Chapter 80 : Measles and Mumps

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Although both measles virus and mumps virus can be isolated in cell culture, isolation may be difficult due to the need to collect specimens very early in the infection process and to the slow proliferation and weak to absent production of cytopathogenic effect by these viruses in traditional tube cell cultures. Newer modified cell culture techniques involving detection of viral antigen in shell vial cultures have improved the sensitivity and speed of measles and mumps virus isolation. Molecular techniques, which do not rely on the presence of viable virus, can be used to detect viral RNA directly in clinical samples. The serologic approach, relying on detection of antibodies for confirmation of infection, has long been the most accessible and reliable diagnostic tool for confirming measles and mumps virus infections. The most widely used methods in measles and/or mumps antibody detection are enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), neutralization (NT), and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) are seldom used in diagnostic laboratories but may be available at reference or research facilities. A brief description of each of these methods is presented in this chapter. Molecular methods are more expensive than virus isolation but may provide a viable approach for confirming the presence of measles or mumps virus. The presence of measles virus RNA in clinical samples is evidence for current or very recent infection or vaccination.

Citation: Leland D. 2006. Measles and Mumps, p 707-711. In Detrick B, Hamilton R, Folds J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815905.ch80
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