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Listeriosis is an atypical foodborne illness of major public health concern because of the severity of the disease (meningitis, septicemia, and abortion), a high case fatality rate (approximately 20 to 30% of cases), a long incubation time, and a predilection for individuals who have an underlying condition that leads to impairment of T-cell-mediated immunity. Certain ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods are high-risk vehicles for transmitting listeriosis for susceptible populations as determined by active surveillance for sporadic listeriosis and epidemiologic investigation of listeriosis outbreaks. The risk assessment model was used to estimate the likely impact of control strategies by changing one or two input parameters and measuring the change in the model outputs. Most thermal-inactivation studies of in milk have shown that cells of suspended in milk were effectively inactivated under high temperature-short time pasteurization (HTST) conditions (71°C for 15s or equivalent). The LisRK two-component signal transduction system is implicated in virulence, acid and ethanol tolerance, and oxidative stress. The major heat shock chaperones, GroES and GroEL, are induced at high temperature, at low pH, and during cell infection. Research during the past 25 years has led to the (i) identification of the internalin receptor of mammalian cells; (ii) elucidation of the role of internalin multigene functions; (iii) understanding of the function of ; (iv) understanding of and the global regulation of virulence; and (v) the modulation of host cell signaling by the pathogen.

Citation: Swaminathan B, Cabanes D, Zhang W, Cossart P. 2007. , p 457-491. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch21
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Figure 21.1

Phenotypic identification of species.

Citation: Swaminathan B, Cabanes D, Zhang W, Cossart P. 2007. , p 457-491. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch21
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Figure 21.2

Potential routes of transmission of . Adapted from reference . Circles or ovals indicate areas of greatest risk of multiplication. Boxes indicate where direct consumption of minimally processed products (e.g., whole fresh vegetables, cooked carcass cuts of meat and fish, and effectively pasteurized milk) presents a low risk. Double arrows indicate consumer at risk.

Citation: Swaminathan B, Cabanes D, Zhang W, Cossart P. 2007. , p 457-491. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch21
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Figure 21.3

Schematic representation of the pathophysiology of infection.

Citation: Swaminathan B, Cabanes D, Zhang W, Cossart P. 2007. , p 457-491. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch21
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Figure 21.4

Schematic representation of the successive steps of the cell infectious process. Factors implicated in the different steps are indicated.

Citation: Swaminathan B, Cabanes D, Zhang W, Cossart P. 2007. , p 457-491. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch21
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