Chapter 1 : Historic Overview of Food Virology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Historic Overview of Food Virology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815738/9781555814649_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815738/9781555814649_Chap01-2.gif


The earliest approaches to detection of viruses in water and in food were derived from those used in diagnostic clinical virology. Early detection methods were based on demonstrable infection of a susceptible host system, ideally a cell culture. Media for primary cell cultures often comprised a balanced salt solution plus an enzymatic hydrolysate of lactalbumin and some blood serum. Virus replication in cell cultures was often demonstrated with the aid of a microscope: death of host cells maintained in fluid medium was called the cytopathic effect. Characterization of the viruses of interest was complicated by the lack of laboratory hosts. Eventually, viruses were classified as having RNA or DNA, as having or lacking a lipid-containing envelope, and by size category. Detection of viruses in food extracts originally implied the use of primary monkey kidney (PMK) cell cultures, as was also done for diagnostic purposes. Propagation of viruses in cell culture and development of the plaque technique introduced much more quantitative precision into inactivation experiments. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic appears to have resulted from a change in the rendering process used in the United Kingdom. The BSE infective agent could be detected in the brain, spinal cord, retina, trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, tonsils, and distal ileum of symptomatic BSE-infected cattle; but extensive tests have failed to detect it in muscle meat or in milk. Most food-borne viruses are human specific, so this has generally entailed the use of human volunteers.

Citation: Cliver D. 2008. Historic Overview of Food Virology, p 1-28. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Overview of the steps involved in detecting food-borne viruses. RT-PCR, reverse transcription-PCR.

Citation: Cliver D. 2008. Historic Overview of Food Virology, p 1-28. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Peroral infectious-dose study, ca. 1977. Porcine subject is shown with the author; two isolation units are visible at the rear.

Citation: Cliver D. 2008. Historic Overview of Food Virology, p 1-28. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Fecal-oral transmission cycle in the barrio of Belen, Iquitos, Peru. The photograph shows a family home on a community waterway; the household latrine overhangs the water at left, and a family member is washing dinner dishes in the waterway at right. (photo by Stewart Oakley, California State University, Chico; reprinted with permission.)

Citation: Cliver D. 2008. Historic Overview of Food Virology, p 1-28. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto,, R. Gajardo, and, A. Bosch. 1997. Viruses in mussels: public health implications and depuration. J. Food Prot. 60: 677681.
2. Appleton, H.,, S. R. Palmer, and, R. J. Gilbert. 1981. Foodborne gastroenteritis of unknown aetiology: a virus infection? Br. Med. J. 282: 18011802.
3. Appleton, H., and, M. S. Pereira. 1977. A possible virus aetiology in outbreaks of food-poisoning from cockles. Lancet i: 780781.
4. Atoynatan, T., and, G. D. Hsiung. 1964. Ultrafiltration of simian viruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 116: 852856.
5. Aycock, W. L. 1927. A milk-borne epidemic of poliomyelitis. Am.J. Hyg. 7: 791803.
6. Bean, N. H.,, J. S. Goulding,, C. Lao, and, F.J. Angulo. 1996. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks-United States, 1988–1992. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45: 166.
7. Beijerinck, M. W. 1964. Concerning a contagium vivum fluidum as cause of the spot disease of tobacco leaves, p. 5263. In N. Hahon (ed.) Selected Papers on Virology. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
8. Berg, G.,, N. A. Clarke, and, P. W. Kabler. 1962. Interrelationships among ECHO virus types 1, 8, and 12. J. Bacteriol. 83: 556560.
9. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber, and, S. A. Sattar. 2000. Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 27592763.
10. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber,, S. A. Sattar, and, S. Hayward. 2000. Heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus in dairy foods. J. Food Prot. 63: 522528.
11. Botic, T.,, T. D. Klingberg,, H. Weingartl, and, A. Cencic. 2007. A novel eukaryotic cell culture model to study antiviral activity of potential probiotic bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115: 227234.
12. Boxman, I. L.,, J. J. Tilburg,, N. A. te Loeke,, H. Vennema,, E. de Boer, and, M. Koopmans. 2007. An efficient and rapid method for recovery of norovirus from food associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J. Food Prot. 70: 504508.
13. Breindl, M. 1971. The structure of heated poliovirus particles. J. Gen. Virol. 11: 147156.
14. Brock, T. D. 1961. Milestones in Microbiology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
15. Brown, G. C. 1949. The possible significance of milk and water in the spread of virus infections. Am. J. Public Health 39: 764771.
16. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz, and, G. Sanchez. 2007. Procedure for rapid concentration and detection of enteric viruses from berries and vegetables. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 186192.
17. Campbell. 1943. An outbreak ofj’aundice. Health Bull. (Edinburgh) 2: 64.
18. Chung, H.,, L. A. Jaykus, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1996. Detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by in vivo and in vitro amplification of nucleic acids. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 37723778.
19. Cliver, D.O. 1965. Factors in the membrane filtration of enteroviruses. Appl. Microbiol. 13: 417425.
20. Cliver, D.O. 1966. Implications of food-borne infectious hepatitis. Public Health Rep. 81: 159165.
21. Cliver, D. O. 1967. Detection of enteric viruses by concentration with polyethylene glycol, p. 109120. In G. Berg (ed.), Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route. Interscience, New York, NY.
22. Cliver, D. O. 1967. Enterovirus detection by membrane chromatography, p. 139141. In G. Berg (ed.) Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route. Interscience, New York, NY.
23. Cliver, D. O. 1967. Food-associated viruses. Health Lab. Sci. 4: 213221.
24. Cliver, D. 0. 1969. Viral infections, p. 73113. In H. Riemann (ed.), Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications. Academic Press, New York, NY.
25. Cliver, D. O. 1971. Viruses in water and wastewater: effects of some treatment methods., p. 149158. In V. Snoeyink and, V. Griffin (ed.) Virus and Water Quality: Occurrence and Control. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Water Quality Conference. Engineering Publications Office, University of Illinois-Urbana, Urbana.
26. Cliver, D.O. 1973. Apparatus for changing tissue culture media, p. 224226. In P. F. Kruse, and Jr.,, M. K. Patterson, Jr., (ed.), Tissue Culture: Methods and Applications. Academic Press, New York, NY.
27. Cliver, D. O. 1981. Experimental infection by waterborne enteroviruses. J. Food Prot. 44: 861865.
28. Cliver, D. O. 1983. Manual on Food Virology. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
29. Cliver, D. O., and, E. H. Bohl. 1962. Isolation of enteroviruses from a herd of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 45: 921925.
30. Cliver, D. O., and, E. H. Bohl. 1962. Neutralization of bovine enteroviruses by colostrum, milk and blood serum. J. Dairy Sci. 45: 926932.
31. Cliver, D. O.,, R. D. Ellender, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1983. Methods to detect viruses in foods: testing and interpretation of results. J. Food Prot. 46: 345357.
32. Cliver, D. O., and, J. Grindrod. 1969. Surveillance methods for viruses in foods. J. Milk Food Technol. 32: 421425.
33. liver, D. O., and, J. E. Herrmann. 1972. Proteolytic and microbial inactivation of enteroviruses. Water Res. 6: 797805.
34. Cliver, D. O., and, R. M. Herrmann. 1969. Economical tissue culture technics. Health Lab. Sci. 6: 517.
35. Cliver, D. O., and, K. D. Kostenbader, Jr. 1979. Antiviral effectiveness of grape juice. J. Food Prot. 42: 100104.
36. Cliver, D. O., and, K. D. Kostenbader, Jr. 1984. Disinfection of virus on hands for prevention of food-borne disease. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 1: 7587.
37. Cliver, D. O.,, K. D. Kostenbader, Jr., and, M. R. Vallenas. 1970. Stability of viruses in low moisture foods. J. Milk Food Technol. 33: 484491.
38. Cliver, D. O., and, J. Yeatman. 1965. Ultracentrifugation in the concentration and detection of enteroviruses. Appl. Microbiol. 13: 387392.
39. Croci, L.,, M. Ciccozzi,, D. De Medici,, S. Di Pasquale,, A. Fiore,, A. Mele, and, L. Toti. 1999. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus in heat-treated mussels. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87: 884888.
40. Croci, L.,, D. De Medici,, S. Di Pasquale, and, L. Toti. 2005. Resistance of hepatitis A virus in mussels subjected to different domestic cookings. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 105: 139144.
41. Cromeans, T.,, M. D. Sobsey, and, H. A. Fields. 1987. Development of a plaque assay for a cytopathic, rapidly replicating isolate of hepatitis A virus. J. Med. Virol. 22: 4556.
42. Cunningham, C. H. 1963. A Laboratory Guide in Virology, 5th ed. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN.
43. Dalldorf, G., and, G. M. Sickles. 1 948. An unidentified filtrable agent isolated from the feces of children with paralysis. Science 108: 6162.
44. Dienstag, J. L. 1981. Hepatitis A virus: virologic, clinical, and epidemiologic studies. Hum. Pathol. 12: 10971106.
45. DiGirolamo, R.,, J. Liston, and, J. R. Matches. 1970. Survival of virus in chilled, frozen, and processed oysters. Appl. Microbiol. 20: 5863.
46. Dimmock, N.J. 1967. Differences between the thermal inactivation of picornaviruses at “high” and “low” temperatures. Virology 31: 338353.
47. Dingman,J. C. 1916. Report of possibly milk-borne epidemic of infantile paralysis. NY State J. Med. 16: 589590.
48. Dolin, R.,, N. R. Blacklow,, H. DuPont,, R. F. Buscho,, R. G. Wyatt,, J. A. Kasel,, R. Hornick, and, R. M. Chanock. 1972. Biological properties of Norwalk agent of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140: 578583.
49. Dolin, R.,, N. R. Blacklow,, R. A. Malmgren, and, R. M. Chanock. 1970. Establishment of human fetal intestinal organ cultures for growth of viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 122: 227231.
50. Dryden, F. D.,, C. Chen, and, M. W. Selna. 1979. Virus removal in advanced wastewater treatment systems. J. Water Pollution Control Fed. 51: 20982109.
51. Dubois, E.,, C. Hennechart,, G. Merle,, C. Burger,, N. Hmila,, S. Ruelle,, S. Perelle, and, V. Ferre. 2007. Detection and quantification by real-time RT-PCR of hepatitis A virus from inoculated tap waters, salad vegetables, and soft fruits: characterization of the method performances. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 117: 141149.
52. Duizer, E.,, P. Bijkerk,, B. Rockx,, A. De Groot,, F. Twisk, and, M. Koopmans. 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 45384543.
53. Dulbecco, R. 1952. Production of plaques in monolayer tissue cultures by single particles of an animal virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38: 747752.
54. Dulbecco, R., and, M. Vogt. 1954. Plaque formation and isolation of pure lines with poliomyelitis viruses. J. Exp. Med. 99: 167182.
55. Eagle, H. 1955. Nutrition needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture. Science 122: 501514.
56. Eisenstein, A. B.,, R. D. Aach,, W. Jacobson, and, A. Goldman. 1963. An epidemic of infectious hepatitis in a general hospital. JAMA 185: 171174.
57. Enders, J. F.,, T. H. Weller, and, F. C. Robbins. 1949. Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of variosu human embryonic tissues. Science 109: 8587.
58. Erdtman, R., and, L. B. Sivitz (ed.). 2004. Advancing Prion Science. Guidance for the National Prion Research Program. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
59. Feinstone, S. M. 1996. Hepatitis A: epidemiology and prevention. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 8: 300305.
60. Fout, G. S.,, F. W. Schaeffer III,, J. W. Messer,, D. R. Dahling, and, R. E. Stetler. 1996. ICR Microbial Laboratory Manual. EPA/600/R–95/178. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.
61. Gajdusek, D. C., and, V. Zigas. 1957. Degenerative disease of the central nervous system in New Guinea: the endemic occurrence of kuru in the native population. N. Engl. J. Med. 257: 974978.
62. Gey, G. O., and, M. K. Gey. 1936. The maintenance of human normal cells and tumor cells in continuous culture. 1. Preliminary report. Cultivation of mesoblastic tumors and normal tissue and notes on methods of cultivation. Am. J. Cancer 27: 4576.
63. Goldstein, D. M.,, W. M. Hammon, and, H. R. Viets. 1946. An outbreak of polioencephalitis among Navy cadets, possibly foodborne. JAMA 131: 569573.
64. Gresikova-Kohutova, M. 1959. Persistence of the virus of tick-borne encephalitis in milk & milk products. Cesk. Epidemiol. Mikrobiol. Imunol. 8: 2632 (In Czech.).
65. Grindrod, J., and, D. O. Cliver. 1969. Limitations of the polymer two phase system for detection of viruses. Arch. Gesante Virusforsch. 28: 337347.
66. Grindrod,J., and, D. O. Cliver. 1970. A polymer two phase system adapted to virus detection. Arch. Gesante Virusforsch. 31: 365372.
67. Gulati, B. R.,, P. B. Allwood,, C. W. Hedberg, and, S. M. Goyal. 2001. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J. Food Prot. 64: 14301434.
68. Hajmeer, M.,, D. O. Cliver, and, R. Provost. 2003. Spinal cord tissue detection in comminuted beef: comparison of two immunological methods. Meat Sci. 65: 757763.
69. Hamparian, V. V.,, M. R. Hilleman, and, A. Ketler. 1963. Contributions to characterization and classification of animal viruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112: 10401050.
70. Hargreaves, E. R. 1949. Epidemiology of poliomyelitis. Lancet i: 972.
71. Heidelbaugh, N. D., and, D.J. Giron. 1969. Effect of processing on recovery of poliovirus from inoculated foods. J. Food Sci. 34: 239241.
72. Heinz, B. A., and, D. O. Cliver. 1988. Coxsackievirus-cell interactions that initiate infection in porcine ileal explants. Arch. Virol. 101: 3547.
73. Heinz, B. A.,, D. O. Cliver, and, B. Donohoe. 1987. Enterovirus replication in porcine ileal explants. J. Gen. Virol. 68: 24952499.
74. Heinz, B. A.,, D. O. Cliver, and, G. L. Hehl. 1986. Enumeration of enterovirus particles by scanning electron microscopy. J. Virol. Methods 14: 7183.
75. Hejkal, T. W.,, F. M. Wellings,, A. L. Lewis, and, P. A. LaRock. 1981. Distribution of viruses associated with particles in waste water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 628634.
76. Hernroth, B., and, A. Allard. 2007. The persistence of infectious adenovirus (type 35) in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 113: 296302.
77. Herrmann, J. E., and, D. O. Cliver. 1973. Degradation of coxsackievirus type A9 by proteolytic enzymes. Infect. Immun. 7: 513517.
78. Herrmann, J. E., and, D. O. Cliver. 1973. Enterovirus persistence in sausage and ground beef. J. Milk Food Technol. 36: 426428.
79. Herrmann, J. E., and, D. O. Cliver. 1968. Food-borne virus: detection in a model system. Appl. Microbiol. 16: 595602.
80. Herrmann, J. E., and, D. O. Cliver. 1968. Methods for detecting food-borne enteroviruses. Appl. Microbiol. 16: 15641569.
81. Herrmann, J. E.,, K. D. Kostenbader, and Jr., D. O. Cliver. 1974. Persistence of enteroviruses in lake water. Appl. Microbiol. 28: 895896.
82. Hiscock, I. V., and, O. F. Rogers, Jr. 1922. Outbreak of epidemic jaundice among college students. JAMA 78: 488490.
83. Hsiung, G. D., and, J. R. Henderson. 1964. Diagnostic Virology. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
84. Hsiung, G. D., and, J. L. Melnick. 1955. Plaque formation with poliomyelitis, Coxsackie, and orphan (ECHO) viruses in bottle cultures of monkey epithelial cells. Virology 1: 533535.
85. Hutin, Y. J.,, V. Pool,, E. H. Cramer,, O. V. Nainan,, J. Weth,, I. T. Williams,, S. T. Goldstein,, K. F. Gensheimer,, B. P. Bell,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter, and, H. S. Margolis for the National Hepatitis A Investigation Team. 1999. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 595602.
86. Jacobs, R. J.,, S. F. Grover,, A. S. Meyerhoff, and, T. A. Paivana. 2000. Cost effectiveness of vaccinating food service workers against hepatitis A infection. J. Food Prot. 63: 768774.
87. Jaykus, L. A.,, R. De Leon, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1996. A virion concentration method for detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by PCR and oligoprobe hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 20742080.
88. Johnson, K. M.,, R. C. Cooper, and, D. C. Straube. 1981. Procedure for recovery of enteroviruses from the Japanese cockle, Tapes japonica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 932935.
89. Jothikumar, N.,, D. O. Cliver, and, T. W. Mariam. 1998. Immunomagnetic capture PCR for rapid concentration and detection of hepatitis A virus from environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 504508.
90. Jubb, G. 1915. A third outbreak of poliovirus at West Kirby. Lancet i: 67.
91. Kabler, P. W.,, N. A. Clarke,, G. Berg, and, S. L. Chang. 1961. Viricidal efficiency of disinfectants in water. Public Health Rep. 76: 565570.
92. Kalitina, T. A. 1966. Persistence of coxsackie group B types 3 and 5 in mince meat. Vopr. Pit. 5: 7477.(In Russian.)
93. Kalitina,T. A. 1969. Study of the transmissibility of enteroviruses in milk and milk products. Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. 7: 6164 . (In Russian.)
94. Kalter, S. S. 1963. Procedures for the Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Virus and Rickettsial Diseases. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN.
95. Kasza, L. 2003. The Hardships and Joys of an Exiled Cancer Researcher. 1st Books Library, Bloomington, IN.
96. Katzenelson, E.,, B. Fattal, and, T. Hostovesky. 1976. Organic flocculation: an efficient second-step concentration method for the detection of viruses in tap water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32: 638639.
97. Keswick, B. H.,, T. K. Satterwhite,, P. C.Johnson,, H. L. DuPont,, S. L. Secor,, J. A. Bitsura,, G. W. Gary, and, J. C. Hoff. 1985. Inactivation of Norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 261264.
98. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. R. Holliman,, K. R. Calci,, H. Chen, and, G. J. Flick. 2007. Inactivation of a norovirus by high-pressure processing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 581585.
99. Klingborg, D., and, D. Cliver. 2000. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), p. 198204. In F.J. Francis(ed.), The Wiley Encyclopedia of Food Science & Technology, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
100. Knapp, A. C.,, E. S. Godfrey, boldJr.,, W. L. Aycock. 1926. An outbreak of poliomyelitis. JAMA 87: 635639.
101. Koch, R. 1961. The etiology of anthrax, based on the life history of Bacillus anthracis, p. 8995. In T. D. Brock(ed.), Milestones in Microbiology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, NJ.
102. Konowalchuk, J., and, J. I. Speirs. 1973. Enterovirus recovery with vegetable floc. Appl. Microbiol. 26: 505507.
103. Konowalchuk, J., and, J. I. Speirs. 1973. Identification of a viral inhibitor in ground beef. Can. J. Microbiol. 19: 177181.
104. Konowalchuk, J., and, J. I. Speirs. 1978. Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35: 12191220.
105. Konowalchuk, J., and, J. I. Speirs. 1976. Virus inactivation by grapes and wines. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32: 757763.
106. Konowalchuk, J., and, J. I. Speirs. 1978. Antiviral effect of apple beverages. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36: 798801.
107. Konowalchuk, J., and, J. I. Speirs. 1976. Antiviral activity of fruit extracts. J. Food Sci. 41: 10131017.
108. Koopmans, M., and, E. Duizer. 2004. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90: 2341.
109. Koopmans, M.,, H. Vennema,, H. Heersma,, E. van Strien,, Y. van Duynhoven,, D. Brown,, M. Reacher, and, B. Lopman. 2003. Early identification of common-source foodborne virus outbreaks in Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 11361142.
110. Kostenbader, K. D., and Jr.,, D. O. Cliver. 1972. Polyelectrolyte flocculation as an aid to recovery of enteroviruses from oysters. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 540543.
111. Kostenbader, K. D., and Jr.,, D. O. Cliver. 1973. Filtration methods for recovering enteroviruses from foods. Appl. Microbiol. 26: 149154.
112. Kostenbader, K. D., and Jr.,, D. O. Cliver. 1977. Quest for viruses associated with our food supply. J. Food Sci. 42: 12531257, 1268.
113. Krugman, S.,, R. Ward,, J. P. Giles,, O. Bodansky, and, A. M.Jacobs. 1959. Infectious hepatitis: detection of virus during the incubation period and in clinically inapparent infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 261: 729734.
114. Landry, E. F.,, J. M. Vaughn,, T. J. Vicale, and, R. Mann. 1982. Inefficient accumulation of low levels of monodispersed and feces-associated poliovirus in oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 13621369.
115. Leblanc, D.,, P. Ward,, M. J. Gagne,, E. Poitras,, P. Muller,, Y. L. Trottier,, C. Simard, and, A. Houde. 2007. Presence of hepatitis E virus in a naturally infected swine herd from nursery to slaughter. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 117: 160166.
116. Lennette, E. H., and, N.J. Schmidt. 1969. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Infections., 4th ed. American Public Health Association, New York, NY.
117. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, S. Marionneau,, N. Ruvoen,, X. Jiang,, L. Lindblad,, P. Stewart,, J. LePendu, and, R. Baric. 2003. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat. Med. 9: 548553.
118. Lipari, M. 1951. A milk-borne poliomyelitis episode. NY State J. Med. 51: 362369.
119. Lopez-Sabater, E. I.,, M. Y. Deng, and, D. O. Cliver. 1997. Magnetic immunoseparation PCR assay (MIPA) for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 101104.
120. Lothrop,T. L., and, O.J. Sproul. 1969. High-level inactivation of viruses in wastewater by chlorination. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 41: 567575.
121. Lukasik, J.,, M. L. Bradley,, T. M. Scott,, M. Dea,, A. Koo,, W. Y. Hsu,, J. A. Bartz, and, S. R. Farrah. 2003. Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes. J. Food Prot. 66: 188193.
122. Lund, E., and, C. E. Hedstrom. 1966. The use of an aqueous polymer phase system for enterovirus isolations from sewage. Am. J. Epidemiol. 84: 287291.
123. Lynt, R. K., Jr. 1966. Survival and recovery of enterovirus from foods. Appl. Microbiol. 14: 218222.
124. Mandel, B. 1971. Characterization of type poliovirus by electrophoretic analysis. Virology 44: 554568.
125. Mariam, T. W., and, D. O. Cliver. 2000. Hepatitis A virus control in strawberry products. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. 20: 612616.
126. Mariam,T. W., and, D. O. Cliver. 2000. Small round coliphages as surrogates for human viruses in process assessment. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. 20: 684689.
127. Mascoli, C. C., and, R. G. Burrell. 1965. Experimental Virology. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN.
128. Mathews, F. P. 1949. Poliomeylitis epidemic, possibly milk-borne, in a naval station, Portland, Oregon. Am.J. Hyg. 49: 17.
129. Mattison, K.,, K. Karthikeyan,, M. Abebe,, N. Malik,, S. A. Sattar,, J. M. Farber, and, S. Bidawid. 2007. Survival of calicivirus in foods and on surfaces: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus. J. Food Prot. 70: 500503.
130. McDonnell, S.,, K. B. Kirkland,, W. G. Hlady,, C. Aristeguieta,, R. S. Hopkins,, S. S. Monroe, and, R. I. Glass. 1997. Failure of cooking to prevent shellfish-associated viral gastroenteritis. Arch. Intern. Med. 157: 111116.
131. Melnick, J. L. 1983. Portraits of viruses: the picornaviruses. Intervirology 20: 61100.
132. Merchant, D.J.,, R. H. Kahn, and, W. H. Murphy, Jr. 1960. Handbook of Cell and Organ Culture. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN.
133. Mishu, B.,, S. C. Hadler,, V. A. Boaz,, R. H. Hutcheson,, J. M. Horan, and, W. Schaffner. 1990. Foodborne hepatitis A: evidence that microwaving reduces risk? J. Infect. Dis. 162: 655658.
134. Morgan,J. F.,, H.J. Morton, and, R. C. Parker. 1950. Nutrition of animal cells in tissue culture: initial studies on a synthetic medium. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 73: 18.
135. Mosley, J. W. 1967. Transmission of diseases by drinking water, p. 523. In G. Berg(ed.), Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route. Interscience, New York, NY.
136. Murphy, W. J.,, V. M. Petrie, and, J. S. D. Work. 1946. Outbreak of infectious hepatitis, apparently milk-borne. Am.J. Public Health 36: 169173.
137. Niu, M. T.,, L. B. Polish,, B. H. Robertson,, B. K. Khanna,, B. A. Woodruff,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. A. Miller,, J. D. Smith,, J. K. Gedrose,, M.J. Alter, et al. 1992. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J. Infect. Dis. 166: 518524.
138. Nuanualsuwan, S., and, D. O. Cliver. 2002. Pretreatment to avoid positive RT-PCR results with inactivated viruses. J. Virol. Methods 104: 217225.
139. Nuanualsuwan, S., and, D. O. Cliver. 2003. Capsid functions of inactivated human picornaviruses and feline calicivirus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 350357.
140. O’Brien, R.T., and, J. Newman. 1979. Structural and compositional changes associated with chlorine inactivation of polioviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 10341039.
141. Pasteur, L. 1964. A new communication on rabies, p. 3036. In N. Hahon(ed.), Selected Papers on Virology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
142. Philipson, L.,, P. A. Albertsson, and, G. Frick. 1960. The purification and concentration of viruses by aqueous polymerphase systems. Virology 11: 553571.
143. Piszczek, E. A.,, H.J. Shaughnessy,, J. Zichis, and, S. O. Levinson. 1941. Acute anterior poliomyelitis: study of an outbreak in West Suburban Cook County, Ill. Preliminary report. JAMA 117: 19621965.
144. Poulin, D. L., and, J. A. DeCaprio. 2006. Is there a role for SV40 in human cancer? J. Clin. Oncol. 24: 43564365.
145. Prusiner, S. B. 1982. Novel proteinaceous infectious particles cause scrapie. Science 216: 136144.
146. Roos, B. 1956. Hepatitepidemi, spridd genom ostron. Svenska Lakartidningen 53: 9891003.
147. Sabin, A. B. 1965. Oral poliovirus vaccine. History of its development and prospects for eradication of poliomyelitis. JAMA 194: 872876.
148. Sabin, A. B. 1957. Properties of attenuated polioviruses and their behavior in human beings, p. 113121. In V. G. Alfrey(ed.), Cellular Biology, Nucleic Acids, and Viruses. New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY.
149. Safar, J. G.,, M. Scott,, J. Monaghan,, C. Deering,, S. Didorenko,, J. Vergara,, H. Ball,, G. Legname,, E. Leclerc,, L. Solforosi,, H. Serban,, D. Groth,, D. R. Burton,, S. B. Prusiner, and, R. A. Williamson. 2002. Measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 11471150.
150. Salk,J. E.,, P. L. Bazeley,, B. L. Bennett,, U. Krech,, L.J. Lewis,, E. N. Ward, and, J. S. Youngner. 1954. Studies in human subjects on active immunization against poliomyelitis. II. A practical means for inducing and maintaining antibody formation. Am. J. Public Health Nations Health 44: 9941009.
151. Salk, J. E.,, U. Krech,, J. S. Youngner,, B. L. Bennett,, L. J. Lewis, and, P. L. Bazeley. 1954. Formaldehyde treatment and safety testing of experimental poliomyelitis vaccines. Am. J. Public Health Nations Health 44: 563570.
152. Salo, R.J., and, D. O. Cliver. 1976. Effect of acid pH, salts, and temperature on the infectivity and physical integrity of enteroviruses. Arch. Virol. 52: 269282.
153. Salo, R. J., and, D. O. Cliver. 1978. Inactivation of enteroviruses by ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36: 6875.
154. Schiff, G. M.,, G. M. Stefanovic,, E. C. Young,, D. S. Sander,, J. K. Pennekamp, and, R. L. Ward. 1984. Studies of echovirus–12 in volunteers: determination of minimal infectious dose and the effect of previous infection on infectious dose. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 858866.
155. Schultz, A. C.,, P. Saadbye,, J. Hoorfar, and, B. Norrung. 2007. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 114: 352356.
156. Seidel, K. M.,, S. M. Goyal,, V. C. Rao, and, J. L. Melnick. 1983. Concentration of rotavirus and enteroviruses from blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46: 12931296.
157. Shieh, Y. C.,, Y. E. Khudyakov,, G. Xia,, L. M. Ganova-Raeva,, F. M. Khambaty,, J. W. Woods,, J. E. Veazey,, M. L. Motes,, M. B. Glatzer,, S. R. Bialek, and, A. E. Fiore. 2007. Molecular confirmation of oysters as the vector for hepatitis A in a 2005 multistate outbreak. J. Food Prot. 70: 145150.
158. Straub, T. M.,, K. Honer zu Bentrup,, P. Orosz-Coghlan,, A. Dohnalkova,, B. K. Mayer,, R. A. Bartholomew,, C. O. Valdez,, C. J. BrucknerLea,, C. P. Gerba,, M. Abbaszadegan, and, C. A. Nickerson. 2007. In vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 396403.
159. Vaughn,J. M.,, E. F. Landry,, T.J. Vicale, and, M. C. Dahl. 1979. Modified procedure for the recovery of naturally accumulated poliovirus from oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 594598.
160. Ward, B. K.,, C. M. Chenoweth, and, L. G. Irving. 1982. Recovery of viruses from vegetable surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 13891394.
161. Ward, R. L. 1982. Evidence that microorganisms cause inactivation of viruses in activated sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 12211224.
162. Ward, R. L. 1984. Mechanisms of enteric virus inactivation in treatment processes, p. 175183. In J. L. Melnick (ed.) Monographs in Virology, vol. 15. Enteric Viruses in Water. Proceedings of an International Symposium. S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.
163. Ward, R. L., and, E. W. Akin. 1984. Minimum infective dose of animal viruses. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control 14: 297310.
164. Wilesmith, J. W.,, J. B. Ryan, and, M. J. Atkinson. 1991. Bovine spongiform en-cephalopathy: epidemiological studies on the origin. Vet. Rec. 128: 199203.
165. Williams, G. 1964. Virus Hunters. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY.
166. Wilner, B. I. 1969. A Classification of the Major Groups of Human and Other Animal Viruses, 4th ed. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN.
167. Wobus, C. E.,, L. B. Thackray, and, H. W. Virgin. 2006. Murine norovirus: a model system to study norovirus biology and pathogenesis. J. Virol. Methods 80: 51045112.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error