Chapter 2 : Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art

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This chapter reviews the current knowledge of food-borne viruses and describes the hurdles to better understanding and ultimate prevention of bacterial illnesses and enteric viral infections. Rapid antigen detection assays for the detection of noroviruses (NoV) in clinical samples, such as those used for rotavirus detection, are commercially available but as yet do not have the required sensitivity for widespread clinical use. Rapid assays for antigen detection of NoVs in clinical samples, such as enzyme immunoassays (EIA), offer an attractive alternative to expensive and technically demanding molecular detection assays. NoV infection causes acute-onset vomiting and diarrhea, typically after an incubation period of 12 to 48 h. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, nausea, abdominal cramps, and occasionally a low-grade fever. Intestinal biopsies have demonstrated that NoV infects the jejunum, causing blunting of intestinal villi, vacuolation of villous epithelial cells, and mononucleocyte infiltration of the lamina propria but leaving an intact mucosa. Food-borne outbreaks of NoV are often associated with salads, sandwiches, bakery products, and other foods which are handled and contaminated by infected food handlers just before being served. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV gastroenteritis in developed countries have been associated with recreational water and with sewage contamination of drinking water. Studies of oysters have shown that NoVs bind specifically to carbohydrate receptors related to human blood group A antigens in the oyster intestine.

Citation: Widdowson M, Vinjé J. 2008. Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art, p 29-64. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch2
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Figure 1

Number of passengers and crew reporting acute gastroenteritis during three consecutive cruises on one ship, 16 November to 14 December 2002 (n = 575). (Reprinted from reference .)

Citation: Widdowson M, Vinjé J. 2008. Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art, p 29-64. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch2
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Figure 2

Phylogenetic analysis of NoV GII.4 strains detected in stool samples from outbreaks in the United States, 1995 to 2006, demonstrating four different subclades or variants. A multiple alignment was created using ClustalW, and a neighbor-joining tree was generated on the basis of uncorrected distances of a 277-bp region at the 5’ end of ORF2. Lordsdale95, Bristol93, Grimsby95, and Farmington Hill (FMH03) are included as GII.4 reference strains.

Citation: Widdowson M, Vinjé J. 2008. Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art, p 29-64. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch2
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Table 1

Multiple binding patterns of different NoV strains or VLPs to human HBGAs

Citation: Widdowson M, Vinjé J. 2008. Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art, p 29-64. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch2
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Table 2

Comparison of the effects of different physiochemical parameters on murine NoV (MNV–1) and FCV infectivity

Citation: Widdowson M, Vinjé J. 2008. Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art, p 29-64. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

Knowledge gaps, challenges, and potential solutions

Citation: Widdowson M, Vinjé J. 2008. Food-Borne Viruses-State of the Art, p 29-64. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch2

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