Chapter 10 : Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood

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The primary pathogens in the genus are , , and . Other species that can cause human disease include , , , , , , , , and , but reported cases are either relatively rare or do not involve food-borne transmission. Nonepidemic is also responsible for occasional seafood-borne disease in the United States and can be distinguished from epidemic disease by the severity of symptoms, the serogroups of associated strains, and the capacity for global spread. is the most common cause of serious wound infections associated with species, and these infections may result from exposure of breached skin surface to seawater or contaminated seafood handling. This chapter talks about intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Comparison of heat resistances for pathogenic vibrios showed that D values varied among species. (D of 1.75 min) was considerably more resistant compared to and . Approved and validated treatments include high hydrostatic pressure, pasteurization (heat shock), and individual quick freezing. These treatments are generally used in combination with approved transport and storage practices involving icing, refrigeration, and/or freezing. Greater understanding of the role of the bacteria in estuarine ecosystems and the risks associated with environmental, bacterial, and host factors is crucial for control and safety of seafood products.

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

bacteria that are attached to diatom are indicated by arrow. (Figure provided by Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis.)

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Activity of CT. CT B subunits bind host intestinal cells, followed by endocytosis and release of the A subunit (black circle), which ribosylates G proteins to activate adenylate cyclase. The subsequent increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) results in protein phosphorylation, extrusion of chloride ions, and massive diarrhea. (Adapted from .)

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Figure 3.

Bollous lesions associated with septicemia.

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Figure 4.

Colony morphology of showing opaque (right) and translucent (left) phenotypes associated with virulence and capsule expression.

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Figure 5.

Global distribution of “pandemic” disease. (Reprinted from .)

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Figure 6.

Reported cases of in Florida from 1990 to 2005. Recent reports show increases in the number of cases associated with wounds compared to other sources. (Data provided by Roberta Hammond.)

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10
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Table 1.

Typical symptoms associated with different species

Citation: Wright A, Schneider K. 2010. Pathogenic Vibrios in Seafood, p 146-163. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch10

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