Chapter 6 : Around Cats

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Around Cats, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815950/9781555814847_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815950/9781555814847_Chap06-2.gif


There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans or that cats and people acquire from common sources, some of which are described in this chapter. The diseases discussed are arranged by the general method of transmission from cat to person, although more than one route is possible for certain infections. Recent data suggest that bacillary angiomatosis and hepatosplenic disease respond more favorably (rapidly and consistently) than typical cat scratch disease (CSD) to antimicrobial therapy for unclear reasons. Diagnosis is made by serologic studies or by isolation or cytologic demonstration of the organism from blood or body fluids or by histologic demonstration of the trophozoite. The prevalence of infection in cats being exclusively fed commercial rations is very low; however, up to 18% of healthy and healthy-appearing cats may be infected or carriers when foodstuffs are not restricted. Cats may be asymptomatic carriers but may also exhibit clinical infection, with anorexia, vomiting, and severe diarrhea, which are most likely to occur in the winter and spring. In cats, anthrax is manifested by inflammation, edema, and necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Infection with cowpox virus (an orthopoxvirus) is the most common poxvirus infection in cats. Older cats may develop draining abscesses as well as fever and adenopathy. As for cats, human therapy usually consists of topical antifungals such as clotrimazole, miconazole, etc., or in severe cases oral agents such as fluconazole or itraconazole.

Citation: Goldstein E, Greene C. 2009. Around Cats, p 153-171. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abraham, J. L.,, D. O. Morris,, G. C. Griffeth,, F. S. Shofer, and, S. C. Rankin. 2007. Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi. Vet. Dermatol. 18: 252259.
2. Adal, K. A.,, C. J. Cockerell, and, W. A. Petri, Jr. 1994. Cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and other infections due to Rochalimaea. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 15091515.
3. Amadi, B.,, M. Mwyla,, J. Musuku,, A. Watuka,, S. Sianoga,, A. Ayoub, and, P. Kelly. 2002. Effect of nitazoxanide on morbidity and mortality in Zambian children with cryptosporidiosis: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 360: 13751380.
4. Anderson, V. R., and, M. P. Curran. 2007. Nitazoxanide: a review of its use in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections. Drugs 67: 19471967.
5. Arisoy, E. S.,, A. G. Correa,, M. L. Wagner, and, S. L. Kaplan. 1999. Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease in children: selected clinical features and treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 778784.
6. Baele, H.,, A. Decostere,, P. Vandamme,, K. van den Bulck,, I. Gruntar,, J. Mehle,, J. Mast,, R. Ducatelle, and, P. Haesebrouch. 2008. Helicobacter baculiformis sp. nov., isolated from feline stomach mucosa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58: 357364.
7. Bass, J. W.,, B. C. Freitas,, A. D. Freitas,, C. L. Sisler,, D. S. Chan,, J. M. Vincent,, D. A. Person,, J. R. Claybaugh,, R. R. Whitter,, M. E. Weisse,, R. L. Regnery, and, L. N. Slater. 1998. Prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled evaluation of azithromycin for treatment of cat-scratch disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17: 447452.
8. Baxby, D.,, M. Bennett, and, B. Getty. 1994. Human cowpox: a review based on 54 cases, 1969–1993. Br. J. Dermatol. 131: 598607.
9. Ben-Ami, R.,, M. Ephros,, B. Avidor,, E. Katchman,, M. Varon,, C. Leibowitz,, D. Comaneshter, and, M. Giladi. 2005. Cat-scratch disease in the elderly. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 969974.
10. Billeter, S. A.,, J. A. Spenser,, B. Griffin,, C. C. Dykstra, and, B. L. Blagburn. 2007. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in domestic felines in the United States. Vet. Parasitol. 147: 194198.
11. Bjoersdorff, A.,, L. Svendenius,, J. H. Owens, and, R. F. Massung. 1999. Feline granulocytic ehrlichiosis—a report of a new clinical entity and characterization of the infectious agent. J. Small Anim. Pract. 40: 2024.
12. Carbone, M.,, M. T. Fera,, M. G. Pennisi,, M. Masucci,, A. De Sarro, and, C. Marci. 1999. Activity of nine fluoroquinolones against strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 12: 355358.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1996. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45 (53): 1103.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 194.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Update: recall of dry dog and cat food products associated with human Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections—United States, 2008. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 12001202.
16. Chomel, B. B.,, R. C. Abbott,, R. W. Kasten,, K. A. Floyd-Hawkins,, P. H. Kass,, C. A. Glaser,, N. C. Pedersen, and, J. E. Koehler. 1995. Bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in California: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 24452450.
17. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, J. E. Sykes,, H. J. Boulouis, and, E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2003. Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990: 267278.
18. Chomel, B. B.,, A. C. Wey,, R. W. Kasten,, B. A. Stacy, and, P. Labelle. 2003. Fatal case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella henselae infection in a domestic cat. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 53375339.
19. Civen, R., and, V. Ngo. 2008. Murine typhus: an unrecognized suburban vectorborne disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46: 913918.
20. Conrads, G.,, D. M. Citron,, S. Jang, and, E. J. C. Goldstein. 2004. Fusobacterium canifelinum sp. novum from the oral cavity of cats and dogs. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 407413.
21. Craven, R. B., and, A. M. Barnes. 1991. Plague and tularemia. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 5: 165175.
22. Dawson, J. E.,, I. Abeygunawardena,, C. J. Holland,, M. M. Buese, and, M. Ristic. 1988. Susceptibility of cats to infection with Ehrlichia risticii, causative agent of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 20962100.
23. del Giudice, P., and, P. Marty. 2003. Cat-associated zoonosis: don’t forget rabies and leishmaniasis. Arch. Intern. Med. 163: 1238.
24. de Lima Barros, M. B.,, A. de Oliveira Schubach,, M. C. Galhardo,, T. M. Schubach,, R. S. dos Reis,, M. J. Conceicao, and, A. C. do Valle. 2003. Sporotrichosis with widespread cutaneous lesions: report of 24 cases related to transmission by domestic cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int. J. Dermatol. 42: 677681.
25. Despommier, D. 2003. Toxocariasis: clinical aspects, epidemiology, medical ecology, and molecular aspects. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 265272.
26. Di Martino, B.,, C. E. Di Francesco,, I. Meridiani, and, F. Marsillo. 2007. Ecological investigation of multiple respiratory infections in cats. New Microbiol. 30: 455461.
27. Dworkin, M. S.,, P. S. Sullivan,, S. E. Buskin,, R. D. Harrington,, J. Olliffe,, R. D. MacArthur, and, C. E. Lopez. 1999. Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 10951099.
28. Eremeeva, M. E.,, W. R. Warashina,, M. M. Sturgeon,, A. E. Buchholz,, G. K. Olmsted,, S. Y. Park,, P. V. Effler, and, S. E. Karpathy. 2008. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 16131615.
29. Foley, J. E.,, C. M. Leutenegger,, J. S. Dumler,, N. C. Pedersen, and, J. E. Madigan. 2003. Evidence for modulated immune response to Anaplasma phagocytophila sensu lato in cats with FIV-induced immunosuppression. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26: 103113.
30. Fukushima, H.,, M. Gomyoda,, S. Ishikura,, T. Nishio,, S. Moriki,, J. Endo,, S. Kaneko, and, M. Tsubokura. 1989. Cat-contaminated environmental substances lead to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 27062709.
31. Gage, K. L.,, D. T. Dennis,, K. A. Orloski,, P. Ettestad,, T. L. Brown,, P. J. Reynolds,, W. J. Pape,, C. L. Fritz,, L. G. Carter, and, J. D. Stein. 2000. Cases of cat associated human plague in the western US, 1977–1998. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 893900.
32. Goldstein, E. J. C.,, D. M. Citron,, B. Wield,, U. Blachman,, V. L. Sutter,, T. A. Miller, and, S. M. Finegold. 1978. Bacteriology of human and animal bite wounds. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 667672.
33. Greene, C. E. (ed.). 2006. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 3rd ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
34. Greene, C. E.,, R. McDermott,, P. H. Jameson, and, A. M. Marks. 1996. Bartonella henselae infection in cats: evaluation during primary infection, treatment, and rechallenge infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 16821685.
35. Hamilton, D. H.,, K. M. Zangwill,, J. L. Hadler, and, M. L. Cartter. 1995. Cat-scratch disease—Connecticut, 1992–1993. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 570573.
36. Hartzell, J. D.,, R. N. Wood-Morris,, L. J. Martinez, and, R. F. Trotta. 2008. Q fever: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin. Proc. 83: 574579.
37. Hawranek, T.,, M. Tritscher,, W. H. Muss,, J. Jecel,, N. Nowotny,, J. Kolodziejek,, M. Emberger,, H. Schaeppi, and, H. Hintner. 2003. Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 49: 513518.
38. Hodges, R. D.,, A. M. Legendre,, L. G. Adams,, M. D. Willard,, R. P. Pitts,, K. Monce,, C. C. Needles, and, H. Ward. 1994. Itraconazole for the treatment of histoplasmosis in cats. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8: 409413.
39. Holley, H. P., Jr. 1991. Successful treatment of cat-scratch disease with ciprofloxacin. JAMA 265: 15631565.
40. Holst, E.,, J. Rolof,, L. Larsson, and, J. P. Nielsen. 1992. Characterization and distribution of Pasteurella species recovered from infected humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 29842987.
41. The Humane Society of the United States. American Pet Products Manufacturers Association (APPMA) 2007–2008 National Pet Owners Survey. http://www.hsus.org/pets/issues_affecting_our_pets/pet_overpopulation_and_ownership_statistics/us_pet_ownership_statistics.html. (Accessed 5 May 2009.)
42. Juranek, D. D. 1995. Cryptosporidiosis: sources of infection and guidelines for prevention. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21 (Suppl. 1): 5761.
43. Kadlek, K.,, C. Kehrenberg, and, S. Schwarz. 2005. Molecular basis of resistance to trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and sulphonamides in Bordetella bronchiseptica. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56: 485490.
44. Kenny, M. J.,, R. J. Birtles,, M. J. Day, and, S. E. Shaw. 2003. Rickettsia felis in the United Kingdom. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 10231024.
45. Koehler, J. E., and, J. W. Tappero. 1993. Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17: 612624.
46. Koehler, J. E.,, F. D. Quinn,, T. G. Berger,, P. E. LeBoit, and, J. W. Tappero. 1992. Isolation of Rochalimaea species from cutaneous and osseous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 16251631.
47. Kravetz, J. D., and, D. G. Federman. 2002. Cat-associated zoonoses. Arch. Intern. Med. 162: 19451952.
48. Kumar, S.,, M. Rizvi, and, N. Berry. 2008. Rising prevalence of enteric fever due to multidrug-resistant Salmonella: an epidemiological study. J. Med. Microbiol. 57: 12471250.
49. Kuno, A.,, K. Ido,, N. Isoda,, Y. Satoh,, K. Ono,, S. Satoh,, H. Inamori,, K. Sugano,, N. Kanai,, T. Nishizawa, and, H. Okamoto. 2003. Sporadic acute hepatitis E of a 47-year-old man whose pet cat was positive for antibody to hepatitis E virus. Hepatol. Res. 26: 237242.
50. Lappin, M. R.,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, W. A. Jensen,, B. Dunnigan,, J.-Y. Rha,, R. Williams,, M. Brewer, and, M. Fall. 2004. Molecular and serologic evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in cats in North America. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 225: 893896.
51. Lee, A. 1992. Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter-like organisms in animals: overview of mucus-colonizing organisms, p. 259–275. In B. J. Rathbone and, R. U. Heatley (ed.), Helicobacter pylori and Gastroduodenal Disease, 2nd ed. Blackwell Scientific, London, England.
52. Leonard, F. C., and, B. K. Markey. 2008. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals: a review. Vet. J. 175: 2736.
53. Maia, C.,, M. Nunez, and, L. Campino. 2008. Importance of cats in zoonotic leishmaniasis in Portugal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 8: 555560.
54. Malnick, H.,, K. Williams,, J. Phil-Ebosie, and, A. S. Levy. 1990. Description of a medium for isolating Anaerobiospirillum spp., a possible cause of zoonotic disease, from diarrheal feces and blood of humans and use of the medium in a survey of human, canine, and feline feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 13801384.
55. Malnick, H. 1997. Anaerobiospirillum thomasii sp. nov., an anaerobic spiral bacterium isolated from the feces of cats and dogs and from diarrheal feces of humans, and emendation of the genus Anaerobiospirillum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47: 381384.
56. Maman, E.,, J. Bickets,, M. Ephros,, D. Paran,, D. Comaneshter,, E. Metzkor-Cotter,, B. Avigdor,, M. Varon-Graidy,, S. Weintroub, and, M. Giladi. 2007. Musculoskeletal manifestations of cat scratch disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45: 15351540.
57. Martin-Sanchez, J.,, C. Acedo,, M. Munoz-Perez,, B. Pesson,, O. Marchal, and, F. Morillas-Marquez. 2007. Infection by Leishmania infantum in cats: epidemiological study in Spain. Vet. Parasitol. 145: 267273.
58. Maurin, M.,, S. Gasquet,, C. Ducco, and, D. Raoult. 1995. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 23872391.
59. Metzkor-Cotter, E.,, Y. Kletter,, B. Avidor,, M. Varon,, Y. Golan,, M. Ephros, and, M. Giladi. 2003. Long-term serological analysis and clinical follow-up of patients with cat scratch disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 11491154.
60. Montoya, J. G., and, J. S. Remmington. 2008. Management of Toxoplasmosis gondii infection during pregnancy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: 554566.
61. Moran, G. J.,, A. Krishnadasan,, R. J. Horowitz,, G. F. Fosheim,, L. K. McDougal,, R. R. Carey, and, D. A. Talan. 2006. Methicillinresistant S. aureus infections among patients in emergency departments. N. Engl. J. Med. 355: 666674.
62. Mui, B. S. K.,, M. E. Mulligan, and, W. L. George. 1990. Response of HIV-associated disseminated cat scratch disease to treatment with doxycycline. Am. J. Med. 89: 229231.
63. Nakazawa, Y.,, R. Williams,, A. T. Peterson,, A. T. Mead,, E. Staples, and, K. L. Gage. 2007. Climate change on plague and tularemia in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 7: 529540.
64. Ortuno, A.,, C. B. Gauss,, F. Garcia, and, J. F. Gutierrez. 2005. Serological evidence of Ehrlichia spp. exposure in cats from northeastern Spain. J. Vet. Med. B 52: 246248.
65. Perez-Osorio, C. E.,, J. E. Zavala-Velasquez,, J. J. A. Leon, and, J. E. Zavala-Castro. 2008. Riskettsia felis as emergent global threat for humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 10191023.
66. Pinard, J. A.,, N. S. Leslie, and, P. J. Irvine. 2003. Maternal serologic screening for toxoplasmosis. J. Midwifery Womens Health 48: 308316.
67. Prag, J.,, J. Blom, and, K. A. Korogfelt. 2007. Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a 7-month-old child. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 50: 264267.
68. Purcell, R. H., and, S. U. Emerson. 2000. Hepatitis E virus, p. 1958–1970. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett, and, R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
69. Raoult, D.,, P. E. Fournier,, M. Drancourt,, T. J. Marrie,, J. Etienne,, J. Cosserat,, P. Cacoub,, Y. Poinsignon,, P. Leclerq, and, A. M. Sefton. 1996. Diagnosis of 22 new cases of Bartonella endocarditis. Ann. Intern. Med. 125: 646652.
70. Reed, J. B.,, D. K. Scales,, M. T. Wong, and, C. P. Lattuada, Jr. 1998. Cat scratch disease retinitis, therapy. Ophthalmology 105: 459466.
71. Regnery, R., and, J. Tappero. 1997. Unraveling mysteries associated with cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and related syndromes. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1: 1621.
72. Rolain, J. M.,, P. Brouqui,, J. E. Koehler,, C. Maguina,, M. J. Dolan, and, D. Raoult. 2004. Recommendations for treatment of human infections caused by Bartonella species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 19211933.
73. Rotami, V. O.,, W. Jamal,, T. Pal,, A. Sovenned and, M. J. Albert. 2008. Emergence of CTX-M-15 type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella spp. in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. J. Med. Microbiol. 57: 881886.
74. Schubach, T. M.,, A. Schubach,, T. Okamoto,, I. V. Pellon,, P. C. Fialho-Monteiro,, R. S. Reis,, M. B. Barros,, M. Andrade-Perez, and, B. Wanke. 2003. Haematogenous spread of Sporothrix schenckii in cats with naturally acquired sporotrichosis. J. Small Anim. Pract. 44: 395398.
75. Singh, A.,, C. Tuschak, and, S. Hormansdorfer. 2008. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a family and its pet cat. N. Engl. J. Med. 358: 12001201.
76. Spilker, T.,, A. A. Liwienski, and, J. J. Li Puma. 2008. Identification of Bordetella spp. in respiratory specimens from individuals with cystic fibrosis. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14: 504506.
77. Talan, D. A.,, D. M. Citron,, F. A. Abrahamian,, G. J. Moran,, E. J. C. Goldstein, and the Emergency Medicine Animal Bite Infection Study Group. 1999. The bacteriology and management of dog and cat bite wound infections presenting to emergency departments. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 8592.
78. Tappero, J. W.,, J. Mohle-Boetani,, J. E. Koehler,, B. Swaminathan,, T. G. Berger,, P. E. LeBoit,, L. L. Smith,, J. D. Wenger,, R. W. Pinner,, C. A. Kemper, and, A. L. Reingold. 1993. The epidemiology of bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269: 770775.
79. Titball, R. W., and, A. Sjostedt. 2003. Francisella tularensis: an overview. ASM News 69: 558563.
80. Urich, S. K., and, J. M. Petersen. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of isolates of Francisella tularensis types A and B from North America. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 22762278.
81. Van den Bulck, K.,, A. Decostere,, I. Gruntar,, M. Baele,, B. Krt,, R. Ducatelle, and, F. Haesebrouck. 2005. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 29973000.
82. van Loon, S.,, A. Bart,, E. J. den Hertog,, P. G. Nikkels,, R. H. Houwen,, J. E. De Schryver, and, J. H. Oudshoorn. 2003. Helicobacter heilmannii gastritis caused by cat to child transmission. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 36: 407409.
83. Welch, D. F.,, D. A. Pickett,, L. N. Slater,, A. G. Steigerwalt, and, D. J. Brenner. 1992. Rochalimaea henselae sp. nov., a cause of septicemia, bacillary angiomatosis, and parenchymal bacillary peliosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 275280.
84. Whichard, J. M.,, K. Gay,, J. E. Stevenson,, K. J. Joyce,, K. L. Cooper,, M. Omondi,, F. Medalla,, G. A. Jacoby and, T. J. Barrett. 2007. Human Salmonella and concurrent decreased susceptibility to quinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 16811688.
85. Wolfson, C.,, J. Branley, and, T. Gottlieb. 1996. The Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bartonella henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38: 963968.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error