Chapter 17 : Fungal and Mushroom Toxins

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Fungal and Mushroom Toxins, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap17-2.gif


The biological kingdom of the fungi contains many toxigenic species. Unlike many of the microorganisms of food safety concern, the fungi can be macroscopic, colorful, and, in this author’s opinion, beautiful and endlessly fascinating to observe. This chapter discusses species that pose the most significant food safety risks. The species include those of the filamentous fungi, also known as molds, which produce mycotoxins. The major mycotoxigenic mold genera of agronomical concern include , , and . The major food safety concerns with mycotoxins are their stability to food processing techniques and the fact that many can be transmitted through animal tissue, milk, and eggs from animals fed mycotoxin-contaminated feed. Poisonous mushrooms have been employed throughout human history for nefarious purposes. Mushrooms are becoming increasingly more prominent as cultivated foods. Mushroom amatoxins are a family of cyclic octapeptides and are produced by mushroom species including , , and . The mushroom toxins that cause neurological effects can cause a range of symptoms including sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucinations, excitement, depression, and spastic colon. These include some of the most infamous forms of mushroom intoxication, and cooking does not inactivate these toxins.

Citation: Wolf-Hall C. 2010. Fungal and Mushroom Toxins, p 275-285. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Afolabi, C. G.,, R. Bandyopadhyay,, J. F. Leslie,, and E. J. A. Ekpo. 2006. Effect of sorting on incidence and occurrence of fumonisins and Fusarium verticillioides on maize from Nigeria. J. Food Prot. 69: 20192023.
2. Aish, D.,, E. H. Rippon,, T. Barlow,, and S. J. Hattersley. 2004. Ochratoxin A, p. 307–338. In N. Magan and, M. Olsen (ed.), Mycotoxins in Food: Detection and Control. CRC Press, New York, NY.
3. Alldrick, A. J.,, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association UK, and M. Hajselova. 2004. Zearalenone, p. 353–366. In N. Magan and, M. Olsen (ed.), Mycotoxins in Food: Detection and Control. CRC Press, New York, NY.
4. Almela, L.,, V. Rabe,, B. Sanchez,, F. Torrilla,, J. P. Lopez-Perez,, J. A. Gabaldon,, and L. Guardiola. 2007. Ochratoxin A in red paprika: relationship with the origin of the raw material. J. Food Microbiol. 24: 319327.
5. Azziz-Baumgartner, E.,, K. Lindblade,, K. Gieseker,, H. Schurz Rogers,, S. Kieszak,, H. Njapau,, R. Schleicher,, L. F. McCoy,, A. Misore,, K. DeCock,, C. Rubin,, L. Slutsker, and the Aflatoxin Investigative Group. 2004. Case-control study of an acute aflatoxicosis outbreak, Kenya, 2004. Environ. Health Perspect. 113: 17791783.
6. Barger, G. 1931. Ergot and Ergotism. Guerney and Jackson, London, United Kingdom.
7. Benjamin, D. R. 1995. Mushrooms Poisons and Panaceas: a Handbook for Naturalists, Mycologists, and Physicians. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY.
8. Berthiller, F.,, C. Dall’Asta,, R. Schuhmacher,, M. Lemmens,, G. Adam,, and R. Krska. 2005. Masked mycotoxins: determination of a deoxynivalenol glucoside in artificially and naturally contaminated wheat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 34213425.
9. Blumenthal, C. Z. 2004. Production of toxic metabolites in Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Trichoderma reesei: justification of mycotoxin testing in food grade enzyme preparations derived from the three fungi. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39: 214228.
10. Boichenko, L. V.,, D. M. Boichenko,, N. G. Vinokurova,, T. A. Reshetilova,, and M. U. Arinbasarov. 2001. Screening for ergot alkaloid producers among microscopic fungi by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Microbiology 70: 306310.
11. Bony, S.,, M. Carcelen,, L. Olivier,, and A. Devaux. 2006. Genotoxicity assessment of deoxynivalenol in the Caco-2 cell line model using the Comet assay. Toxicol. Lett. 166: 6776.
12. Bove, F. J. 1970. The Story of Ergot. S. Krager, Basel, Switzerland.
13. Bullerman, L. B. 2007. Fusaria and toxigenic molds other than aspergilli and penicillia, p. 563–578. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
14. CAC. 2003. Code of practice for the prevention and reduction of mycotoxin contamination in cereals, including annexes on ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisins and trichothecenes. CAC/RCP 51-2003. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/406/CXC_051e.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2007.
15. Caporael, L. R. 1976. Ergotism: the satan loosed in Salem? Science 192: 2126.
16. Castegnaro, M.,, D. Danadas,, T. Vrabcheva,, T. Petkova-Bocharova,, I. N. Chernozemsky,, and A. Pfohl-Leszkowicz. 2006. Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 50: 519529.
17. CDC. 1982. Mushroom poisoning among Laotian refugees—1981. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 31: 287288.
18. Corley, D. G.,, M. Miller-Wideman,, and R. C. Durley. 1994. Isolation and structure of harzianum A: a new trichothecene from Trichoderma harzianum. J. Nat. Prod. 57: 422425.
19. Coty, P. J. 1989. Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillus flavus strains pathogenic to cotton. Phytopathology 79: 808814.
20. Dawlatana, M.,, R. D. Coker,, M. J. Nagler,, C. P. Wild,, M. S. Hassan,, and G. Blunden. 2002. The occurrence of mycotoxins in key commodities in Bangladesh: surveillance results from 1993–1995. J. Nat. Toxins 11: 379386.
21. Desjardins, A. E. 2003. Trichothecenes: from yellow rain to green wheat. ASM News 69: 182185.
22. Dohlman, E. 2003. Mycotoxin hazards and regulations, p. 98–108. In J. Buzby (ed.), International Trade and Food Safety: Economic Theory and Case Studies. Agricultural Economic Report no. AER828. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer828/. Accessed 27 May 2007.
23. FAO. 2001. Manual on the Application of the HACCP System in Mycotoxin Prevention and Control. FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre for Food and Pesticide Control, Vienna, Austria. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y1390e/y1390e00.htm. Accessed 20 May 2007.
24. FDA. 2006a. Mushroom toxins. In Bad Bug Book. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap40.html. Accessed 10 May 2007.
25. FDA. 2006b. Aflatoxins. In Bad Bug Book. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap41.html. Accessed 25 May 2007.
26. Gaumy, J. L.,, J. D. Bailey,, G. Benard,, and P. Guerre. 2001. Zearalenone: origin and effects on farm animals. Rev. Med. Vet. 152: 123136.
27. Gelderblom, W. C.,, K. Jaskiewicz,, and W. F. O. Marassas. 1988. Fumonisins—novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 18061811.
28. Godtfredsen, W. O.,, and S. Vangedal. 1964. Trichodermin, a new antibiotic, related to trichothecin. Proc. Chem. Soc. June: 188189.
29. Godtfredsen, W. O.,, and S. Vangedal. 1965. Trichodermin, a new sesquiterpene antibiotic. Acta Chem. Scand. 19: 10881102.
30. Harman, G. E.,, C. R. Howell,, A. Viterbo,, I. Chet,, and M. Lorito. 2004. Trichoderma species—opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 4356.
31. Herrera-Mozo, I.,, B. Ferrer,, J. L. Rodríguez-Sanchez,, and C. Juarez. 2006. Description of a novel panallergen of cross-reactivity between moulds and foods. Immunol. Invest. 35: 181197.
32. Hocking, A. 2007. Toxigenic Aspergillus species, p. 537–550. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
33. Hudler, G. W. 1998. Magical Mushrooms and Mischievous Molds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
34. IARC. 1993a. Aflatoxins: naturally occurring aflatoxins (Group 1), aflatoxins M1 (Group 2B). Int. Agency Res. Cancer 56: 245.
35. IARC. 1993b. Toxins derived from Fusarium moniliforme: fumonisins B1, Bx and fusarin C: monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans. Int. Agency Res. Cancer 56: 445466.
36. Jackson, L.,, and J. Jablonski. 2004. Fumonisins, p. 367-405. In N. Magan and, M. Olsen (ed.), Mycotoxins in Food: Detection and Control. CRC Press, New York, NY.
37. Jay, J. M.,, M. J. Loessner,, and D. A. Golden. 2005. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth, p. 39–59. In Modern Food Microbiology, 7th ed. Springer Science, New York, NY.
38. JECFA. 2001. Safety evaluation of certain mycotoxins in food. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) food and nutrition paper 74, World Health Organization (WHO) food additive series, 47. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v47je01.htm. Accessed 29 May 2007.
39. Kanisawa, M. 1984. Synergistic effect of citrinin on hapatorenal carcinogenesis of ochratoxin A in mice. Dev. Food Sci. 7: 245254.
40. Koirala, P.,, S. Kumar,, B. K. Yadav,, and K. C. Premarajan. 2005. Occurrence of aflatoxin in some of the food and feed in Nepal. Indian J. Med. Sci. 59: 331336.
41. Leung, M. C. K.,, G. Diaz-Llang,, and T. K. Smith. 2006. Mycotoxins in pet food: a review on worldwide prevalence and preventative strategies. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 96239635.
42. Lewis, L.,, M. Onsongo,, H. Njapau,, H. Schurz-Rogers,, G. Luber,, S. Kieszak,, J. Nyamongo,, L. Backer,, A. M. Dahiye,, A. Misore,, K. DeCock,, C. Rubin, and the Kenya Aflatoxicosis Investigation Group. 2005. Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central Kenya. Environ. Health Perspect. 113: 17631767.
43. Lincoff, G. H. 1981. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Knopf, New York, NY.
44. Lynch, M.,, J. Painter,, R. Woodruff,, and C. Braden. 2006. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks—United States, 1998–2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 134.
45. Magan, N.,, and M. Olsen (ed.). 2004. Mycotoxins in Food: Detection and Control. CRC Press, New York, NY.
46. Marasas, W. F. O.,, T. R. Riley,, K. A. Hendricks,, V. L. Stevens,, T. W. Sadler,, J. Glineau-van Waes,, S. A. Missmer,, J. Cabrera,, O. Torres,, W. C. Gelderblom,, J. Allegood,, C. Martinez,, J. Maddoz,, J. D. Miller,, L. Starr,, M. C. Sullands,, A. V. Roman,, K. A. Voss,, E. Wang,, and A. H. Merril. 2004. Fumonisins disrupt sphingolipids metabolism, folate transport, and neural tube development in embryo culture and in vivo: a potential risk factor for human neural tube defects among populations consuming fumonisin-contaminated maize. J. Nutr. 134: 711716.
47. Mayett, Y.,, D. Martinez-Carrera,, M. Sainchez,, A. Macaas,, S. Mora,, and A. Estrada-Torres. 2006. Consumption trends of edible mushrooms in developing countries: the case of Mexico. J. Int. Food Agribus. Market 18: 151176.
48. Miller, S. A,, and J. T. Dwyer. 2001. Evaluating the safety and nutritional value of mycoprotein. Food Technol. 55: 4247.
49. Murphy, P.,, S. Hendrich,, C. Landgren,, and C. B. Bryant. 2006. Food mycotoxins: an update. J. Food Sci. 71: 5165.
50. Ngugi, H. K.,, and D. M. Wilson. 2006. An overview of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya and challenges for monitoring and management, p. S152. Abstr. Spec. Session Presentations APS-CPS-MSA Joint Meet., Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, 29 July to 2 August. http://www.apsnet.org/meetings/2006/abstracts/ss06ma134.htm. Accessed 12 May 2007.
51. Nielson, K. F.,, T. Grafenhan,, D. Zafari,, and U. Thrane. 2005. Trichothecene production by Trichoderma brevicompactum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 81908196.
52. Nyikal, J.,, A. Misore,, C. Nzioka,, C. Njuguna,, E. Muchiri,, J. Njau,, S. Maingi,, J. Njoroge,, J. Mutiso,, J. Onteri,, A. Langat,, I. K. Kilei,, J. Nyamongo,, G. Ogana,, B. Muture,, P. Tukei,, C. Onyango,, W. Ochieng,, C. Tettch,, S. Likimani,, P. Nguku,, T. Galgalo,, S. Kibet,, A. Manya,, A. Dahiye,, J. Mwihia,, L. Mugoya,, J. Onsongo,, A. Ngindu,, K. M. DeCock,, K. Lindblade,, L. Slutsker,, P. Amornkul,, D. Rosen,, D. Feiken,, T. Thomas,, P. Mensah,, N. Eseko,, A. Nejjar,, M. Onsongo,, F. Kesell,, H. Njapau,, D. L. Park,, L. Lewis,, G. Luber,, H. Rogers,, L. Baker,, C. Rubin,, K. E. Gieseker,, E. Azzia-Baumgartner,, W. Chege,, and A. Bowman. 2004. Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning—Eastern and Central Provinces, Kenya, January–July 2004. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53: 790793.
53. Pestka, J. J.,, and A. T. Smolinski. 2005. Deoxynivalenol: toxicology and potential effects on humans. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B 8: 3969.
54. Pitt, J. I. 2007. Toxigenic Penicillium species, p. 551–562. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
55. Probst, C.,, H. Njapau,, and P. J. Coty. 2007. Outbreak of an acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004: identification of the causal agent. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 27622764.
56. Richard, J. L.,, and G. A. Payne (ed.). 2003. Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant, Animal, and Human Systems. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, IA.
57. SCF. 1998. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on ochratoxin A. Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out14_en.html. Accessed 25 May 2007.
58. Schwarz, P. B.,, S. M. Neate,, and G. E. Rottinghaus. 2006. Widespread occurrence of ergot in upper midwestern U.S. barley, 2005. Plant Dis. 90: 527.
59. Sperjers, G. J. A. 2004. Patulin, p. 339–352. In N. Magan and, M. Olsen (ed.), Mycotoxins in Foods: Detection and Control, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
60. Spoerke, D. G.,, and B. H. Rumack (ed.). 1994. Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
61. Stamets, P. 2000. Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA.
62. Stoev, S. D.,, H. Daskalov,, B. Radie,, A. M. Domijan,, and M. Peraica. 2002. Spontaneous mycotoxin nephropathy in Bulgarian chickens with unclarified mycotoxin aetiology. Vet. Res. 33: 8393.
63. Wang, J. S.,, and J. D. Groopman. 1999. DNA damage by mycotoxins. DNA Res. 424: 167181.
64. Watson, W. A.,, T. L. Litovitz,, G. C. Rodgers,, W. Klein-Schwartz,, N. Reid,, J. Youniss,, A. Flannigan,, and K. M. Wruk. 2005. 2004 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 23: 589666.
65. Weidenborner, M. 2001. Encyclopedia of Food Mycotoxins. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
66. Weiland, T. 1968. Poisonous principles of mushrooms of the genus Aminita. Science 159: 946952.
67. Wu, F. 2006. An analysis of Bt corn’s benefits and risks for national and regional policymakers considering Bt corn adoption. Int. J. Technol. Global. 2: 115136.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error