Chapter 1 : At the Shore

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Contaminated seafood was the leading cause of food-borne illness outbreaks, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, with seafood causing 340 outbreaks with 5,133 cases of food-borne illness in the United States between 1990 and 2001. Food-borne diseases associated with fish and shellfish can be categorized into allergic, infectious, and toxin-mediated etiologies. Ingestion of shellfish containing toxins produced by dinoflagellates may induce dramatic and sometimes fatal illness. Dinoflagellates, or plankton, are unicellular plant-like organisms with a worldwide distribution which serve as an important element of the food chain in marine animals. Mollusks become toxic when they ingest toxic dinoflagellates. Several species of toxic dinoflagellates have been implicated in outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The neurotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate probably do not accumulate in fish but do concentrate in filter-feeding shellfish in the vicinity of a bloom. Ciguatera is a distinct clinical syndrome that may follow the ingestion of certain tropical reef fishes which have acquired toxicity through the food chain. Scombroid-fish poisoning is an acute clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms of histamine toxicity resulting from the ingestion of spoiled fish. The spectrum of human disease due to the pathogenic vibrios is dependent mainly on the causative species and ranges from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis and soft tissue infections to severe necrotizing wound infections and fulminant bacteremia, primarily in patients with underlying diseases. Rotavirus is a common viral pathogen responsible for a large percentage of childhood diarrheal illnesses.

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2009. At the Shore, p 1-68. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch1
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The puffer fish is considered a delicacy in Japan and must be prepared by specially trained chefs to avoid fugu poisoning. (Reproduced from [ ] with permission from the publisher.)

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2009. At the Shore, p 1-68. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 2

A number of shark species have been implicated in shark attacks in North American waters. Specialized sensory systems compensate for poor color vision by allowing a shark to detect motion as well as electrical fields of its prey. Ripsaw teeth are replaced every few months. (Courtesy of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.)

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2009. At the Shore, p 1-68. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch1
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Moray eels usually flee when confronted. Fanglike teeth and vise-like jaws allow them to inflict serious damage if confronted. (Reprinted from http://www.abc-kid.com/eel/index5.html.)

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2009. At the Shore, p 1-68. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 4

The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is one of the most painful conditions known to afflict the skin. The wrapping of the tentacles typically results in linear circumferential stripes, which are caused by the deposition of urticariogenic and irritant substances, not by the force of the swing. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2009. At the Shore, p 1-68. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 5

Wounds caused by a sea urchin. Sea urchins have spines that may be several inches long. When stepped upon by an unwary swimmer, the spines may be driven deep into the skin and break off, resulting in an extremely painful injury. Secondary infections are nearly inevitable if the spines are left in. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2009. At the Shore, p 1-68. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch1
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