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Chapter 7 : Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the occurrence of the five mycotoxins in foods imported into the United States during the years 2000 to 2006: aflatoxins, patulin, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A. All of these mycotoxins have been found worldwide in foods and are of regulatory concern to the FDA. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the naturally occurring aflatoxins as being carcinogenic to humans, group 1A; aflatoxin Mwas classified as 2B, indicating limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. Patulin is a toxic metabolite produced by fungi of several genera, including , , and . These fungi can grow on a variety of foods, including fruits. Deoxynivalenol (DON), commonly known as vomitoxin, belongs to a class of sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins that are referred to as trichothecenes. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring toxic fungal metabolite produced by certain species of the genera and . Data on OTA levels in imported foods from 2000 to 2006 are shown in this chapter. The FDA organized and cosponsored the International Workshop on Mycotoxins at College Park, Maryland, 22 to 26 July 2002. This workshop was an international outreach effort by the FDA to assist economically challenged nations worldwide in minimizing the problem of mycotoxin contamination of foodstuffs in their respective countries. The extent of mycotoxin contamination of foods is greatly influenced, in part, by uncontrollable environmental conditions that prevail during the growth, harvesting, and processing of crops that are used for the preparation of human food.

Citation: Wood G. 2008. Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World, p 187-208. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch7
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Aflatoxins in foods imported into the United States between 2000 and 2006

Citation: Wood G. 2008. Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World, p 187-208. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 2

Patulin in apple juice imported into the United States between 2000 and 2006

Citation: Wood G. 2008. Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World, p 187-208. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 3

Deoxynivalenol in wheat products imported into the United States between 2000 and 2006

Citation: Wood G. 2008. Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World, p 187-208. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 4

Fumonisins in corn products imported into the United States between 2000 and 2006

Citation: Wood G. 2008. Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World, p 187-208. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 5

Ochratoxin A in foods imported into the United States between 2000 and 2006

Citation: Wood G. 2008. Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods from around the World, p 187-208. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch7

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