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is an invasive enteric pathogen whose virulence determinants have been the subject of intensive investigation, but not all strains of are equally virulent. Schemes for subtyping species include bacteriophage typing, multienzyme electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and the demonstration of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of chromosomal and plasmid DNA. As the mechanisms by which biotype 1A strains cause disease are largely unknown, a section of this chapter focuses chiefly on the virulence determinants of the classical pathogenic, i.e., pYV-bearing, highly invasive strains of . As with other enterobacteria, can be classified as smooth or rough depending on the amount of O side chain polysaccharide attached to the inner core region of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The major receptor for ferri-yersiniabactin complex is a 65-kDa outer membrane protein named FyuA, which also serves as a receptor for pesticin, a bacteriocin produced by . The effector, Yops, achieve these outcomes mostly by disrupting the proinflammatory signaling pathways that are activated in response to stimulation by invasin, YadA, and LPS. Although much remains to be learned about , investigations into the pathogenesis of yersiniosis to date have provided fascinating new insights into bacterial pathogenesis as a whole and into its genetic control.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Transmission electron micrograph showing the initial interaction (arrowhead) and transport (arrow) of through an intestinal M cell 60 min after inoculation into mouse ileum. (Reprinted with permission from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

Light micrograph of a section through the colon of a gnotobiotic piglet 3 days after inoculation with a virulent strain of O:3. Note the microabscess, comprising mostly bacteria, the surrounding inflammatory cells (arrows), and the disrupted epithelium with vacuolated and necrotic cells. An epoxy section stained with methylene blue is shown. (Reprinted with permission from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Figure 14.3

Amino acid sequences of the mature heat-stable enterotoxins produced by ( ), enterotoxigenic (human [STh] and porcine [STp] subtypes) ( ), ( ), and non-O1 ( ) and of the intestinal hormone guanylin ( ). Amino acid residues which are shaded are common to all seven peptides. The first 23 amino acids at the N terminus of the Yst-c mature toxin (denoted by a superscript “a”) are not included in the sequence alignment.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Figure 14.4

Representation of the HPI of O:8 strain WA-C. Arrows indicate the positions of the open reading frames and the direction of transcription. The region that is conserved in and is indicated by a double-headed arrow. (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Map of the virulence plasmid, pYVe, of serogroup O:9 showing the locations and directions of transcription (arrows) of the genes encoding (i) YadA; (ii) YlpA; (iii) YopB, -D, -E, -H, -M, -N, -O, -P, -Q, and -T and LcrV; (iv) the specific Yop chaperones SycD, -E, -H, and -T; (v) the secretion elements VirA, -B, -C, and -G; and (vi) the regulatory element VirF. (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Figure 14.6

Schematic representation of Yop secretion and translocation by . The major structural proteins of the secretory apparatus are shown in relation to their known or deduced locations in the cell wall. The effector Yop chaperone (Syc) and a translocation pore comprising YopB and YopD are also depicted.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Figure 14.7

Antibody response of sheep infected with or to Yops. Yops were prepared from serogroup O:3, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, and incubated with preimmune (lanes 1 and 3) or immune (lanes 2 and 4) sera from lambs with naturally acquired infection with pYV-bearing (lanes 1 and 2) or (lanes 3 and 4). (Reprinted with permission from reference .)

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
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Generic image for table
Table 14.1

Some biochemical tests used to differentiate species

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.2

Biotyping scheme for

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.3

Relationship between O serotype and pathogenicity of and related species

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.4

Clinical manifestations of infections with

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.5

Selected foodborne outbreaks of infections with

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.6

Characteristics of pathogenic subgroups of

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.7

Major pYV-encoded determinants of and their roles in virulence

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2007. , p 293-322. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch14

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