Chapter 25 : Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses

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This chapter provides a brief overview of the state of the art on coronavirus (CoV) vaccines, with special attention paid to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), as this virus has had the largest impact on humans. First, the chapter considers basic aspects affecting vaccine development, such as correlates of protection, antigenic variability, and role of B- and T-cell responses. Then, it discusses different types of vaccines under development, including inactivated viruses, subunit vaccines, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vaccines, heterologous expression systems, and vaccines derived by reverse genetics. Finally, the chapter considers potential side effects of these vaccines.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Structure and genome organization of CoVs. (A) Schematic diagram of SARS-CoV structure. 3a, 7a, and 7b are structural envelope SARS-CoV proteins. (B) Representation of a prototype SARS-CoV genome. AAA, poly(A) tail. Numbers and letters indicate viral genes.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Growth kinetics of rSARS-CoV-ΔE in vitro and in vivo. (A) Vero-E6 cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 with either the rSARS-CoV-ΔE or the recombinant wild-type virus. At different times postinfection, virus titers were determined by plaque assay. Error bars represent standard deviations of the mean from three experiments. (B) Hamsters were inoculated with 10 tissue culture infectious doses (TCID) of rSARS-CoV or rSARS-CoV-ΔE. Animals were sacrificed and tissues were harvested at different times postinfection. Viral titers in the lungs were determined in Vero-E6 cell monolayers. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U statistical method was used for ascertaining the significance of observed differences. Statistical significance is indicated by an asterisk ( < 0.05). The dotted line indicates the lower limit of detection.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Reorganization of the SARS-CoV genome to generate safe attenuated virus vaccines. (Top) Potential recombination between vaccine and field CoV strains leading to the generation of a recombinant SARS-CoV. The wild-type SARS-CoV TRS, ACGAAC (black circles), was changed to CCGGAT (white circles), leading to SARS-CRG virus. Since the wild-type and mutant TRS signals are not compatible in regulating subgenomic transcription ( ), a recombination event resulting in a viral genome with mixed TRS signals is not viable. (Bottom) The icSARS-CoV TRS is unique from that of other described CoVs. TRSs for selected group 1, 2, and 3 CoVs are summarized. At the bottom, the TRS selected to generate a safe recombinant SARS-CoV is indicated.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
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