Chapter 76 : Adenoviruses

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This chapter concentrates on serologic methods for diagnosis of human adenoviruses (HAds) infections and recent advances in molecular detection of viral nucleic acid. The most widely used methods for measuring HAd crossreactive, genus-specific antibodies of both the IgG and the IgM classes are enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay (also called indirect fluorescent antibody assay). Complement fixation (CF), once used extensively, is the most standardized serologic test for diagnosis of HAd infection. A growing number of reports have linked HAds and acute myocarditis, with and without pericarditis, in infants and young children; sudden infant death associated with myocarditis; and idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction in adults. EIA is now one of the most automated tests in the clinical laboratory and, for the most part, uses the 96-well microplate format, automated plate washers, and readers that define experimental parameters and interpret results. The commercial conjugates for EIA that are currently available are antihuman immunoglobulins labeled with one of two types of enzyme, either horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Detection of viral nucleic acid in clinical materials is the most rapidly expanding diagnostic methodology in medicine, overtaking culture as the “gold standard” for diagnosis of infectious disease. The possibility of PCR contamination must also be evaluated. As with interpretation of serological test results, it is better to have the corroboration of additional methods of diagnosis if possible.

Citation: Crawford-Miksza L. 2006. Adenoviruses, p 677-683. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch76
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Illnesses commonly associated with HAd infections

Citation: Crawford-Miksza L. 2006. Adenoviruses, p 677-683. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch76
Generic image for table

Ad serotypes grouped into species by hemagglutination and DNA homology

Citation: Crawford-Miksza L. 2006. Adenoviruses, p 677-683. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch76

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