Chapter 30 : Parvoviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Parvoviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap30-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap30-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the two known human parvoviruses: B19 and human bocavirus (HBoV). While most autonomous parvoviruses possess unique sequences at either terminus, B19 differs in that its termini are inverted terminal repeats. B19 replication follows a modified rolling hairpin model of replication characteristic of the autonomous parvoviruses. The viral nonstructural protein NS1 serves as the “nickase,” which reduces the replicative forms to progeny virus. Nickase reduction results in two distinct configurations of the distal 375-nucleotide palindromes, which are inverted complements of each other. Parvovirus B19, like other parvoviruses, replicates and assembles in the cell nucleus. Upon histological analysis, a parvovirus infection may be suspected on the basis of intranuclear inclusions characterized by a peripheral nuclear presence. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers exquisite sensitivity and the ability to detect B19 DNA in an array of clinical specimens.

Citation: Naides S. 2009. Parvoviruses, p 546-561. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch30
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Ouchterlony gel diffusion assay showing newly discovered B19 antigen (Δ) nonidentity with HB antigen sub-types ad and ay, using anti-B19 antibody positive antiserum P (reprinted from Cossart et al., 1975, with permission from Elsevier).

Citation: Naides S. 2009. Parvoviruses, p 546-561. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch30
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

(A) Fetal ascites from a hydropic fetus showing viral particles without label, prepared by a pseudoreplica technique, and negatively stained by uranyl acetate. Original magnification, ×100,000; image magnification, ×280,000; bar, 50 nm. (B) The fetal ascites prepared by pseudoreplica technique and identified as B19 by indirect labeling with colloidal gold (arrow) before negative staining with uranyl acetate. Original magnification, ×50,000; image magnification, ×140,000; bar, 100 nm. (Reprinted with permission from Naides and Weiner, 1989.)

Citation: Naides S. 2009. Parvoviruses, p 546-561. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch30
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ager, A. E.,, T. D. Y. Chin, and, J. D. Poland. 1966. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. N. Engl. J. Med. 275: 13261331.
2. Allander, T.,, M. T. Tammi,, M. Eriksson,, A. Bjerkner,, A. Tiveljung-Lindell, and, B. Andersson. 2005. Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 1289112896.
3. Anand, A.,, E. S. Gray,, T. Brown,, J. P. Clewley, and, B. J. Cohen. 1987. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 183186.
4. Anderson, L. J.,, R. A. Tsou,, T. L. Chorba,, H. Wulff,, P. Tattersall, and, P. P. Mortimer. 1986. Detection of antibodies and antigens of human parvovirus B19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 522526.
5. Anderson, L. J.,, and E. S. Hurwitz. 1988. Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Clin. Perinatol. 15: 273286.
6. Anderson, M. J.,, and B. J. Cohen. 1987. Human parvovirus B19 infections in United Kingdom 1984-86. Lancet i: 738739.
7. Anderson, M. J.,, S. E. Jones,, S. P. Fisher Hoch,, E. Lewis,, S. M. Hall,, C. L. Bartlett,, B. J. Cohen,, P. P. Mortimer, and, M. S. Pereira. 1983. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? Lancet i: 1378.
8. Anderson, M. J.,, E. Lewis,, I. M. Kidd,, S. M. Hall, and, B. J. Cohen. 1984. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J. Hyg. 93: 8593.
9. Anderson, M. J.,, P. G. Higgins,, L. R. Davis,, J. S. Willman,, S. E. Jones,, I. M. Kidd,, J. R. Pattison, and, D. A. Tyrrell. 1985a. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 257265.
10. Anderson, M. J.,, S. E. Jones, and, A. C. Minson. 1985b. Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J. Med. Virol. 15: 163172.
11. Anderson, M. J.,, S. M. Hall, and, G. R. Serjeant. 1989. Risks associated with human parvovirus B19 infection. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 38: 8197.
12. Andrews, M.,, R. W. Y. Martin,, A. R. Duff,, H. D. Greig, and, S. A. H. Frost. 1984. Fifth disease: report of an outbreak. J. R. Coll. Gen. Pract. 34: 573574.
13. Arnett, F. C.,, S. M. Edworthy,, D. A. Bloch,, D. J. McShane,, J. F. Fries,, N. S. Cooper,, L. A. Healey,, S. R. Kaplan,, M. H. Liang,, H. S. Luthra,, T. A. Medsger, Jr.,, D. M. Mitchell,, D. H. Neustadt,, R. S. Pinals,, J. G. Schaller,, J. T. Sharp,, R. L. Wilder, and, G. G. Hunder. 1988. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 31: 315324.
14. Arnold, J. C.,, K. K. Singh,, S. A. Spector, and, M. H. Sawyer. 2006. Human bocavirus: prevalence and clinical spectrum at a children’s hospital. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43: 283288.
15. Astell, C. R. 1990. In P. Tijssen (ed.), Handbook of Parvoviruses, vol. I, p. 59–79. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
16. Astell, C. R.,, and M. C. Blundell. 1989. Sequence of the right hand terminal palindrome of the human B19 parvovirus genome has the potential to form a “stem plus arms” structure. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 5857.
17. Azzi, A.,, K. Zakrzewska,, G. Gentilomi,, M. Musiani, and, M. Zerbini. 1990. Detection of B19 parvovirus infections by a dot-blot hybridization assay using a digoxigenin-labeled probe. J. Virol. Methods 27: 125133.
18. Bastien, N.,, K. Brandt,, K. Dust,, D. Ward, and, Y. Li. 2006. Human Bocavirus infection, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 848850.
19. Bell, L. M.,, S. J. Naides,, P. Stoffman,, R. L. Hodinka, and, S. A. Plotkin. 1989. Human parvovirus B 19 infection among hospital staff members after contact with infected patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 485491.
20. Berg, A. M.,, S. J. Naides, and, R. W. Simms. 1993. Established fibromyalgia syndrome and parvovirus B19 infection. J. Rheumatol. 20: 19411943.
21. Berns, K. I.,, and W. W. Hauswirth. 1984. In K. I. Berns (ed.), The Parvoviruses, p. 1–31. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
22. Bertrand, Y.,, J. J. Lefrere,, G. Leverger,, A. M. Courouce,, C. Feo,, M. Clark,, G. Schaison, and, J. P. Soulier. 1985. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia revealed by human parvovirus linked erythroblastopenia. Lancet ii: 382383.
23. Blaeser, F.,, M. Kelly,, K. Siegrist,, G. A. Storch,, R. S. Buller,, J. Whitlock,, N. Truong, and, T. A. Chatila. 2005. Critical function of the CD40 pathway in parvovirus B19 infection revealted by a hypomorphic CD40 ligand mutation. Clin. Immunol. 117: 231237.
24. Blundell, M. C.,, C. Beard, and, C. R. Astell. 1987. In vitro identification of a B19 parvovirus promoter. Virology 157: 534538.
25. Bond, P. R.,, E. Q. Caul,, J. Usher,, B. J. Cohen,, J. P. Clewley, and, A. M. Field. 1986. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus. Lancet i: 448449.
26. Boruchoff, S. E.,, B. A. Woda,, G. A. Pihan,, W. A. Durbin,, D. Burstein, and, N. R. Blacklow. 1990. Parvovirus B19-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. Arch. Intern. Med. 150: 897899.
27. Bowman, C. A.,, B. J. Cohen,, D. R. Norfolk, and, C. J. Lacey. 1990. Red cell aplasia associated with human parvovirus B19 and HIV infection: failure to respond clinically to intravenous immunoglobulin. AIDS 4: 10381039.
28. Brandrup, F.,, and P. O. Larsen. 1976. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). Br. Med. J. 2 :4748.
29. Brown, C. S.,, M. J. A. W. M. van Bussel,, A. L. M. Wassenaar,, A. W. van Elsacker-Niele,, H. T. Weiland, and, M. M. M. Salimans. 1990. An immunofluorescence assay for the detection of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies based on recombinant viral antigen. J. Virol. Methods 29: 5362.
30. Brown, K. E.,, J. Mori,, B. Cohen, and, A. M. Field. 1991. In vitro propagation of parvovirus B19 in primary foetal liver culture. J. Gen. Virol. 72: 741745.
31. Brown, T.,, A. Anand,, L. D. Ritchie,, J. P. Clewley, and, T. M. Reid. 1984. Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis. Lancet ii: 10331034.
32. Brunstein, J.,, M. Soderlund-Venermo, and, K. Hedman. 2000. Identification of a novel RNA splicing pattern as a basis of restricted cell tropism of erythrovirus B19. Virology 274: 284291.
33. Bruu, A. L.,, and S. A. Nordbo. 1995. Evaluation of five commercial tests for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to human parvovirus B19. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 13631365.
34. Burton, P. A. 1986. Intranuclear inclusions in marrow of hydropic fetus due to parvovirus infection. Lancet ii: 1155.
35. Butchko, A. R.,, and J. A. Jordan. 2004. Comparison of three commercially available serologic assays used to detect human parvovirus B19-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in sera of pregnant women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 31913195.
36. Carrington, D.,, D. H. Gilmore,, M. J. Whittle,, D. Aitken,, A. A. Gibson,, W. J. Patrick,, T. Brown,, E. O. Caul,, A. M. Field, and, J. P. Clewley. 1987. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein—a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet i: 433435.
37. Carter, B. J.,, E. Mendelson, and, J. P. Trempe. 1990. In P. Tijssen (ed.), Handbook of Parvoviruses, vol. I, p. 169–226. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
38. Catalano-Pons, C.,, C. Giraud,, F. Rozenberg,, J. F. Meritet,, P. Lebon, and, D. Gendrel. 2007. Detection of human bocavirus in children with Kawasaki disease. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13: 12201222.
39. Caul, E. O.,, M. Usher, and, P. A. Burton. 1988. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a light and electron microscopy study. J. Med. Virol. 24: 5566.
40. Chorba, T.,, P. Coccia,, R. C. Holman,, P. Tattersall,, L. J. Anderson,, J. Sudman,, N. S. Young,, E. Kurczynski,, U. M. Saarinen, and, R. Moir. 1986. The role of parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J. Infect. Dis. 154: 383393.
41. Chrystie, I. L.,, J. D. Almeida, and, J. Welch. 1990. Electron microscopic detection of human parvovirus (B19) in a patient with HIV infection. J. Med. Virol. 30: 249252.
42. Clarke, H. C. 1984. Erythema infectiosum: an epidemic with a probable posterythema phase. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 130: 603604.
43. Clewley, J. P. 1984. Biochemical characterization of a human parvovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 241245.
44. Clewley, J. P. 1985. Detection of human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J. Med. Virol. 15: 173181.
45. Clewley, J. P.,, B. J. Cohen, and, A. M. Field. 1987. Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA, antigen, and particles in the human fetus. J. Med. Virol. 23: 367376.
46. Clewley, J. P. 1989. Polymerase chain reaction assay of parvovirus B19 DNA in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 26472651.
47. Cohen, B. J. 1988. In J. R. Pattison (ed.), Parvoviruses and Human Disease p. 69–83. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
48. Cohen, B. J.,, P. P. Mortimer, and, M. S. Pereira. 1983. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? Lancet i: 1378.
49. Cohen, B. J.,, and J. A. Shirley. 1985. Dual infection with rubella and human parvovirus. Lancet ii: 662663.
50. Cohen, B. J.,, and E. M. Supran. 1987. IgM serology for rubella and human parvovirus B19. Lancet i: 393.
51. Cohen, B. J.,, P. P. Mortimer, and, M. S. Pereira. 1983. Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV). J. Hyg. 91: 113130.
52. Cohen, B. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, T. F. Schwarz,, K. Okochi, and, G. J. Kurtzman. 1988. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19. J. Clin. Pathol. 41: 10271028.
53. Corbau, R.,, N. Salom,, J. Rommelaere, and, J. P. Nuesch. 1999. Phosphorylation of the viral nonstructural protein NS1 during MVMp infection of A9 cells. Virology 5: 402415.
54. Corman, L. C.,, and D. J. Dolson. 1992. Polyarteritis nodosa and parvovirus B19 infection. Lancet 339: 491.
55. Corman, L. C.,, and R. Staud. 1995. Association of Wegener’s granulomatosis with parvovirus B19 infection: comment on the concise communication by Nikkari et al. Arthritis Rheum. 38: 11741175.
56. Cossart, Y. E.,, A. M. Field,, B. Cant, and, D. Widdows. 1975. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Lancet i: 7273.
57. Cotmore, S. F., and P. Tattersall. 1984. Characterization and molecular cloning of a human parvovirus genome. Science 226: 11611165.
58. Cotmore, S. F.,, and P. Tattersall. 1989. A genome-linked copy of the NS-1 polypeptide is located on the outside of infectious parvovirus particles. J. Virol. 63: 39023911.
59. Cotmore, S. F.,, V. C. McKie,, L. J. Anderson,, C. R. Astell, and, P. Tattersall. 1986. Identification of the major structural and non-structural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments. J. Virol. 60: 548557.
60. Cramp, H. E.,, and B. D. J. Armstrong. 1976. Erythema infectiosum: an outbreak of “slapped cheek” disease in north Devon. Br. Med. J. 1: 885886.
61. Davidson, R. J.,, T. Brown, and, D. Wiseman. 1984. Human parvovirus infection and aplastic crisis in hereditary spherocytosis. J. Infect. 9: 298300.
62. Deiss, V.,, J. D. Tratschin,, M. Weitz, and, G. Siegl. 1990. Cloning of the human parvovirus B19 genome and structural analysis of its palindromic termini. Virology 175: 247254.
63. de Mayolo, J. A.,, and J. D. Temple. 1990. Pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection in a man with HIV infection. South. Med. J. 83: 14801481.
64. Denning, D. W.,, A. Amos,, P. Rudge, and, B. J. Cohen. 1987. Neuralgic amyotrophy due to parvovirus infection. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 50: 641642.
65. Dettwiler, S.,, J. Rommelaere, and, J. P. Nuesch. 1999. DNA unwinding functions of minute virus of mice NS1 protein are modulated specifically by the lambda isoform protein kinase C. J. Virol. 73: 74107420.
66. Drago, F.,, A. Parodi, and, A. Rebora. 1997. Gloves-and-socks syndrome in a patient with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Dermatology 194: 374.
67. Duncan, J. R.,, C. B. Potter,, M. D. Cappellini,, J. B. Kurtz,, M. J. Anderson, and, D. J. Weatherall. 1983. Aplastic crisis due to parvovirus infection in pyruvate kinase deficiency. Lancet ii: 1416.
68. Endo, R.,, N. Ishiguro,, H. Kikuta,, S. Teramoto,, R. Shirk-oohi,, X. Ma,, T. Ebihara,, H. Ishiko, and, T. Ariga. 2007. Seroepidemiology of human bocavirus in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 32183223.
69. Erdman, D. D.,, B. C. Anderson,, T. J. Torok,, T. H. Finkel, and, L. J. Anderson. 1997. Possible transmission of parvovirus B19 from intravenous immune globulin. J. Med. Virol. 53: 233236.
70. Erdman, D. D.,, E. L. Durigon,, Q. Y. Wang, and, L. J. Anderson. 1996. Genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19: sequence analysis of the VP1/VP2 gene from multiple isolates. J. Gen. Virol. 77: 27672774.
71. Etienne, A.,, and M. Harms. 1996. Cutaneous manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection. Presse Medicale 25: 11621165.
72. Evans, J. P.,, M. A. Rossiter,, T. O. Kumaran,, G. W. Marsh, and, P. P. Mortimer. 1984. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to cross infection in a ward. Br. Med. J. 288: 681.
73. Faden, H.,, G. W. Gary, Jr., and, L. J. Anderson. 1992. Numbness and tingling of fingers associated with parvovirus B19 infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15: 595597.
74. Faden, H.,, G. W. Gary, Jr., and, M. Korman. 1990. Numbness and tingling of fingers associated with parvovirus B19 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 354355.
75. Feder, H. M., Jr. 1994. Fifth disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 1062.
76. Finkel, T. H.,, T. J. Torok,, P. J. Ferguson,, E. L. Durigon,, S. R. Zaki,, D. Y. M. Leung,, R. J. Harbeck,, E. W. Gelfand,, F. T. Saulsbury,, J. R. Hollister, and, L. J. Anderson. 1994. Chronic parvovirus B19 infection and systemic necrotizing vasculitis: opportunistic infection or aetiological agent? Lancet 343: 12551258.
77. Foto, F.,, K. G. Saag,, L. L. Scharosch,, E. J. Howard, and, S. J. Naides. 1993. Parvovirus B19-specific DNA in bone marrow from B19 arthropathy patients: evidence for B19 virus persistence. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 744748.
78. Franssila, R.,, M. Soderlund,, C. S. Brown,, W. J. Spaan,, I. Seppala, and, K. Hedman. 1996. IgG subclass response to human parvovirus B19 infection. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 6: 4149.
79. Frickhofen, N.,, and N. S. Young. 1989. Persistent parvovirus B19 infections in humans. Microb. Pathog. 7: 319327.
80. Frickhofen, N.,, and N. S. Young. 1990. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of parvovirus B19 in immunodeficient patients with anemia. Behring Inst. Mitt. 85: 4654.
81. Frickhofen, N.,, J. L. Abkowitz,, M. Safford,, J. M. Berry,, J. Antunez de Mayolo,, A. Astrow,, R. Cohen,, I. Halperin,, L. King, and, D. Mintzer. 1990. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1): a treatable cause of anemia in AIDS. Ann. Intern. Med. 113: 926933.
82. Fridell, E.,, B. J. Cohen, and, B. Wahren. 1991. Evaluation of a synthetic-peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M to human parvovirus B19. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 13761381.
83. Gallinella, G.,, S. M. Anderson,, N. S. Young, and, K. E. Brown. 1995. Human parvovirus B19 can infect cynomolgus monkey marrow cells in tissue culture. J. Virol. 69: 38973899.
84. Goldman, F.,, H. Rotbart,, K. Gutierrez, and, D. Ambruso. 1990. Parvovirus-associated aplastic crisis in a patient with red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9: 593594.
85. Graeve, J. L.,, P. A. de Alarcon, and, S. J. Naides. 1989. Parvovirus B19 infection in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: the expanding spectrum of disease. Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 11: 441444.
86. Gray, E. S.,, A. Anand, and, T. Brown. 1986. Parvovirus infections in pregnancy. Lancet i: 208.
87. Gray, E. S.,, R. J. Davidson, and, A. Anand. 1987. Human parvovirus and fetal anaemia. Lancet i: 1144.
88. Green, D. H.,, A. J. Bellingham, and, M. J. Anderson. 1984. Parvovirus infection in a family associated with aplastic crisis in an affected sibling pair with hereditary spherocytosis. J. Clin. Pathol. 37: 11441146.
89. Hanada, T.,, K. Koike,, T. Takeya,, T. Nagasawa,, Y. Matsunaga, and, H. Takita. 1988. Human parvovirus B19-induced transient pancytopenia in a child with hereditary spherocytosis. Br. J. Haematol. 70: 113115.
90. Hassam, S.,, J. Briner,, J. D. Tratschin,, G. Siegl, and, P. U. Heitz. 1990. In situ hybridization for the detection of human parvovirus B19 nucleic acid sequences in paraffin-embedded specimens. Virchows Arch. B 59: 257261.
91. Hattori, S.,, M. Yunoki,, M. Tsujikawa,, T. Urayama,, Y. Tachibana,, I. Yamamoto,, S. Yamamoto, and, K. Ikuta. 2007. Variability of parvovirus B19 to inactivation by liquid heating in plasma products. Vox Sang. 92: 121124.
92. Heegaard, E. D.,, K. Qvortrup, and, J. Christensen. 2002. Baculovirus expression of erythrovirus V9 capsids and screening by ELISA: serologic cross-reactivity with erythrovirus B19. J. Med. Virol. 66: 246252.
93. Hindiyeh, M.,, N. Keller,, M. Mandelboim,, D. Ram,, J. Rubinov,, L. Regev,, V. Levy,, S. Orzitzer,, H. Shaharabani,, R. Azar,, E. Mendelson, and, Z. Grossman. 2008. High rate of human bocavirus and adenovirus coinfection in hospitalized Israeli children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 334337.
94. Hokynar, K.,, M. Soderlund-Venermo,, M. Pesonen,, A. Ranki,, O. Kiviluoto,, E. Partio, and, K. Hedman. 2002. A new parvovirus genotype persistent in human skin. Virology 302: 224228.
95. Johansen, J. N.,, L. S. Christensen,, K. Zakrzewska,, K. Carlsen,, A. Hornsleth, and, A. Azzi. 1998. Typing of European strains of parvovirus B19 by restriction endonuclease analyses and sequencing: identification of evolutionary lineages and evidence of recombination of markers from different lineages. Virus Res. 53: 215223.
96. Jordan, J. A. 2000. Comparison of a baculovirus-based VP2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to an Escherichia coli-based VP1 EIA for detection of human parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G in sera of pregnant women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 14721475.
97. Joseph, P. R. 1986. Incubation period of fifth disease. Lancet i: 13901391.
98. Kajigaya, S.,, T. Shimada,, S. Fujita, and, N. S. Young. 1989. A genetically engineered cell line that produces empty capsids of B19 (human) parvovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 76017605.
99. Karetnyi, Y. V.,, P. R. Beck,, R. S. Markin,, A. N. Langnas, and, S. J. Naides. 1999. Human parvovirus B19 infection in acute fulminant liver failure. Arch. Virol. 144: 17131724.
100. Kelleher, J. F., Jr.,, N. L. Luban,, B. J. Cohen, and, P. P. Mortimer. 1984. Human serum parvovirus as the cause of aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease. Am. J. Dis. Child. 138: 401403.
101. Kesebir, D.,, M. Vazquez,, C. Weibel,, E. D. Shapiro,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry, and, J. S. Kahn. 2006. Human bocavirus infection in young children in the United States: molecular epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of a newly emerging respiratory virus. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 12761282.
102. Kilbourne, E. D.,, C. P. Cerini,, M. W. Khan,, J. W. Mitchell, Jr., and, P. L. Ogra. 1987. Immunologic response to the influenza virus neuraminidase is influenced by prior experience with the associated viral hemagglutinin. J. Immunol. 138: 30103013.
103. Kinney, J. S.,, L. J. Anderson,, J. Farrar,, R. A. Strikas,, M. L. Kumar,, R. M. Kuegman,, J. L. Sever,, E. S. Hurwitz, and, R. K. Sikes. 1988. Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 663667.
104. Klouda, P. T.,, S. A. Corbin,, B. A. Bradley,, B. J. Cohen, and, A. D. Woolf. 1986. HLA and acute arthritis following human parvovirus infection. Tissue Antigens 28: 318319.
105. Knisely, A. S. 1990. Parvovirus B19 infection in the fetus. Lancet 336: 443.
106. Knisely, A. S.,, P. A. O’Shea,, P. McMillan,, D. B. Singer, and, M. S. Magid. 1988. Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr. Pathol. 8: 163170.
107. Knott, P. D.,, G. A. Welply, and, M. J. Anderson. 1984. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Br. Med. J. 289: 1660.
108. Koch, W. C.,, and S. P. Adler. 1990. Detection of human parvovirus B19 DNA by using the polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 6569.
109. Koduri, P. R.,, and S. J. Naides. 1995. Aseptic meningitis caused by parvovirus B19. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 1053.
110. Komatsu, N.,, H. Nakauchi,, A. Miwa,, T. Ishihara,, M. Eguchi,, M. Moroi,, M. Okada,, Y. Sato,, H. Wada,, Y. Yawata,, T. Suda, and, Y. Miura. 1991. Establishment and characterization of a human leukemic cell line with megakaryocytic features: dependency on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 3, or erythropoietin for growth and survival. Cancer Res. 51: 341348.
111. Koskenvuo, M.,, M. Mottonen,, M. Waris,, T. Allander,, T. T. Salmi, and, O. Ruuskanen. 2008. Human bocavirus in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Eur. J. Pediatr. 167: 10111015.
112. Kurtz, J. B.,, and M. J. Anderson. 1985. Cross-reactions in rubella and parvovirus specific IgM tests. Lancet ii: 1356.
113. Kurtzman, G. J.,, K. Ozawa,, B. Cohen,, G. Hanson,, R. Oseas, and, N. S. Young. 1987. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 317: 287294.
114. Kurtzman, G. J.,, B. Cohen,, P. Meyers,, A. Amunullah, and, N. S. Young. 1988. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Lancet ii: 11591162.
115. Kurtzman, G.,, N. Frickhofen,, J. Kimball,, D. W. Jenkins,, A. W. Nienhuis, and, N. S. Young. 1989a. Pure red-cell aplasia of 10 years duration due to persistent parvovirus B19 infection and its cure with immunoglobulin therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 519523.
116. Kurtzman, G. J.,, B. J. Cohen,, A. M. Field,, R. Oseas,, R. M. Blaese, and, N. S. Young. 1989b. Immune response to B19 parvovirus and an antibody defect in persistent viral infection. J. Clin. Investig. 84: 11141123.
117. Langnas, A. N.,, R. S. Markin,, M. S. Cattral, and, S. J. Naides. 1995. Parvovirus B19 as a possible causative agent of fulminant liver failure and associated aplastic anemia. Hepatology 22: 16611665.
118. Lau, S. K.,, C. C. Yip,, T. L. Que,, R. A. Lee,, R. K. Au-Yeung,, B. Zhou,, L. Y. So,, Y. L. Lau,, K. H. Chan,, P. C. Woo, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2007. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human bocavirus in respiratory and fecal samples from children in Hong Kong. J. Infect. Dis. 196: 986993.
119. Lauer, B. A.,, J. N. MacCormack, and, C. Wilfert. 1976. Erythema infectiosum: an elementary school outbreak. Am. J. Dis. Child. 130: 252254.
120. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, J. Y. Muller,, M. Clark, and, J. P. Soulier. 1985. Human parvovirus and purpura. Lancet i: 730.
121. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, Y. Bertrand,, R. Girot, and, J. P. Soulier. 1986a. Human parvovirus and aplastic crisis in chronic hemolytic anemias: a study of 24 observations. Am. J. Hematol. 23: 271275.
122. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, C. Boucheix,, C. Chomienne,, A. Bernadou, and, J. P. Soulier. 1986b. Aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) revealing a hereditary spherocytosis in a familial human parvovirus infection. Nouv. Rev. Fr. Hematol. 28: 79.
123. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, R. Girot,, Y. Bertrand, and, J. P. Soulier. 1986c. Six cases of hereditary spherocytosis revealed by human parvovirus infection. Br. J. Haematol. 62: 653658.
124. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, R. Girot, and, P. Cornu. 1986d. Human parvovirus and thalassaemia. J. Infect. 13: 4549.
125. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce,, J. P. Soulier,, M. P. Cordier,, M. C. Guesne Girault,, C. Polonovski, and, A. Bensman. 1986e. Henoch-Schonlein purpura and human parvovirus infection. Pediatrics 78: 183184.
126. Lefrere, J. J.,, R. Girot,, A. M. Courouce,, M. Maier Redelsperger, and, P. Cornu. 1986f. Familial human parvovirus infection associated with anemia in siblings with heterozygous beta-thalassemia. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 977979.
127. Lefrere, J. J.,, A. M. Courouce, and, C. Kaplan. 1989. Parvovirus and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Lancet i: 279.
128. Leruez-Ville, M.,, A. Lauge,, F. Morinet,, L. Guillevin, and, P. Deny. 1994. Polyarteritis nodosa and parvovirus B19. Lancet 344: 263264.
129. Longo, G.,, M. Luppi,, M. Bertesi,, L. Ferrara,, G. Torelli, and, G. Emilia. 1998. Still’s disease, severe thrombocytopenia, and acute hepatitis associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 994995.
130. Luzzi, G. A.,, J. B. Kurtz, and, H. Chapel. 1985. Human parvovirus arthropathy and rheumatoid factor. Lancet i: 1218.
131. Lyon, D. J.,, C. S. Chapman,, C. Martin,, K. E. Brown,, J. P. Clewley,, A. J. Flower, and, V. E. Mitchell. 1989. Symptomatic parvovirus B19 infection and heat-treated factor IX concentrate. Lancet i: 1085.
132. Mabin, D. C.,, and V. Chowdhury. 1990. Aplastic crisis caused by human parvovirus in two patients with hereditary stomatocytosis. Br. J. Haematol. 76: 153154.
133. Manning, A.,, V. Russell,, K. Eastick,, G. H. Leadbetter,, N. Hallam,, K. Templeton, and, P. Simmonds. 2006. Epidemiological profile and clinical associations of human bocavirus and other human parvoviruses. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 12831290.
134. Mansfield, F. 1988. Erythema infectiosum. Slapped face disease. Aust. Fam. Physician 17: 737738.
135. Matsunaga, Y.,, T. Matsukura,, S. Yamazaki,, M. Sugase, and, R. Izumi. 1987. Hydrops fetalis caused by intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 40: 165169.
136. McIntosh, K. 2006. Human bocavirus: developing evidence for pathogenicity. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 11971199.
137. Metzman, R.,, A. Anand,, P. A. DeGiuho, and, A. S. Knisely. 1989. Hepatic disease associated with intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection in a newborn premature infant. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 9: 112114.
138. Mori, J.,, P. Beattie,, D. W. Melton,, B. J. Cohen, and, J. P. Clewley. 1987. Structure and mapping of the DNA of human parvovirus B19. J. Gen. Virol. 68: 27972806.
139. Mori, J.,, A. M. Field,, J. P. Clewley, and, B. J. Cohen. 1989. Dot blot hybridization assay of B19 virus DNA in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 459464.
140. Morinet, F.,, L. D’Auriol,, J. D. Tratschin, and, F. Galibert. 1989. Expression of the human parvovirus B19 protein fused to protein A in Escherichia coli: recognition by IgM and IgG antibodies in human sera. J. Gen. Virol. 70: 30913097.
141. Mortimer, P. P.,, B. J. Cohen,, M. M. Buckley,, J. E. Cradock Watson,, M. K. Ridehalgh,, F. Burkhardt, and, U. Schilt. 1985a. Human parvovirus and the fetus. Lancet ii: 1012.
142. Mortimer, P. P.,, B. J. Cohen,, M. A. Rossiter,, S. M. Fairhead, and, A. F. M. S. Rahman. 1985b. Human parvovirus and purpura. Lancet i: 730731.
143. Muir, K.,, W. T. A. Todd,, W. H. Watson, and, E. Fitzsimons. 1992. Viral-associated haemophagocytosis with parvovirusB19-related pancytopenia. Lancet 339: 11391140.
144. Munshi, N. C.,, S. Zhou,, M. J. Woody,, D. A. Morgan, and, A. Srivastava. 1993. Successful replication of parvovirus B19 in the human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line MB-02. J. Virol. 67: 562566.
145. Mynott, M. J. 1985. An epidemic of erythema infectiosum in a school. Practitioner 229: 767768.
146. Naides, S. J. 1987. Transient liver enzyme abnormalities in acute human parvovirus (HPV) infection. Clin. Res. 35: 859A.
147. Naides, S. J. 1989. Infection control measures for human parvovirus B19 in the hospital setting. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 10: 326329.
148. Naides, S. J. 1998. Rheumatic manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Amer. 24: 375401.
149. Naides, S. J.,, and E. H. Field. 1988. Transient rheumatoid factor positivity in acute human parvovirus B19 infection. Arch. Intern. Med. 148: 25872589.
150. Naides, S. J.,, and C. P. Weiner. 1989. Antenatal diagnosis and palliative treatment of nonimmune hydrops fetalis secondary to fetal parvovirus B19 infection. Prenat. Diagn. 9: 105114.
151. Naides, S. J.,, G. Cuthbertson,, J. C. Murray, and, J. T. Stapleton. 1988a. Neonatal sequelae of parvovirus B 19 infection in utero, abstr. 199. Abstr. 28th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
152. Naides, S. J.,, W. Piette,, L. A. Veach, and, Z. Argenyi. 1988b. Human parvovirus B19-induced vesiculopustular skin eruption. Am. J. Med. 84: 968972.
153. Naides, S. J.,, L. L. Scharosch,, F. Foto, and, E. J. Howard. 1990. Rheumatologic manifestations of human parvovirus B19 infection in adults. Initial two-year clinical experience. Arthritis Rheum. 33: 12971309.
154. Naides, S. J.,, F. Foto,, J. L. Marsh,, L. L. Scharosch, and, E. J. Howard. l991a. Synovial tissue analysis in patients with chronic parvovirus B19 arthropathy. Clin. Res. 39: 733A.
155. Naides, S. J.,, E. J. Howard,, N. S. Swack, and, J. T. Stapleton. 1993. Parvovirus B19 infection in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected persons failing or intolerant to zidovudine therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 101105.
156. Nguyen, Q. T.,, C. Sifer,, V. Schneider,, X. Allaume,, A. Servant,, F. Bernaudin,, V. Auguste, and, A. Garbarg-Chenon. 1999. Novel human erythrovirus associated with transient aplastic anemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 24832487.
157. Nguyen, Q. T.,, S. Wong,, E. D. Heegaard, and, K. E. Brown. 2002. Identification and characterization of a second novel human erythrovirus variant, A6. Virology 301: 374380.
158. Nikkari, S.,, J. Mertsola,, H. Korvenranta,, R. Vainionpää, and, P. Toivanen. 1994. Wegener’s granulomatosis and parvovirus B19 infection. Arthritis Rheum. 37: 17071708.
159. Nikkari, S.,, R. Vainionpaa,, P. Toivanen,, W. L. Gross,, N. Mistry,, E. Csernok,, W. Szpirt,, B. Baslund, and, A. Wiik. 1997. Association of Wegener’s granulomatosis with parvovirus B19 infection: comment on the concise communication by Nikkari et al., Reply. Arthritis Rheum. 38: 1175.
160. Nocton, J. J.,, L. C. Miller,, L. B. Tucker, and, J. G. Schaller. 1993. Human parvovirus B19-associated arthritis in children. J. Pediatr. 122: 186190.
161. Nunoue, T.,, K. Okochi,, P. P. Mortimer, and, B. J. Cohen. 1985. Human parvovirus (B19) and erythema infectiosum. J. Pediatr. 107: 3840.
162. Okabe, N.,, S. Koboyashi,, O. Tatsuzawa, and, P. P. Mortimer. 1984. Detection of antibodies to human parvovirus in erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). Arch. Dis. Child. 59: 10161019.
163. Oliver, A. R.,, and A. D. Phillips. 1988. An electron microscopical investigation of faecal small round viruses. J. Med. Virol. 24: 211218.
164. Ozawa, K.,, and N. Young. 1987. Characterization of capsid and noncapsid proteins of Bl9 parvovirus propagated in human erythroid bone marrow cell cultures. J. Virol. 61: 26272630.
165. Ozawa, K.,, G. Kurtzman, and, N. Young. 1986. Replication of the B19 parvovirus in human bone marrow cell cultures. Science 233: 883886.
166. Ozawa, K.,, J. Ayub,, Y. S. Hao,, G. Kurtzman,, T. Shimada, and, N Young. 1987a. Novel transcription map for the B19 (human) pathogenic parvovirus. J. Virol. 61: 23952406.
167. Ozawa, K.,, G. Kurtzman, and, N. Young. 1987b. Productive infection by B19 parvovirus of human erythroid bone marrow cells in vitro. Blood 70: 384391.
168. Parsyan, A.,, and D. Candotti. 2007. Human erythrovirus B19 and blood transfusion—an update. Transfus. Med. 17: 263278.
169. Pattison, J. R. (ed.). 1988. Parvoviruses and Human Disease, p. 1–4. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
170. Pattison, J. R.,, S. E. Jones,, J. Hodgson,, L. R. Davis,, J. M. White,, C. E. Stroud, and, L. Murtaza. 1981. Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia. Lancet i: 664665.
171. Paver, W. K.,, E. O. Caul,, C. R. Ashley, and, S. K. Clarke. 1973. A small virus in human faeces. Lancet i: 237239.
172. Peters, M. T.,, and K. H. Nicolaides. 1990. Cordocentesis for the diagnosis and treatment of human fetal parvovirus infection. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 501504.
173. Plummer, F. A.,, G. W. Hammond,, K. Forward,, L. Sekia,, L. M. Thompson,, S. E. Jones,, I. M. Kidd, and, M. J. Anderson. 1985. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 7479.
174. Poole, B. D.,, Y. V. Karetnyi, and, S. J. Naides. 2004. Parvovirus B19-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes. J. Virol. 78: 77757783.
175. Poole, B. D.,, A. Grote,, J. Zhou, and, S. J. Naides. 2006. Parvovirus B19 nonstructural protein-induced apoptosis of liver-derived cells. J. Virol. 80: 41144121.
176. Pozo, F.,, M. L. Garcia-Garcia,, C. Calvo,, I. Cuesta,, P. Perez-Brena, and, I. Casas. 2007. High incidence of human bocavirus infection in children in Spain. J. Clin. Virol. 40: 224228.
177. Rao, K. R.,, A. R. Patel,, M. J. Anderson,, J. Hodgson,, S. E. Jones, and, J. R. Pattison. 1983. Infection with parvovirus-like virus and aplastic crisis in chronic hemolytic anemia. Ann. Intern. Med. 98: 930932.
178. Rao, S. P.,, S. T. Miller, and, B. J. Cohen. 1990. Severe anemia due to B19 parvovirus infection in children with acute leukemia in remission. Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 12: 194197.
179. Rappaport, E. S.,, G. Quick,, D. Ransom,, B. Helbert, and, L. S. Frankel. 1989. Aplastic crisis in occult hereditary spherocytosis caused by human parvovirus (HPV B19). South. Med. J. 82: 247251.
180. Rechavi, G.,, A. Vonsover,, Y. Manor,, F. Mileguir,, O. Shpilberg,, G. Kende,, F. Brok Simoni,, M. Mandel,, T. Gotlieb Stematski, and, I. Ben Bassat. 1989. Aplastic crisis due to human B19 parvovirus infection in red cell pyrimidine-5′-nucleotidase deficiency. Acta Haematol. 82: 4649.
181. Reid, D. M.,, T. M. Reid,, T. Brown,, J. A. Rennie, and, C. J. Eastmond. 1985. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Lancet i: 422425.
182. Rubinstein, A. I.,, and D. B. Rubinstein. 1990. Inability of solvent-detergent (S-D) treated factor VIII concentrate to inactivate parvoviruses and non-lipid enveloped non-A, non-B hepatitis virus in factor VIII concentrate: advantages to using sterilizing 100°C dry heat treatment. Am. J. Hematol. 35: 142.
183. Saarinen, U. M.,, T. L. Chorba,, P. Tattersall,, N. S. Young,, L. J. Anderson,, E. Palmer, and, P. F. Coccia. 1986. Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 67: 14111417.
184. Sahakian, V.,, C. P. Weiner,, S. J. Naides,, R. A. Williamson, and, L. L. Scharosch. 1991. Intrauterine transfusion treatment of nonimmune hydrops fetalis secondary to human parvovirus B19 infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164: 10901091.
185. Saldanha, J.,, and P. Minor. 1996. Detection of human parvovirus B19 DNA in plasma pools and blood products derived from these pools: implications for efficiency and consistency of removal of B19 DNA during manufacture. Br. J. Haematol. 93: 714719.
186. Salimans, M. M.,, F. M. van de Rijke,, A. K. Raap, and, A. M. van Elsacker Niele. 1989. Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in fetal tissues by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Pathol. 42: 525530.
187. Salimans, M. M. 1990. Detection of human parvovirus B19 DNA by dot-hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction: applications for diagnosis of infections. Behring Inst. Mitt. 85: 3945.
188. Samii, K.,, P. Cassinotti,, J. de Freudenreich,, Y. Gallopin,, D. Le Fort, and, H. Stalder. 1996. Acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome associated with human parvovirus B19 infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 162164.
189. Sasaki, T.,, Y. Takahashi,, K. Yoshinaga,, K. Sugamura, and, H. Shiraishi. 1989. An association between human parvovirus B-19 infection and autoantibody production. J. Rheumatol. 16: 708709.
190. Sato, H.,, J. Hirata,, M. Furukawa,, N. Kuroda,, H. Shiraki,, Y. Maeda, and, K. Okochi. 1991a. Identification of the region including the epitope for a monoclonal antibody which can neutralize human parvovirus B19. J. Virol. 65: 16671672.
191. Sato, H.,, J. Hirata,, N. Kuroda,, H. Shiraki,, Y. Maeda, and, K. Okochi. 1991b. Identification and mapping of neutralizing epitopes of human parvovirus B19 by using human antibodies. J. Virol. 65: 54855490.
192. Schwarz, T. F.,, G. Jager, and, S. Gilch. 1997. Comparison of seven commercial tests for the detection of parvovirus B19-specific IgM. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 285: 525530.
193. Schwarz, T. F.,, A. Nerlich,, B. Hottentrger,, G. Jager,, I. Wiest,, S. Kantimm,, H. Roggendorf,, M. Schultz,, K.-P. Gloning,, T. Schramm,, W. Holzgreve, and, M. Roggendorf. 1991. Parvovirus B19 infection of the fetus: histology and in situ hybridization. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 96: 121126.
194. Semble, E. L.,, C. A. Agudelo, and, P. S. Pegram. 1987. Human parvovirus B19 arthropathy in two adults after contact with childhood erythema infectiosum. Am. J. Med. 83: 560562.
195. Serjeant, G. R.,, J. M. Topley,, K. Mason,, B. E. Serjeant,, J. R. Pattison,, S. E. Jones, and, R. Mohamed. 1981. Outbreak of aplastic crises in sickle cell anaemia associated with parvovirus-like agent. Lancet ii: 595597.
196. Servant, A.,, S. Laperche,, F. Lallemand,, V. Marinho,, G. De Saint-Maur,, J. F. Meritet, and, A. Garbarg-Chenon. 2002. Genetic diversity within human erythroviruses: identification of three genotypes. J. Virol. 76: 91249134.
197. Seyama, K.,, R. Kobayashi,, H. Hasle,, A. J. Apter,, J. C. Rutledge,, D. Rosen, and, H. D. Ochs. 1998. Parvovirus B19-induced anemia as the presenting manifestation of X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 318324.
198. Shade, R. O.,, M. C. Blundell,, S. F. Cotmore,, P. Tattersall, and, C. R. Astell. 1986. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of human parvovirus B19 isolated from the serum of a child during aplastic crisis. J. Virol. 58: 921936.
199. Shimomura, S.,, N. Komatsu,, N. Frickhofen,, S. Anderson,, S. Kajigaya, and, N. S. Young. 1992. First continuous propagation of B19 parvovirus in a cell line. Blood 79: 1824.
200. Shiraishi, H.,, D. Wong,, R. H. Purcell,, R. Shirachi,, E. Kumasaka, and, Y. Numazaki. 1985. Antibody to human parvovirus in outbreak of erythema infectiosum in Japan. Lancet i: 982983.
201. Shiraishi, H.,, K. Umetsu,, H. Yamamoto,, Y. Hatakeyama,, N. Yaegashi, and, K. Sugamura. 1989. Human parvovirus (HPV B19) infection with purpura. Microbiol. Immunol. 33: 369372.
202. Shirono, K.,, and H. Tsuda. 1995. Parvovirus B19-associated haemophagocytic syndrome in healthy adults. Br. J. Haematol. 89: 923926.
203. Shneerson, J. M.,, P. P. Mortimer, and, E. M. Vandervelde. 1980. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br. Med. J. 280: 1580.
204. Silman, A. J. 1988. The 1987 revised American Rheumatism Association criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Br. J. Rheumatol. 27: 341343.
205. Sloots, T.,, and P. L. Devine. 1996. Evaluation of four commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to human parvovirus B19. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 758761.
206. Soderlund, M.,, R. von Essen,, J. Haapasaari,, U. Kiistala,, O. Kiviluoto, and, K. Hedman. 1997. Persistence of parvovirus B19 DNA in synovial membranes of young patients with and without chronic arthropathy. Lancet 349: 10631065.
207. Soloninka, C. A.,, M. J. Anderson, and, C. A. Laskin. 1989. Anti-DNA and antilymphocyte antibodies during acute infection with human parvovirus B19. J. Rheumatol. 16: 777781.
208. Soothill, P. 1990. Intrauterine blood transfusion for non-immune hydrops fetalis due to parvovirus B19 infection. Lancet 336: 121122.
209. Srivastava, C. H.,, S. Z. Zhou,, N. C. Munshi, and, A. Srivastava. 1992. Parvovirus B19 replication in human umbilical cord blood cells. Virology 189: 456461.
210. Stone, M. S.,, and J. R. Murph. 1993. Papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome: a characteristic viral exanthem. Pediatrics 92: 864865.
211. Summerfield, G. P.,, and G. P. Wyatt. 1985. Human parvovirus infection revealing hereditary spherocytosis. Lancet ii: 1070.
212. Summers, J.,, S. E. Jones, and, M. J. Anderson. 1983. Characterization of the genome of the agent of erythrocyte aplasia permits its classification as a human parvovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 64: 25272532.
213. Suzuki, N.,, S. Terada, and, M. Inoue. 1995. Neonatal meningitis with human parvovirus B19 infection. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal. Neonatal. 73: F196F197.
214. Takahashi, M.,, T. Koike,, Y. Moriyama,, A. Shibata,, R. Koike,, M. Sanada, and, T. Tsukada. 1986. Inhibition of erythropoiesis by human parvovirus-containing serum from a patient with hereditary spherocytosis in aplastic crisis. Scand. J. Haematol. 37: 118124.
215. Takahashi, N.,, N. Takada,, T. Hashomoto, and, T. Okamoto. 1999. Genetic heterogeneity of the immunogenic viral capsid protein region of human parvovirus B19 isolates obtained from an outbreak in a pediatric ward. FEBS Lett. 450: 289293.
216. Takahashi, T.,, K. Ozawa,, K. Mitani,, K. Miyazono,, S. Asano, and, F. Takaku. 1989. B19 parvovirus replicates in erythroid leukemic cells in vitro. J. Infect. Dis. 160: 548549.
217. Takahashi, Y.,, C. Murai,, S. Shibata,, Y. Munakata,, T. Ishii,, K. Ishii,, T. Saitoh,, T. Sawai,, K. Sugamura, and, T. Sasaki. 1998. Human parvovirus B19 as a causative agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 82278232.
218. Tattersall, P.,, and D. C. Ward. 1976. Rolling hairpin model for replication of parvovirus and linear chromosomal DNA. Nature 263: 106109.
219. Tsuda, H. 1993. Liver dysfunction caused by parvovirus B19. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 88: 1463.
220. Tsuda, H.,, Y. Maeda, and, K. Nakagawa. 1993. Parvovirus B19-related lymphadenopathy. Br. J. Haematol. 85: 631632.
221. Tsukada, T.,, T. Koike,, R. Koike,, M. Sanada,, M. Takahashi,, A. Shibata, and, T. Nunoue. 1985. Epidemic of aplastic crisis in patients with hereditary spherocytosis in Japan. Lancet i: 1401.
222. Turton, J.,, H. Appleton, and, J. P. Clewley. 1990. Similarities in nucleotide sequence between serum and faecal human parvovirus DNA. Epidemiol. Infect. 105: 197201.
223. Umene, K.,, and T. Nunoue. 1995. A new genome type of human parvovirus B19 present in sera of patients with encephalopathy. J. Gen. Virol. 76: 26452651.
224. Vandervelde, E. M.,, C. Goffin,, B. Megson,, N. Mahmood,, A. Porter, and, Y. E. Cossart. 1974. User’s guide to some new tests for hepatitis-B antigen. Lancet ii: 1066.
225. van Elsacker-Niele, A. M.,, and M. J. Anderson. 1987. First picture of erythema infectiosum? Lancet i: 229.
226. van Elsacker-Niele, A. M.,, M. M. Salimans,, H. T. Weiland,, C. Vermey Keers,, M. J. Anderson, and, J. Versteeg. 1989. Fetal pathology in human parvovirus B19 infection. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 96: 768775.
227. Van Elsacker-Niele, A. M. W.,, H. T. Weiland,, A. C. M. Kroes, and, M. C. Kappers-Klunne. 1996. Parvovirus B19 infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann. Hematol. 72: 141144.
228. Vicente, D.,, G. Cilla,, M. Montes,, E. G. Perez-Yarza, and, E. Perez-Trallero. 2007. Human bocavirus, a respiratory and enteric virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 636637.
229. Walsh, K. J.,, R. D. Armstrong, and, A. M. Turner. 1988. Brachial plexus neuropathy associated with human parvovirus infection. Br. Med. J. 296: 896.
230. Watanabe, M.,, Y. Shimamoto,, M. Yamaguchi,, S. Inada,, S. Miyazaki, and, H. Sato. 1994. Viral-associated haemophagocytosis and elevated serum TNF-α with parvovirus-B19-related pancytopenia in patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Clin. Lab. Haematol. 16: 179182.
231. Weiland, H. T.,, C. Vermey Keers,, M. M. Salimans,, G. J. Fleuren,, R. A. Verwey, and, M. J. Anderson. 1987. Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality. Lancet i: 682683.
232. Weissbrich, B.,, F. Neske,, J. Schubert,, F. Tollmann,, K. Blath,, K. Blessing, and, H. W. Kreth. 2006. Frequent detection of bocavirus DNA in German children with respiratory tract infections. BMC Infect. Dis. 6: 109.
233. West, N. C.,, R. E. Meigh,, M. Mackie, and, M. J. Anderson. 1986. Parvovirus infection associated with aplastic crisis in a patient with HEMPAS. J. Clin. Pathol. 39: 10191020.
234. White, D. G.,, A. D. Woolf,, P. P. Mortimer,, B. Cohen,, D. R. Blake, and, P. A. Bacon. 1985. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet i: 419421.
235. Willwand, K.,, A. Q. Baldauf,, L. Deleu,, E. Mumtsidu,, E. Costello,, P. Beard, and, J. Rommelaere. 1997. The minute virus of mice (MVM) nonstructural protein NS1 induces nicking of MVM DNA at a unique site of the right-end telomere in both hairpin and duplex conformation in vitro. J. Gen. Virol. 78: 26472655.
236. Woernle, C. H.,, L. J. Anderson,, P. Tattersall, and, J. M. Davison. 1987. Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J. Infect. Dis. 156: 1720.
237. Woolf, A. D.,, G. V. Campion,, P. T. Klouda,, A. Chiswick,, B. J. Cohen, and, P. A. Dieppe. 1987. HLA and the manifestations of human parvovirus B19 infection. Arthritis Rheum. 30: S52.
238. Woolf, A. D.,, G. V. Campion,, A. Chishick,, S. Wise,, B. J. Cohen,, P. T. Kiouda,, O. Caul, and, P. A. Dieppe. 1989. Clinical manifestations of human parvovirus B19 in adults. Arch. Intern. Med. 149: 11531156.
239. Wu, C. G.,, B. Mason,, J. Jong,, D. Erdman,, L. McKernan,, M. Oakley,, M. Soucie,, B. Evatt, and, M. Y. Yu. 2005 Parvovirus B19 transmission by a high-purity factor VIII concentrate. Transfusion 45: 10031010.
240. Yoto, Y.,, T. Kudoh,, K. Haseyama,, N. Suzuki, and, S. Chiba. 1996. Human parvovirus B19 infection associated with acute hepatitis. Lancet 347: 868869.
241. Young, N. S.,, P. P. Mortimer,, J. G. Moore, and, R. K. Humphries. 1984. Characterization of a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J. Clin. Investig. 73: 224230.
242. Young, N. S.,, B. Baranski, and, G. Kurtzman. 1989. The immune system as mediator of virus-associated bone marrow failure: B19 parvovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 554: 7580.
243. Yufu, Y.,, M. Matsumoto,, T. Miyamura,, J. Nishimura,, H. Nawata, and, K. Ohshima. 1997. Parvovirus B19-associated haemophagocytic syndrome with lymphadenopathy resembling histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi’s disease). Br. J. Haematol. 96: 868871.
244. Zerbini, M.,, M. Musiani,, S. Venturoli,, O. Gallinella,, D. Gibellini,, O. Gentilomi, and, M. La Placa. 1990. Rapid screening for B19 parvovirus DNA in clinical specimens with a digoxigenin-labeled DNA hybridization probe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 24962499.
245. Zhi, N.,, Z. Zadori,, K. E. Brown, and, P. Tijssen. 2004. Construction and sequencing of an infectious clone of the human parvovirus B19. Virology 318: 142115.
246. Zhi, N.,, I. P. Mills,, J. Lu,, S. Wong,, C. Filippone, and, K. E. Brown. 2006. Molecular and functional analyses of a human parvovirus B19 infectious clone demonstrates essential roles for NS1, VP1, and the 11-kilodalton protein in virus replication and infectivity. J. Virol. 80: 59415950.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error