz-Furlong, and, H. A. Sampson. 2004a. Prevalence of seafood allergy in the United States determined by a random telephone survey. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114: 159165.
151. Sicherer, S. H.,, S. Teuber, and the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee. 2004b. Food allergy: practice paper. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114: 11461150.
152. Simonte, S. J.,, M. Songhui,, S. Mofidi, and, S. H. Sicherer. 2003. Relevance of casual contact with peanut butter in children with peanut allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112: 180182.
153. Skolnick, H. S.,, M. K. Conover-Walker,, C. B. Koerner,, H. A. Sampson,, W. Burks, and, R. A. Wood. 2001. The natural history of peanut allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107: 367374.
154. Solensky, R. 2003. Resolution of fish allergy: a case report. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 91: 411412.
155. Sporik, R., and, D. Hill. 1996. Allergy to peanut, nuts, and sesame in Australian children. Letter. Brit. Med. J. 313: 14771478.
156. Steensma, D. P. 2003. The kiss of death: a severe allergic reaction to a shellfish induced by a good-night kiss. Mayo Clin. Proc. 78: 221222.
157. Stern, A., and, B. Wuthrich. 1998. Non-IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to sesame. Allergy 53: 325326.
158. Sutherland, M. F.,, R. E. O’Hehir,, D. Czarny, and, C. Suphioglu. 1999. Macadamia nut anaphylaxis: demonstration of specific IgE reactivity and partial cross-reactivity with hazelnut. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 104: 889890.
159. Takahashi, Y.,, S. Ichikawa,, Y. Aihara, and, S. Yokota. 1998. Buckwheat allergy in 90,000 school children in Yokohama. Arerugi 47: 2633.
160. Tariq, S. M.,, M. Stevens,, S. Matthews,, S. Ridout,, R. Twiselton, and, D. W. Hide. 1996. Cohort study of peanut and tree nut sensitisation by age of 4 years. Brit. Med. J. 313: 514517.
161. Tariq, S. M.,, S. M. Matthews,, E. A. Hakim, and, S. H. Arshad. 2000. Egg allergy in infancy predicts respiratory allergic disease by 4 years of age. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 11: 162167.
162. Taylor, S. L.,, J. L. Kabourek, and, S. L. Hefle. 2004. Fish allergy: fish and products thereof. J. Food Sci. 69: 175180.
163. Taylor, S. L.,, S. L. Hefle,, C. Bindslev-Jensen,, S. A. Bock,, A. W. Burks,, L. Christie,, D. J. Hill,, A. Host,, J. O. Hourihane,, G. Lack,, D. D. Metcalfe,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, P. A. Vadas,, F. Rance,, D. J. Skrypec,, T. A. Trautman,, I. Malmheden Yman, and, R. S. Zeiger. 2002. Factors affecting the determination of threshold doses for allergenic foods: how much is too much? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 109: 2430.
164. Teuber, S. S., and, W. R. Peterson. 1999. Systemic allergic reaction to coconut ( Cocos nucifera) in 2 subjects with hypersensitivity to tree nut and demonstration of cross-reactivity to legumin-like seed storage proteins: new coconut and walnut food allergens. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103: 11801185.
165. Teuber, S. S.,, K. C. Jarvis,, A. M. Dandekar,, W. R. Peterson, and, A. A. Ansari. 1999. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a vicilin-like proprotein, Jug r 2, from English walnut kernel ( Juglans regia): a major food allergen. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 104: 13111320
166. Teuber, S. S.,, S. S. Comstock,, S. K. Roux, and, K. H. Roux. 2003. Tree nut allergy. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 3: 5461.
167. Vadas, P.,, Y. Wai,, W. Burks, and, B. Perelman. 2001. Detection of peanut allergens in breast milk of lactating women. JAMA 285: 17461748.
168. Vander Leek,, T. K.,, A. H. Liu, and, S. A. Bock. 2000. The natural history of peanut allergy in young children and its association with serum peanut-specific IgE. J. Pediatr. 137: 749755.
169. van Ree,, R.,, L. Antonicelli,, J. H. Akkerdaas,, M. S. Garritani,, R. C. Aalberse, and, F. Bonifazi. 1996. Possible induction of food allergy during mite immunotherapy. Allergy 51: 108113.
170. Wang, F.,, J. M. Robotham,, S. S. Teuber,, P. Tawde,, S. K. Sathe, and, K. H. Roux. 2002. Ana o 1, a cashew ( Anacardium occidental) allergen of the vicilin seed storage protein family. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 160166.
171. Waring, N. P.,, C. B. Daul,, R. D. deShazo,, M. L. McCants, and, S. B. Lehrer. 1985. Hypersensitivity reactions to ingested crustacean: clinical evaluation and diagnostic studies in shrimp-sensitive individuals. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 76: 440445.
172. Wensing, M.,, A. H. Penninks,, S. L. Hefle,, S. J. Koppelman,, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and, A. C. Knulst. 2002a. The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 915920.
173. Wensing, M.,, A. H. Penninks,, S. L. Hefle,, J. H. Akkerdaas,, R. van Ree,, S. J. Koppelman,, C. A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and, A. C. Knulst. 2002b. The range of minimum provoking doses in hazelnut-allergic patients as determined by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. Clin. Exp. Allergy 32: 1757– 1762.
174. Werfel, S. J.,, S. K. Cooke, and, H. A. Sampson. 1997. Clinical reactivity to beef in children allergic to cow’s milk. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 99: 293300.
175. Woods, R. K.,, M. Abramson,, M. Bailey, and, E. H. Walters on behalf of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). 2001. International prevalences of reported food allergies and intolerances. Comparisons arising from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) 1991–1994. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 298304.
176. Yocum, M.,, J. Butterfield,, J. S. Klein,, G. W. Volvheck,, D. R. Schroeder, and, M. D. Silverstein. 1999. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis in Olmsted County: a population-based study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 104: 452456.
177. Young, E.,, M. D. Stoneham,, A. Petruckevitch,, J. Barton, and, R. Rona. 1994. A population study of food intolerance. Lancet 343: 11271130.
178. Yunginger, J. W.,, D. R. Nelson,, D.L. Squillace,, R. T. Jones,, K. E. Holley,, B. A. Hyma,, L. Biedrzycki,, K. G. Sweeney,, W. Q. Sturner, and, L. B. Schwartz. 1991. Laboratory investigation of deaths due to anaphylaxis. J. Forensic Sci. 36: 857865.
179. Yunginger, J. W.,, K. G. Sweeney,, W. Q. Sturner,, L. A. Giannandrea,, J. D. Teigland,, M. Bray,, P. A. Benson,, J. A. York,, L. Biedrzycki,, D. L. Squillace, , et al 1988. Fatal food-induced anaphylaxis. JAMA 260: 14501452.
180. Zeiger, R. S. 2002. Current issues with influenza vaccination in egg allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110: 834840.
181. Zeiger, R. S.,, H. A. Sampson,, S.A. Bock,, A. W. Burks,, K. Harden,, S. Noone,, D. Martin,, S. Leung, and, G. Wilson. 1999. Soy allergy in infants and children with IgE-associated cow’s milk allergy. J. Pediatr. 134: 614622.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

The big eight foods plus sesame

Citation: Teuber S, Beyer K, Comstock S, Wallowitz M. 2006. The Big Eight Foods: Clinical and Epidemiological Overview, p 49-79. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error