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In 1924 in Cambridge, England, what is now known as was first documented by E. G. D. Murray and colleagues (1926) as the causative agent of a septic illness, peripheral monocytosis, in laboratory rabbits. Between 1976 and 2002, there were 27 outbreaks of food-borne listeriosis reported worldwide, with about 2,900 cases and about 260 deaths (mortality rate of ca. 9.0%). is widespread in nature, being associated with plants, soil, water, sewage, feed, and animals raised as food. growth/survival at low temperatures requires maintenance of membrane fluidity for appropriate enzymatic activity and transport of solutes across the membrane, as well as for structure stabilization of macromolecules, such as ribosomes, and/ or the uptake or synthesis of compatible cryoprotectant solutes, such as glycine betaine and carnitine. Control of is one of the most difficult challenges faced by manufacturers and handlers of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat, poultry, seafood, and dairy products. Traditional milk pasteurization times/temperatures are also considered generally adequate to eliminate the typically low levels of that may be present in raw milk. The only bacteriocin that has been granted the FDA approval is nisin, which is allowed for use in low-moisture/lowsalt pasteurized processed cheese. Many organic acids have generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status as food ingredients, and studies have shown their effectiveness under various conditions and in different foodstuffs.

Citation: Porto-Fett A, Call J, Muriana P, Freier T, Luchansky J. 2010. , p 95-107. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch6
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Table 1.

Levels of found in USDA baseline sampling

Citation: Porto-Fett A, Call J, Muriana P, Freier T, Luchansky J. 2010. , p 95-107. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch6

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