Chapter 33 : Chlamydiae

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Chlamydiae, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap33-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap33-2.gif


Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria which cause many diseases in animals and humans. Originally they were classified as Chlamydia trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. pecorum. During their growth, chlamydiae produce characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions that can be visualized by Giemsa stains or direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) stains of infected patient material, such as conjunctival scrapings, as well as cervical or urethral epithelial cells. Chlamydiae are phagocytized by susceptible host cells. The chlamydiae possess group (genus)-specific, species-specific, and type-specific antigens. The major outer membrane protein contains species-, subspecies-, and serovar-specific antigens. Chlamydiae cause the recruitment of lymphocytes to the site of infection by inducing the release of local host factors, which influence the adhesion cascade of cytokines and adhesion molecules. By adult life, active infection is infrequent, but the sequelae of the disease result in blindness. Worldwide, trachoma is considered the most common cause of preventable blindness. C. trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for the detection of C. trachomatis have been provided in this chapter. The most widely used serological test for diagnosing chlamydial infections is the genus-specific complement fixation (CF) test. It is useful in diagnosing psittacosis, in which paired sera often show fourfold or greater increases in titer. There are some commercially available serologic tests based on measurement of antibodies reactant to chlamydial inclusions in cell culture or enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using chlamydial antigens.

Citation: Gaydos C. 2009. Chlamydiae, p 630-640. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch33
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Bauwens, J. E.,, A. M. Clark, and, W. E. Stamm. 1993. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infections by a commercial polymerase chain reaction assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 30233027.
2. Bavoil, P. M.,, and P. B. Wyrick. 2006. Chlamydia: Genomics and Pathogenesis. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, United Kingdom.
3. Beebe, J. L.,, M. P. Rau, and, K. D. Albrecht. 1993. Confirmatory testing of Chlamydia trachomatis Syva enzyme immunoassay gray zone specimens by Syva direct fluorescent antibody test. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20: 140142.
4. Black, C. M. 1997. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 160184.
5. Black, C. M.,, E. M. Driebe,, C. M. Beck-Sague,, L. A. Howard,, J. U. Igietseme,, N. Fajman,, M. K. Sawyer,, R. G. Girardet,, R. L. Sautter, and, M. R. Hammerschlag. 2006. Multi-center study of urogenital chlamydial infections in children evaluated for sexual abuse, p. 89–92. Proc. 11th Int. Symp. Hum. Chlamydial Infect., Ontario, Canada.
6. Black, C. M.,, J. M. Marrazzo,, R. E. Johnson,, E. W. I. Hook,, R. B. Jones,, T. A. Green,, J. Schachter,, W. E. Stamm,, G. Bolan,, M. E. St. Louis, and, D. H. Martin. 2002. Head-to-head multicenter comparison of DNA probe and nucleic acid amplification tests for Chlamydia trachomatis in women performed with an improved reference standard. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 37573763.
7. Bobo, L.,, F. Coutlee,, R. H. Yolken,, T. Quinn, and, R. P. Viscidi. 1990. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection by detection of amplified DNA with an enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 19681973.
8. Boman, J.,, S. Soderberg,, J. Forsberg,, L. Birgander,, A. Allard,, K. Persson,, E. Jidell,, U. Kumlin,, P. Juto,, A. Waldenstrom, and, G. Wadell. 1998. High prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with cardiovascular disease and in middle-aged blood donors. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 274277.
9. Boyadzhyan, B.,, T. Yashina,, J. H. Yatabe,, M. Patnaik, and, C. S. Hill. 2004. Comparison of the APTIMA CT and GC assays with the ATIMA Combo2 assay, the Abbott LCX assay, and the direct florescent-antibody and culture assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 30893093.
10. Brunham, R. C.,, B. Pourbohloul,, S. Mak,, R. White, and, M. L. Rekart. 2005. The unexpected impact of a Chlamydia trachomatis infection control program on susceptibility to reinfection. J. Infect. Dis. 192: 18361844.
11. Caldwell, H. D.,, and J. Schachter. 1982. Antigenic analysis of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia spp. Infect. Immun. 35: 10241031.
12. Campbell, L. A.,, C. C. Kuo, and, C. A. Gaydos. 2006. Chlamydial infections, p. 518–525. In B. Detrick,, R. G. Hamilton,, and J. D. Folds (ed.), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43: 1.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections—2002. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 51 (RR-15) : 138.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance. 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006a. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006b. Sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines 2006. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 55 (RR-11) : 1100. (Erratum, MMWR Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55:997.) www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2006/rr5511.pdf. Accessed 28 February 2007.
18. Chan, E. L.,, K. Brandt, and, G. G. Horsman. 1994. A 1-year evaluation of Syva microtrak Chlamydia enzyme immunoassay with selective confirmation by direct fluorescent-antibody assay in a high-volume laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 22082211.
19. Clark, A.,, W. E. Stamm,, C. Gaydos,, L. Welsh,, T. C. Quinn,, J. Schachter, and, J. Moncada. 1992. Multicenter evaluation of the antigEnz chlamydia enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 27622764.
20. Clarke, L. M.,, M. F. Sierra,, B. J. Daidone,, N. Lopez,, J. M. Covino, and, W. M. McCormack. 1993. Comparison of the Syva MicroTrak enzyme immunoassay and Gen-Probe PACE 2 with cell culture for diagnosis of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-prevalence female population. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 968971.
21. Cles, L. D.,, and W. E. Stamm. 1990. Use of HL cells for improved isolation and passage of Chlamydia pneumoniae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 938940.
22. Dhir, S. P.,, G. E. Kenny, and, J. T. Grayston. 1971. Characterization of the group antigen of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 4: 725730.
23. Dowell, S. F.,, R. W. Peeling,, J. Boman,, B. S. Carlone,, B. F. Fields,, J. Guarner,, M. Hammerschlag,, L. A. Jackson,, C. C. Kuo,, M. Maass,, T. O. Messmer,, D. F. Talkington,, M. L. Tondella,, S. R. Zaki, and C. pneumoniae Workshop Participants. 2001. Standardizing Chlamydia pneumoniae assays: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Canada). Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 492503.
24. Dunne, M. 1999. WIZARD and the design of trials for secondary prevention of atherosclerosis with antibiotics. Am. Heart J. 138: S542S544.
25. Essig, A. 2007. Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, p. 1021–1035. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry, and, M. A. Pfaller (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
26. Everett, K. D.,, R. M. Bush, and, A. A. Anderson. 1999. Emmended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49: 415440.
27. Fukushi, H.,, and K. Hirai. 1993. Proposal of Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia strains derived from ruminants. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42: 306308.
28. Gaydos, C. A. 2005. Nucleic acid amplification tests for gonorrhea and chlamydia: practice and applications, p. 367–386. In J. M. Zenilman and, R. C. Moellering, Jr. (ed.), Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
29. Gaydos C. A., M. Theodore,, N. Dalesio,, B. J. Wood, and, T. C. Quinn. 2004. Comparison of three nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 30413045.
30. Gaydos, C. A.,, C. Reichart,, J. Long,, L. Welsh,, T. Neumann,, E. W. Hook, and, T. C. Quinn. 1990. Evaluation of Syva enzyme immunoassay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 15411544.
31. Gaydos, C. A.,, K. Dwyer,, M. Barnes,, P. A. Rizzo-Price,, B. J. Wood,, T. Flemming, and, M. T. Hogan. 2006a. Internet based screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to reach non-clinic populations with mailed self-administered vaginal swabs. Sex. Transm. Dis. 33: 451457.
32. Gaydos, C. A.,, and T. C. Quinn. 1999. The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in cardiovascular disease, p. 139–174. In A. Fauci (ed.), Advances in Internal Medicine. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.
33. Gaydos, C. A.,, T. C. Quinn,, D. Willis,, A. Weissfeld,, E. W. Hook,, D. H. Martin, and, D. V. Ferrero, and, J. Schachter. 2003. Performance of the APTIMA Combo 2 assay for the multiplex detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female urine and endocervical swab specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 304309.
34. Gaydos, C. A.,, P. A. Rizzo-Price,, M. Barnes,, K. Dwyer,, B. J. Wood, and, M. T. Hogan. 2006b. The use of focus groups to design an internet-based program for Chlamydia screening with self-administered vaginal swabs: what women want. Sex. Health 3: 209215.
35. Girdner, J. L.,, A. P. Cullen,, T. G. Salama,, L. He,, A. Lorincz, and, T. C. Quinn. 1999. Evaluation of the Digene hybrid capture II CT-ID test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 15791581.
36. Grayston, J. T. 1992. Infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15: 757763.
37. Grayston, J. T. 1993. Chlamydia in atherosclerosis. Circulation 87: 14081409.
38. Grayston, J. T.,, M. B. Aldous,, A. Easton,, S. Wang,, C. C. Kuo,, L. A. Campbell, and, J. Altman. 1993. Evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae causes pneumoniae and bronchitis. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 12311235.
39. Grayston, J. T.,, L. A. Campbell,, C. C. Kuo,, C. H. Mordhurst,, P. Saikku,, D. H. Thom, and, S. P. Wang. 1990. A new respiratory tract pathogen: Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 618625.
40. Grayston, J. T.,, L. A. Jackson,, W. J. Kennedy, and, R. A. Kronmal. 1999. Secondary prevention trials for coronary artery disease with antibiotic treatment for Chlamydia pneumoniae: design issues. Am. Heart J. 138 (Suppl.) : S545S549.
41. Grayston, J. T.,, C. C. Kuo,, L. A. Campbell, and, S. P. Wang. 1989. Chlamydia pneumoniae sp. nov. for Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 8890.
42. Grayston, J. T.,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang, and, J. Altman. 1986. A new Chlamydia psittaci strain TWAR isolated in acute respiratory tract infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 161168.
43. Grayston, J. T.,, and S. P. Wang. 1975. New knowledge of chlamydiae and the diseases they cause. J. Infect. Dis. 132: 87105.
44. Hillis, S. D.,, L. M. Owens,, P. A. Marchbanks,, L. F. Amsterdam, and, W. R. MacKenzie. 1997. Recurrent chlamydial infections increase the risks of hospitalization for ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176: 103107.
45. Hobbs, M. M.,, B. Van Der Pol,, P. Totten,, C. A. Gaydos,, A. Wald,, T. Warren,, R. L. Winer,, R. L. Cook,, C. D. Deal,, E. Rogers,, J. Schachter,, K. K. Holmes, and, D. H. Martin. 2008. From the NIH: proceedings of a workshop on the importance of self-obtained vaginal specimens for detection of sexually transmitted infections. Sex. Transm. Dis. 35: 813.
46. Holland, S. M.,, C. A. Gaydos, and, T. C. Quinn. 1990. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumoniae by DNA amplification. J. Infect. Dis. 162: 984987.
47. Hook, E. W.,, III, and H. H. Handsfield. 1990. Gonococcal infections in the adult, p. 149–165. In K. K. Holmes,, P. Mardh,, P. F. Sparling,, P. J. Wiesner,, W. Cates, Jr.,, S. M. Lemon, and, W. E. Stamm (ed.), Sexually Transmitted Diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
48. Howell, M. R.,, T. C. Quinn,, W. Brathwaite, and, C. A Gaydos. 1998. Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis in family planning clinics: the cost-effectiveness of DNA amplification assays. Sex. Transm. Dis. 25: 108117.
49. Hyman, C. L.,, P. M. Roblin,, C. A. Gaydos,, T. C. Quinn,, J. Schachter, and, M. R. Hammerschlag. 1995. Prevalence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of Chlamydia pneumoniae in subjectively healthy adults: assessment by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay and culture. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 11741178.
50. Jackson, L. A.,, L. A. Campbell,, C. C. Kuo,, D. I. Rodriguez,, A. Lee, and, J. T. Grayston. 1997. Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae from a carotid endarterectomy specimen. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 292295.
51. Jaschek, G.,, C. A. Gaydos,, L. Welsh, and, T. C. Quinn. 1993. Direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic men by using a rapid polymerase chain reaction assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 12091212.
52. Kent, C. K.,, J. K. Chaw,, W. Wong,, S. Liska,, S. Gibson,, G. Hubbard, and, J. D. Klausner. 2005. Prevalence of rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal chlamydia and gonorrhea detected in two clinical settings among men who have sex with men: San Francisco, California, 2003. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 6774.
53. Kleemola, M.,, P. Saikku,, R. Visakorpi,, S. P. Wang, and, J. T. Grayston. 1988. Epidemics of pneumonia caused by TWAR, a new chlamydia organism, in military trainees in Finland. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 230236.
54. Kuo, C. C.,, L. A. Jackson,, L. A. Campbell, and, J. T. Grayston. 1995. Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR). Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8: 451461.
55. Lidner, L. E.,, S. Geerling,, J. A. Nettum,, S. L. Miller,, K. H. Altman, and, S. R. Wechter. 1986. Identification of chlamydiae in cervical smears by immunofluorescence: technique, sensitivity, and specificity. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 85: 180185.
56. Lyss, S. B.,, M. L. Kamb,, T. A. Peterman,, J. S. Moran,, D. R. Newman,, G. Bolan,, J. M. Douglan,, M. Iatesta,, C. K. Malotte,, J. M. Zenilman,, J. Ehret,, C. Gaydos, and, W. J. Newhall for the Project RESPECT Study Group. 2003. Chlamydia trachomatis among patients infected with and treated for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med. 139: 178185.
57. Mahony, J. B.,, and M. A. Chernesky. 2003. Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, p. 991–1004. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller, and, R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
58. Martin, D. H.,, C. Cammarata,, B. Van Der Pol,, R. B. Jones T. C. Quinn,, C. A. Gaydos,, K. Crotchfelt,, J. Schachter,, J. Moncada,, D. Jungkind,, B. Turner, and, C. Peyton. 2000. Multicenter Evaluation of AMPLICOR and automated COBAS AMPLICOR CT/NG tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 35443549.
59. Martin, D. H.,, T. F. Mroczkowski,, Z. A. Dalu,, J. McCarthy,, R. B. Jones,, S. J. Hopkins,, R. B. Johnson, and the Azithromycin for Chlamydial Infections Study Group. 1992. A controlled trial of a single dose of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 921925.
60. Molano, M.,, C. J. L. M. Meijer,, E. Weiderpass,, A. Arslan,, H. Posso,, S. Franceschi,, M. Ronderos,, N. Munoz, and, J. C. van den Brule. 2005. The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic Colombian women: a 5-year follow-up study. J. Infect. Dis 191: 907916.
61. Morrison, R. P. 2003. New insights into a persistent problem—chlamydial infections. J. Clin. Investig. 111: 16471649.
62. Morrison, R. P.,, R. J. Belland,, K. Lyng, and, H. D. Caldwell. 1989a. Chlamydial disease pathogenesis. The 57KD chlamydial hypersensitivity antigen is a stress response protein. J. Exp. Med. 170: 12711283.
63. Morrison, R. P.,, K. Lyng, and, H. D. Caldwell. 1989b. Chlamydial disease pathogenesis: ocular hypersensitivity elicited by a genus-specific 57KD protein. J. Exp. Med. 169: 663675.
64. Pate, M. S.,, P. B. Dixon,, K. Hardy,, M. Crosby, and, E. W. Hook III. 1998. Evaluation of the Biostar Chlamydia OIA assay with specimens from women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 21832186.
65. Peeling, R. W.,, R. L. Bailey,, D. J. Conway,, M. J. Holland,, A. E. Campbell,, O. Jallow,, H. C. Whittle, and, D. C. Mabey. 1998. Antibody response to the 60-kDa chlamydial heat shock protein is associated with scarring trachoma. J. Infect. Dis 177: 256259.
66. Quinn, T. C.,, and W. Cates. 1992. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the 1990’s, p. 1–37. In T. C. Quinn (ed.), Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms, vol. 8. Raven Press, New York, NY.
67. Quinn, T. C.,, L. Welsh,, A. Lentz,, K. Crotchfelt,, J. Zenilman,, J. Newhall, and, C. A. Gaydos. 1996. Diagnosis by Amplicor PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 14011406.
68. Rockey, D. D.,, R. A. Heinzen, and, T. Hackstadt. 1995. Cloning and characterization of a Chlamydia psittaci gene coding for a protein localized in the inclusion membrane of infected cells. Mol. Microbiol. 15: 617626.
69. Saikku, P. 1992. The epidemiology and significance of Chlamydia pneumoniae. J. Infect. 25 (Suppl. 1) : 2734.
70. Saikku, P.,, M. Leinonen,, L. Tenkanen,, E. Linnanmaki,, M. R. Ekman,, V. Manninen,, M. Manttari,, M. H. Frick, and, J. K. Huttunen. 1992. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Ann. Intern. Med. 116: 273278.
71. Saikku, P.,, K. Mattila,, M. S. Nieminen,, J. K. Huttunen,, M. Leinonen,, M. R. Ekman,, P. H. Makela, and, V. Valtonen. 1988. Serological evidence of an association of a novel chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet ii: 983985.
72. Sanders, J. W.,, E. W. Hook,, L. E. Welsh,, M. E. Shepherd, and, T. C. Quinn. 1994. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine of asymptomatic men. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2427.
73. Schachter, J.,, J. M. Chow,, H. Howard,, G. Bolan, and, J. Moncada. 2006. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid amplification testing: our evaluation suggests that CDC-recommended approaches for confirmatory testing are ill-advised. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 25122517.
74. Schachter, J.,, M. Grossman, and, P. H. Azimi. 1982. Serology of Chlamydia trachomatis in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 146: 530535.
75. Schachter, J.,, S. K. West,, D. R. Mabey,, C. Dawson,, L. Bobo,, R. Bailey,, S. Vitale,, T. C. Quinn,, A. Sheta,, S. Sallam,, H. Mkocha,, D. Mabey, and, H. Faal. 1999. Azithromycin in control of trachoma. Lancet 354: 630635.
76. Schachter, J.,, M. A. Chernesky,, D. E. Willis,, P. M. Fine,, D. H. Martin,, D. Fuller,, J. A. Jordan,, W. M. Janda, and, E. W. Hook III. 2005a. Vaginal swabs are the specimens of choice when screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: results from a multicenter evaluation of the APTIMA assays for both infections. Sex. Transm. Dis. 32: 725728.
77. Schachter, J.,, and C. R. Dawson. 1978. Human Chlamydial Infections. Publishing Sciences Group, Littleton, MA.
78. Schachter, J.,, M. Grossman,, R. L. Sweet,, J. Holt,, C. Jordan, and, E. Bishop. 1986. Prospective study of perinatal transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis. JAMA 255: 33743377.
79. Schachter, J.,, E. W. Hook,, D. H. Martin,, D. Willis,, P. Fine,, D. Fuller,, J. Jordan,, W. M. Janda, and, M. Chernesky. 2005b. Confirming positive results of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for Chlamydia trachomatis: all NAATs are not created equal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 13721373.
80. Schachter, J.,, W. M. McCormick,, M. A. Chernesky,, D. H. Martin,, B. Van Der Pol,, P. Rice,, I. E. W. Hook,, W. E. Stamm,, T. C. Quinn, and, J. M. Chow. 2003. Vaginal swabs are appropriate specimens for diagnosis of genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 37843789.
81. Schaffer, W. 1985. Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis), p. 1061–1063. In G. L. Mandell,, R. E. G. Douglas, and, J. E. Bennett (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
82. Scholes, D.,, A. Stergachis,, F. E. Heidrich,, H. Andrilla,, K. K. Holmes, and, W. E. Stamm. 1996. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 13621366.
83. Shor, A.,, C. C. Kuo, and, D. L. Patton. 1992. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary arterial fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques. S. Afr. Med. J. 82: 158161.
84. Stamm, W. E. 1999. Chlamydia trachomatis infections of the adult, p. 407–422. In K. K. Holmes,, P. F. Sparling,, P. A. Mardh,, S. M. Lemon,, W. E. Stamm,, P. Piot, and, J. N. Wasserheit (ed.), Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
85. Stary, A.,, L. Teodorowicz,, I. Horting-Muller,, S. Nerad, and, M. Storch. 1994. Evaluation of the gen-probe PACE 2 and the microtrak enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples. Sex. Transm. Dis. 21: 2630.
86. Stephens, R. S.,, S. Kalman,, C. Lammel,, J. Fan,, R. Marathe,, L. Aravind,, W. Mitchell,, L. Olinger,, R. L. Tatusov,, Q. Zhao,, E. V. Koonin, and, R. Davis. 1998. Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis. Science 282: 754759.
87. Stephens, R. S.,, R. Sanchez-Pescador,, E. A. Wagar,, C. Inouye, and, M. S. Urdea. 1987. Diversity of Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes. J. Bacteriol. 169: 38793885.
88. Stephens, R. S.,, E. A. Wagar, and, G. K. Schoolnik. 1988. High-resolution mapping of serovar-specific and common antigenic determinants of the outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Exp. Med. 167: 817831.
89. T’ang, F.-F.,, H.-L. Chang,, Y.-T. Huang, and, K.-C. Wang. 1957. Trachoma virus in chick embryo. Natl. Med. J. China 43: 81.
90. Taylor, H. R.,, N. Arawala, and, S. L. Johnson. 1984. Detection of experimental Chlamydia trachomatis eye infections in conjunctival smears and in tissue cultures by use of fluoresceinconjugated antibody. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 391395.
91. Thylefors, B.,, A. D. Negrel,, R. Pararajasegaram, and, K. Y. Dadzie. 1995. Global data on blindness. Bull. W. H. O. 73: 115121.
92. Toye, B.,, C. Laferriere,, P. Claman,, P. Jessamine,, R. Peeling. 1993. Association between antibody to the chlamydial heat-shock protein and tubal infertility. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 12361240.
93. Uyeda, C. T.,, P. Welborn,, N. Ellison-Birang,, K. Shunk, and, B. Tsaouse. 1984. Rapid diagnosis of chlamydial infections with Microtrak direct test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 948950.
94. Van der Pol, B.,, D. Ferrero,, L. Buck-Barrington,, E. Hook III,, C. Lenderman,, T. C. Quinn,, C. A. Gaydos,, J. Moncada,, G. Hall,, M. J. Tuohy, and, B. R. Jones. 2001. Multicenter evaluation of the BDProbeTec ET system for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine specimens, female endocervical swabs, and male urethral swabs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 10081016.
95. Van der Pol, B.,, T. C. Quinn,, C. A. Gaydos,, K. Crotchfelt,, J. Schachte,, J. Moncada,, D. Jungkind,, D. H. Martin,, B. Turner,, C. Peyton, and, R. B. Jones. 2000. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR and automated COBAS AMPLICOR CT/NG tests for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 11051112.
96. Wagar, E. A.,, J. Schachter,, P. Bavoil, and, R. S. Stephens. 1990. Differential human serologic response to two 60,000 molecular weight Chlamydia trachomatis antigens. J. Infect. Dis. 162: 922927.
97. Wang, S. P.,, and J. T. Grayston. 1984. Microimmunofluorescence serology in Chlamydia trachomatis, p. 87–118. In L. M. de la Maza (ed.), The 1983 International Symposium on Medical Virology, Amsterdam. Elsevier Science, New York, NY.
98. Wang, S. P.,, C. C. Kuo,, R. C. Barnes,, R. S. Stephens, and, J. T. Grayston. 1985. Immunotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis with monoclonal antibodies. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 791800.
99. Wang, S. P.,, C. C. Kuo, and, J. T. Grayston. 1979. Formalinized Chlamydia trachomatis organisms as antigens in the micro-immunofluorescence test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 259261.
100. Warren, R.,, B. Dwyer,, M. Plackett,, K. Pettit,, N. Rizvi, and, A. Baker. 1993. Comparative evaluation of detection assays for Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 16631666.
101. Watkins, N. G.,, W. J. Hadlow,, A. B. Moos, and, H. D. Caldwell. 1986. Ocular delayed hypersensitivity: a pathogenetic mechanism of chlamydial-conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 74807484.
102. Weinstock, H. S.,, D. Dean, and, G. Bolan. 1994. Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 8: 797819.
103. World Health Organization. 2001. Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Estimates. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
104. Zenilman, J. M.,, W. C. Miller,, C. Gaydos,, S. M. Rogers, and, C. F. Turner. 2003. LCR testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia in population surveys and other screenings of low prevalence populations: coping with decreased positive predictive value. Sex. Transm. Infect. 79: 9497.


Generic image for table

Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for the detection of C. trachomatis

Citation: Gaydos C. 2009. Chlamydiae, p 630-640. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch33

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error