Chapter 8 : Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children

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Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children persists as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, despite the introduction of antimicrobial therapy. Following colonization, invasive disease may result from dissemination from a respiratory focus, such as in the case of acute otitis media, sinusitis, or pneumonia, or from dissemination from an unidentified focus to the central nervous system, pleural space, periorbital tissue, bone, or joint. The major clinical syndromes are reflective of the pathogenesis as either (i) bacteremia with or without focal complications or (ii) contiguous spread from the nasopharynx to mucosal surfaces of the lung and middle ear, resulting in pneumonia and acute otitis media, respectively. A temperature greater than 39ºC at follow-up is the best correlate of whether a given child is likely to have persistent bacteremia or a new focus of infection. Complications such as meningitis, pneumonia, cellulitis, or periorbital cellulitis are most common. The role of compared to that of other bacterial pathogens, especially and , has been reported in numerous cross-sectional studies globally. Friedland and Klugman observed that 80% of children with penicillin-nonsusceptible strains causing pneumococcal meningitis had an unsatisfactory outcome when treated with chloramphenicol compared to 33% of children with penicillin-susceptible types of pneumococcal disease. Preventative measures such as vaccination will contribute substantially toward attaining the United Nations millennium goal of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds in 2015 compared to 1990 levels.

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
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Figure 1

Incidence of IPD in various high- and low-risk populations. Data are from reference .

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
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Figure 2

Distribution of ages of infants and toddlers in The Gambia (1996) (a), among the U.S. White Mountain Apache population (1992) (b), and among generally healthy children in California (1996) ( ) (c) at the onset of IPD.

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
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Generic image for table
Table 1

Selected studies demonstrating the clinical presentation of IPD in children

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2

Proportion of purulent bacterial meningitis cases due to and outcome in children prior to introduction of Hib and conjugate vaccines (unless specified otherwise) in studies from Africa

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 3

Selected studies showing the incidence rates of pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤24 months of age (unless otherwise specified) not immunized with a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 4

Bacterial isolates from lung aspirate studies performed since 1970 among children who had not received antibiotics prior to the procedure and had no mentioned underlying illness

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 5

Etiology of pneumonia based on findings from lung aspirate studies

Citation: Madhi S, Pelton S. 2008. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Serious Pneumococcal Infections in Children, p 95-116. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch8

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