Chapter 16 : Species

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A number of reviews on the pathogenic vibrios have appeared over the years, although with the exception of those of and , relatively little is known of the virulence mechanisms they employ. One of the most consistent features of human vibrio infections is a recent history of seafood consumption. A survey of frozen raw shrimp imported from Mexico, China, and Ecuador found over 63% to harbor species, including and . By employing sucrose as a differentiating trait, 11 of the 12 human pathogenic vibrios can be separated on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) into 6 species which are generally sucrose positive and 5 species which are generally sucrose negative. With the exception of those of , , and , relatively little is known of the susceptibilities of vibrios to various food preservation methods. As with that of other species, the reservoir of is the aquatic environment. Indeed, studies from other laboratories using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and amplified fragment length polymorphisms all indicate that no two isolates have the same chromosomal arrangement. In addition to the role of capsule, iron, and endotoxin in the pathogenesis of infections, produces a large number of extracellular compounds, including hemolysin, protease, elastase, collagenase, DNase, lipase, phospholipase, mucinase, chondroitin sulfatase, hyaluronidase, and fibrinolysin.

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
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Figure 16.1

Classic model of cholera toxin mode of action involving cAMP. More recent evidence indicates that prostaglandins and the ENS are also involved in the response to cholera toxin (see the text for details). (A) Adenylate cyclase, located in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by G proteins. Cholera toxin binds via the B subunit pentamer (shown as open circles with the A subunit as the inverted solid triangle) to the GM1 ganglioside receptor inserted into the lipid bilayer. (B) The toxin enters the cell via endosomes, and the A1 peptide ADP-ribosylates G located in the basolateral membrane. (C) Increased cAMP activates PKA, leading to protein phosphorylation. In crypt cells, the protein phosphorylation leads to increased Cl secretion; in villus cells, it leads to decreased NaCl absorption. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
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Figure 16.2

Correlation between culturability of spp. from estuarine environments and water temperature. Reprinted with permission from Pfeffer et al. ( ).

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
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Figure 16.3

Morphologies of opaque (encapsulated) and translucent (nonencapsulated) colonies of .

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
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Generic image for table
Table 16.1

Key differential characteristics of food-associated pathogenic species

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16
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Table 16.2

Differentiation of the three biogroups of

Citation: Oliver J, Kaper J. 2007. Species, p 343-379. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch16

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