Chapter 27 : Polyomaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Polyomaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815981/9781555814250_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815981/9781555814250_Chap27-2.gif


Polyomaviruses are widely distributed in humans and other animal species. Polyomaviruses were initially considered a genus within the family , which included papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. Simian virus 40 (SV40) produces renal involvement in its simian host, as do JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) in humans. The major known site of BKV persistence is the renal tubular epithelium, and persistent infection of renal tubular epithelium cells, like that seen with JCV and with mouse pneumotropic virus (MPtV), appears to involve not a state of viral latency but rather ongoing productive infection at low level. Those which predispose to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) are not fully understood. A group of investigators has attempted to duplicate PCR isolation of polyomaviruses from the same tumor material in different laboratories. In this study, PCR analysis of the same 225 brain tumor samples was carried out in two geographically separated laboratories. Earlier, the use of PCR analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enabled specific diagnosis in 80 to 90% of cases. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to reduce viral load of JCV in CSF, however, and while CSF PCR remains a valuable diagnostic tool in this setting, the diagnostic yield in patients treated with HAART has been shown to be reduced to 57.5%. Recently, based on the observation that JCV binds to the serotonin receptor, one study reported stabilization of disease and improvement in PML lesions following treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor, mirtazapine.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Taxonomic relationships of the major polyomaviruses.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Electron micrograph of BKV extracted from human fetal kidney cells, concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and stained with 2% phosphotungstic acid, showing characteristic 42-nm particles.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Viral gene transcription maps of SV40 (A), BKV (B), and JCV (C) DNAs. The checkerboard area on the thick solid line indicates the portion of the RR. The thin dashed line indicates intron sequences spliced out of large T-Ag. (Adapted from references [A], [B], and [C].)

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

(A) Identification of SV40 T-Ag by immunofluorescence in transformed simian TC-7 kidney cells. Cells were grown in a monolayer and reacted with monoclonal antibodies PAb 416, PAb 108, and PAb 101 directed against T-Ag as described by O’Neill et al. ( ). (B) Naïve TC-7 cells (not containing T-Ag-encoding DNA sequences) reacted with monoclonal antibodies as in panel A (negative control).

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Western blot of SV40 T-Ag and p53 from transformed human cells. SV40 T-Ag was immunoprecipitated in even-numbered lanes and p53 was immunoprecipitated in odd-numbered lanes, and the immunoprecipitates were subjected to electrophoresis in agarose gels and analyzed by Western blotting using a cocktail of antibodies to T-Ag or p53 ( ). The illustration shows that immunoprecipitation of either protein results in coprecipitation of the second protein.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6

Interaction of JCV, BKV, and SV40 with primary cultures of human fetal brain or glial cells. Cells were infected with a 1/10 dilution of the Mad-1 strain of JCV or a 1/1,000 dilution of SV40 or BKV (~1 infectious unit per cell). Cells were transferred to 22-mm square glass coverslips after 2 weeks for the Mad-1-infected cells and immediately after inoculation for cultures infected with BKV or SV40. In JCV-infected cells, cytopathic effect did not appear until 3 to 4 weeks. In cultures infected with BKV or SV40, cytopathic effect became extensive within 8 to 10 days. (A) Uninfected human fetal brain cells containing relatively small, moderately stained nuclei. (B) Mad-1-infected human fetal brain cells with large nuclei and multinucleated cells. There were also occasional giant multinucleated cells that contained many nuclei (not shown) and also some cells with small nuclei, similar to those in uninfected cells (arrowheads in panels B and C). (C) SV40-infected cells, also with large, darkly staining nuclei. Some nuclei were reticulated or mottled (double arrows), but multinucleated cells were rare. (D) BKV-infected cells. Again, the nuclei were enlarged and intensely stained. Multinucleated cells were again rare. Some nuclei contained what appeared to be doughnut-shaped nucleoli (arrows). This was unique to BKV infection (Wright’s stain; magnification, ×152).

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7

Polyomavirus persistence as a chronic productive infection, as shown in a kidney of a nonimmunosuppressed mouse 6 months after inoculation with murine pneumotropic (K) virus. Arrows indicate the presence of viral nucleic acids (A), T-Ag (B), and Vp1 antigen (C) indicative of viral replication in renal tubular epithelial cells.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8

Section from edge of a PML lesion, stained for polyomavirus common structural antigen and labeled using immunoperoxidase techniques. There is extensive loss of myelin. Oligodendrocytes have enlarged nuclei that exhibit intense staining for common structural antigen. Giant astrocytes within the lesion remain unlabeled. Magnification, ×216.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9

Section of PML-affected brain probed for JCV nuclei acids using in situ hybridization methods. Large numbers of exposed emulsion grains, indicative of specific hybridization, overlie nuclei of infected oligodendrocytes. Magnification, ×200.

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10

T2 weighted magnetic resonance image of a patient developing PML in the setting of AIDS. Multifocal areas of demyelination are seen as areas of increased signal, appearing white against the darker background. (Courtesy of Jay Tsuruda.)

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agostini, H. T.,, C. F. Ryschkewitsch, and, G. L. Stoner. 1998. Rearrangements of archetypal regulatory regions in JC virus genomes from urine. Res. Virol. 149: 163170.
2. Aksamit, A. J. 2001. Treatment of non-AIDS progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with cytosine arabino-side. J. Neurovirol. 7: 386390.
3. Allander, T.,, K. Andreasson,, S. Gupta,, A. Bjerkner,, G. Bogdanovic,, M. A. Persson,, T. Dalianis,, T. Ramqvist, and, B. Andersson. 2007. Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J. Virol. 81: 41304136.
4. Amirhaeri, S.,, F. Wohlrab,, E. O. Major, and, R. D. Wells. 1988. Unusual DNA structure in the regulatory region of the human papovavirus JC virus. J. Virol. 62: 922931.
5. Baksh, F. K.,, S. D. Finkelstein,, P. A. Swalsky,, G. L. Stoner,, C. F. Ryschkewitsch, and, P. Randhawa. 2001. Molecular genotyping of BK and JC viruses in human polyomavirus-associated interstitial nephritis after renal transplantation. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 38: 354365.
6. Behzad-Behbahani, A.,, P. E. Klapper,, P. J. Vallely,, G. M. Cleator, and, A. Bonington. 2003. BKV-DNA and JCV-DNA in CSF of patients with suspected meningitis or encephalitis. Infection 31: 374378.
7. Berger, J. R. 2000. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. 2: 361368.
8. Bernal-Cano, F.,, J. T. Joseph, and, I. J. Koralnik. 2007. Spinal cord lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient. J. Neurovirol. 13: 474476.
9. Bialasiewicz, S.,, D. M. Whiley,, S. B. Lambert,, D. Wang,, M. D. Nissen, and, T. P. Sloots. 2007. A newly reported human polyomavirus, KI virus, is present in the respiratory tract of Australian children. J. Clin. Virol. 40: 1518.
10. Blake, K.,, D. Pillay,, W. Knowles,, D. W. Brown,, P. D. Griffiths, and, B. Taylor. 1992. JC virus associated meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent girl. Arch. Dis. Child. 67: 956957.
11. Blick, G.,, M. Whiteside,, P. Griegor,, U. Hopkins,, T. Garton, and, L. LaGravinese. 1998. Successful resolution of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after combination therapy with cidofovir and cytosine arabinoside. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 191192.
12. Bofill-Mas, S.,, M. Formiga-Cruz,, P. Clemente-Casares,, F. Calafell, and, R. Girones. 2001. Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA. J. Virol. 75: 1029010299.
13. Bofill-Mas, S.,, S. Pina, and, R. Girones. 2000. Documenting the epidemiologic patterns of polyomaviruses in human populations by studying their presence in urban sewage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 238245.
14. Bordin, G.,, R. Boldorini,, R. Caldarelli Stefano, and, E. Omodeo Zorini. 1997. Systemic infection by JC virus in non-HIV induced immunodeficiency without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ann. Ital. Med. Int. 12: 3538.
15. Brennan, D. C.,, I. Agha,, D. L. Bohl,, M. A. Schnitzler,, K. L. Hardinger,, M. Lockwood,, S. Torrence,, R. Schuessler,, T. Roby,, M. Gaudreault-Keener, and, G. A. Storch. 2005. Incidence of BK with tacrolimus versus cyclosporine and impact of preemptive immunosuppression reduction. Am. J. Transplant. 5: 582594.
16. Butel, J. S.,, and J. A. Lednicky. 1999. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91: 119134.
17. Calabrese, L. H.,, E. S. Molloy,, D. Huang, and, R. M. Ransohoff. 2007. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rheumatic diseases: evolving clinical and pathologic patterns of disease. Arthritis Rheum. 56: 21162128.
18. Caldarelli-Stefano, R.,, L. Vago,, E. Omodeo-Zorini,, M. Mediati,, L. Losciale,, M. Nebuloni,, G. Costanzi, and, P. Ferrante. 1999. Detection and typing of JC virus in autopsy brains and extraneural organs of AIDS patients and non-immunocompromised individuals. J. Neurovirol. 5: 125133.
19. Carter, J. J.,, M. M. Madeleine,, G. C. Wipf,, R. L. Garcea,, P. A. Pipkin,, P. D. Minor, and, D. A. Galloway. 2003. Lack of serologic evidence for prevalent simian virus 40 infection in humans. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 95: 15221530.
20. Chapagain, M. L.,, S. Verma,, F. Mercier,, R. Yanagihara, and, V. R. Nerurkar. 2007. Polyomavirus JC infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells independent of serotonin receptor 2A. Virology 20: 5563.
21. Chatterjee, M.,, T. B. Weyandt, and, R. J. Frisque. 2000. Identification of archetype and rearranged forms of BK virus in leukocytes from healthy individuals. J. Med. Virol. 60: 353362.
22. Coleman, D. V.,, S. D. Gardner,, C. Mulholland,, V. Fridiksdottir,, A. A. Porter,, R. Lilford, and, H. Valdimarsson. 1983. Human polyomaviruses in pregnancy. A model for the study of defense mechanisms to virus reactivation. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 53: 289296.
23. Coleman, D. V.,, E. F. D. MacKenzie,, S. D. Gardner,, J. M. Poulding,, B. Amer, and, W. J. I. Russell. 1978. Human polyomavirus (BK) infection and ureteric stenosis in renal allograft recipients. J. Clin. Pathol. 31: 338347.
24. Dang, X.,, and I. J. Koralnik. 2006. A granule cell neuron-associated JC virus variant has a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. J. Gen. Virol. 87: 25332537.
25. de Silva, L. M.,, P. Bale,, J. de Courcy,, D. Brown, and, W. Knowles. 1995. Renal failure due to BK virus infection in an immunodeficient child. J. Med. Virol. 45: 192196.
26. Dolei, A.,, V. Pietropaolo,, E. Gomes,, C. Di Taranto,, M. Ziccheddu,, M. A. Spanu,, C. Lavorino,, M. Manca, and, A. M. Degener. 2000. Polyomavirus persistence in lymphocytes: prevalence in lymphocytes from blood donors and healthy personnel of a blood transfusion centre. J. Gen. Virol. 81: 19671973.
27. Drummond, J. E.,, K. V. Shah, and, A. D. Donnenberg. 1985. Cell-mediated immune responses to BK virus in normal individuals. J. Med. Virol. 17: 237247.
28. Dubensky, T. W.,, and L. P. Villarreal. 1984. The primary site of replication alters the eventual site of persistent infection by polyomavirus in mice. J. Virol. 50: 541546.
29. Dubois, V.,, H. Moret,, M. E. Lafon,, C. B. Janvresse,, E. Dussaix,, J. Icart,, A. Karaterki,, A. Ruffault,, Y. Taoufik,, C. Vignoli, and, D. Ingrand. 1998. Prevalence of JC virus viraemia in HIV-infected patients with or without neurological disorders: a prospective study. J. Neurovirol. 4: 539544.
30. Dugan, A. S.,, S. Eash, and, W. J. Atwood. 2005. An N-linked glycoprotein with alpha(2,3)-linked sialic acid is a receptor for BK virus. J. Virol. 79: 1444214445.
31. Du Pasquier, R. A.,, S. Corey,, D. H. Margolin,, K. Williams,, L. A. Pfister,, U. De Girolami,, J. J. MacKey,, C. Wüthrich,, J. T. Joseph, and, I. J. Koralnik. 2003. Productive infection of cerebellar granule cell neurons by JC virus in an HIV+ individual. Neurology 61: 775782.
32. Eash, S.,, R. Tavares,, E. G. Stopa,, S. H. Robbins,, L. Brossay, and, W. J. Atwood. 2004. Differential distribution of the JC virus receptor-type sialic acid in normal human tissues. Am. J. Pathol. 164: 419428.
33. Eckhart, W. 1990. Polyomavirinae and their replication, p. 1593–1607. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, R. M. Chanock,, M. S. Hirsch,, J. L. Melnick,, T. P. Monath, and, B. Roizman (ed.), Fields Virology, 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York, NY.
34. Elphick, G. F.,, W. Querbes,, J. A. Jordan,, G. V. Gee,, S. Eash,, K. Manley,, A. Dugan,, M. Stanifer,, A. Bhatnagar,, W. K. Kroeze,, B. L. Roth, and, W. J. Atwood. 2004. The human polyomavirus, JCV, uses serotonin receptors to infect cells. Science 19: 13801383.
35. Elsner, C.,, and K. Dorries. 1992. Evidence of human polyomavirus BK and JC infection in normal brain tissue. Virology 191: 7280.
36. Feng, H.,, M. Shuda,, Y. Chang, and, P. S. Moore. 2008. Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319: 10961100.
37. Flaegstad, T.,, and T. Traavik. 1987. BK virus in cell culture: infectivity quantitation and sequential expression of antigens detected by immunoperoxidase staining. J. Virol. Methods 16: 139146.
38. Gardner, S. D.,, D. M. Field,, D. V. Coleman, and, B. Hulme. 1971. New human papovavirus isolated from urine after renal transplantation. Lancet i: 12531257.
39. Garvey, L.,, E. C. Thomson, and, G. P. Taylor. 2006. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: prolonged survival in patients treated with protease inhibitors and cidofovir: a case series. AIDS 20: 791793.
40. Gasnault, J.,, M. Kahraman,, M. G. de Goër de Herve,, D. Durali,, J. F. Delfraissy, and, Y. Taoufik. 2003. Critical role of JC virus-specific CD4 T-cell responses in preventing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. AIDS 17: 14431449.
41. Gaynor, A. M.,, M. D. Nissen,, D. M. Whiley,, I. M. Mackay,, S. B. Lambert,, G. Wu,, D. C. Brennan,, G. A. Storch,, T. P. Sloots, and, D. Wang. 2007. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PLoS Pathog. 3: e64.
42. Gibson, P. E.,, A. M. Field,, S. D. Gardner, and, D. V. Coleman. 1981. Occurrence of IgM antibodies against BK and JC polyomaviruses during pregnancy. J. Clin. Pathol. 34: 674679.
43. Ginevri, F.,, R. De Santis,, P. Comoli,, N. Pastorino,, C. Rossi,, G. Botti,, I. Fontana,, A. Nocera,, M. Cardillo,, M. R. Ciardi,, F. Locatelli,, R. Maccario,, F. Perfumo, and, A. Azzi. 2003. Polyomavirus BK infection in pediatric kidney-allograft recipients: a single-center analysis of incidence, risk factors, and novel therapeutic approaches. Transplantation 75: 12661270.
44. Giudici, B.,, B. Vaz,, S. Bossolasco,, S. Casari,, A. M. Brambilla,, W. Luke,, A. Lazzarin,, T. Weber, and, P. Cinque. 2000. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: effects on cerebrospinal fluid markers of JC virus replication and immune response. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 9599.
45. Greenlee, J. E. 1998. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, p. 399–430. In M. J. Aminoff and, C. G. Goetz (ed.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
46. Greenlee, J. E. 1979. Pathogenesis of K virus infection in newborn mice. Infect. Immun. 26: 705713.
47. Greenlee, J. E. 1981. Effect of host age on experimental K virus infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 33: 297303.
48. Greenlee, J. E.,, R. C. Phelps, and, W. G. Stroop. 1991. The major site of murine K-papovavirus persistence and reactivation is the renal tubular epithelium. Microb. Pathog. 11: 237247.
49. Gross, L. 1953. A filterable agent, recovered from Ak leukemic extracts, causing salivary gland carcinomas in C3H mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 83: 414421.
50. Hall, C. D.,, U. Dafni,, D. Simpson,, D. Clifford,, P. E. Wetherill,, B. Cohen,, J. McArthur,, H. Hollander,, C. Yainnoutsos,, E. Major,, L. Millar, and J. Timpone for The AIDS Clinical Trials Group 243 Team. 1998. Failure of cytarabine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 13451351.
51. Hariharan, S. 2006. BK virus nephritis after renal transplantation. Kidney Int. 69: 655662.
52. Hirsch, H. H.,, and J. Steiger. 2003. Polyomavirus BK. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3: 611623.
53. Houff, S. A.,, E. O. Major,, D. A. Katz,, C. V. Kufta,, J. L. Sever,, S. Pittaluga,, J. R. Roberts,, J. Gitt,, N. Saini, and, W. Lux. 1988. Involvement of JC virus-infected mononuclear cells from the bone marrow and spleen in the pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 318: 301305.
54. Imperiale, M. J.,, and E. O. Major. 2007. Polyomaviruses, p. 2263–2298. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
55. Kilham, L.,, and H. W. Murphy. 1953. A pneumotropic virus isolated from C3H mice carrying the Bittner milk agent. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 82: 133137.
56. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B. K.,, and K. L. Tyler. 2005. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy complicating treatment with natalizumab and interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 369374.
57. Knowles, W. A.,, D. Pillay,, M. A. Johnson,, J. F. Hand, and, D. W. Brown. 1999. Prevalence of long-term BK and JC excretion in HIV-infected adults and lack of correlation with serological markers. J. Med. Virol. 59: 474479.
58. Koralnik, I. J.,, C. Wuthrich,, X. Dang,, M. Rottnek,, A. Gurtman,, D. Simpson, and, S. Morgello. 2005. JC virus granule cell neuronopathy: a novel clinical syndrome distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ann. Neurol. 57: 576580.
59. Kranick, S. M.,, E. M. Mowry, and, M. R. Rosenfeld. 2007. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after rituximab in a case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Neurology 69: 704706.
60. Lafon, M. E.,, H. Dutronc,, V. Dubois,, I. Pellegrin,, P. Barbeau,, J. M. Ragnaud,, J. L. Pellegrin, and, H. J. Fleury. 1998. JC virus remains latent in peripheral blood B lymphocytes but replicates actively in urine from AIDS patients. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 15021505.
61. Langer-Gould, A.,, S. W. Atlas,, A. J. Green,, A. W. Bollen, and, D. Pelletier. 2005. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient treated with natalizumab. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 375381.
62. Lebkowski, J. S.,, S. Clancy, and, M. P. Calos. 1985. Simian virus 40 replication in adenovirus-transformed human cells antagonizes gene expression. Nature 317: 169171.
63. Lewis, E. D.,, and J. L. Manley. 1985. Repression of simian virus 40 early transcription by viral DNA replication in human 293 cells. Nature 317: 172175.
64. Lopez-Rios, F.,, P. B. Illei,, V. Rusch, and, M. Ladanyi. 2004. Evidence against a role for SV40 infection in human mesotheliomas and high risk of false-positive PCR results owing to presence of SV40 sequences in common laboratory plasmids. Lancet 364: 11571166.
65. Low, J. A.,, B. Magnuson,, B. Tsai, and, M. J. Imperiale. 2006. Identification of gangliosides GD1b and GT1b as receptors for BK virus. J. Virol. 80: 13611366.
66. Marra, C. M.,, N. Rajicic,, D. E. Barker,, B. A. Cohen,, D. Clifford,, M. J. Donovan Post,, A. Ruiz,, B. C. Bowen,, M. L. Huang,, J. Queen-Baker,, J. Andersen,, S. Kelly, and, S. Shriver. 2002. A pilot study of cidofovir for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS. AIDS 16: 17911797.
67. Martin, S. I.,, F. M. Marty,, K. Fiumara,, S. P. Treon,, J. G. Gribben, and, L. R. Baden. 2006. Infectious complications associated with alemtuzumab use for lymphoproliferative disorders. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43: 1624.
68. Marzocchetti, A.,, S. Di Giambenedetto,, A. Cingolani,, A. Ammassari,, R. Cauda, and, A. De Luca. 2005. Reduced rate of diagnostic positive detection of JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid in cases of suspected progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 41754177.
69. Melnick, J. L.,, and S. Stinebaugh. 1962. Excretion of vacuolating SV-40 virus (papova virus group) after ingestion as a contaminant of oral polio vaccine. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 109: 965968.
70. Minor, P.,, P. Pipkin,, Z. Jarzebek, and, W. Knowles. 2003. Studies of neutralising antibodies to SV40 in human sera. J. Med. Virol. 70: 490495.
71. Munoz, P.,, M. Fogeda,, E. Bouza,, E. Verde,, J. Palomo, and, R. Banares. 2005. Prevalence of BK virus replication among recipients of solid organ transplants. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 17201725.
72. Mutti, L.,, M. Carbone,, G. G. Giordano, and, A. Giordano. 1998. Simian virus 40 and human cancer. Monaldi Arch. Chest Dis. 53: 198201.
73. Newman, J. T.,, and R. J. Frisque. 1997. Detection of archetype and rearranged variants of JC virus in multiple tissues from a pediatric PML patient. J. Med. Virol. 52: 243252.
74. Norja, P.,, I. Ubillos,, K. Templeton, and, P. Simmonds. 2007. No evidence for an association between infections with WU and KI polyomaviruses and respiratory disease. J. Clin. Virol. 40: 307311.
75. O’Neill, F. J.,, H. Carney, and, Y. Hu. 1998. Host range analysis of simian virus 40, BK virus and chimaeric SV40/BKV: relative expression of large T-antigen and Vp1 in infected and transformed cells. Dev. Biol. Stand. 94: 191205.
76. O’Neill, F. J.,, R. J. Frisque,, X. Xu,, Y. X. Hu, and, H. Carney. 1995. Immortalization of human cells by mutant and chimeric primate polyomavirus T-antigen genes. Oncogene 10: 11311139.
77. O’Neill, F. J.,, J. E. Greenlee, and, H. Carney. 2003. The archetype enhancer of simian virus 40 DNA is duplicated during virus growth in human cells and rhesus monkey kidney cells but not in green monkey kidney cells. Virology 310: 173182.
78. O’Neill, F. J.,, J. E. Greenlee,, K. Dorries,, S. A. Clawson, and, H. Carney. 2003. Propagation of archetype and non-archetype JC virus variants in human fetal brain cultures: demonstration of interference activity by archetype JC virus. J. Neurovirol. 9: 567576.
79. O’Neill, F. J.,, Y. Hu, and, H. C. Carney. 1997. Identification of p53 unbound to T-antigen in human cells transformed by simian virus 40 T-antigen variants. Oncogene 14: 955965.
80. O’Neill, F. J.,, X. L. Xu, and, T. H. Miller. 1990. Host range determinant in the late region of SV40 and RF virus affecting growth in human cells. Intervirology 31: 175187.
81. Oster-Granite, M. L.,, O. Narayan,, R. T. Johnson, and, R. M. Herndon. 1978. Studies of cultured human and simian fetal brain cells. II. Infections with human (BK) and simian (SV40) papovaviruses. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 4: 443455.
82. Padgett, B. L.,, D. L. Walker,, G. M. Zu Rhein, and, R. J. Eckroade. 1971. Cultivation of a papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Lancet i: 12571260.
83. Pater, A.,, M. M. Pater, and, G. di Mayorca. 1980. The arrangement of the genome of the human papovavirus RF virus. J. Virol. 36: 480487.
84. Pater, M. M.,, A. Pater, and, G. di Mayorca. 1981. Genome analysis of MG virus, a human papovavirus. J. Virol. 39: 968972.
85. Perez-Losada, M.,, R. G. Christensen,, D. A. McClellan,, B. J. Adams,, R. P. Viscidi,, J. C. Demma, and, K. A. Crandall. 2006. Comparing phylogenetic codivergence between polyomaviruses and their hosts. J. Virol. 80: 56635669.
86. Petrogiannis-Haliotis, T.,, G. Sakoulas,, J. Kirby,, I. J. Koralnik,, A. M. Dvorak,, R. Monahan-Earley,, P. C. De Girolami,, U. De Girolami,, M. Upton,, E. O. Major,, L.-A. Pfister, and, J. T. Joseph. 2001. BK-related polyomavirus vasculopathy in a renal-transplant recipient. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 12501255.
87. Pietropaolo, V.,, C. Di Taranto,, A. M. Degener,, L. Jin,, L. Sinibaldi,, A. Baiocchini,, M. Melis, and, N. Orsi. 1998. Transplacental transmission of human polyomavirus BK. J. Med. Virol. 56: 372376.
88. Pietropaolo, V.,, D. Fioriti,, P. Simeone,, M. Videtta,, C. Di Taranto,, A. Arancio,, N. Orsi, and, A. M. Degener. 2003. Detection and sequence analysis of human polyomaviruses DNA from autoptic samples of HIV-1 positive and negative subjects. Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 16: 269276.
89. Polo, C.,, J. L. Perez,, A. Mielnichuck,, C. G. Fedele,, J. Niubo, and, A. Tenorio. 2004. Prevalence and patterns of polyomavirus urinary excretion in immunocompetent adults and children. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10: 640644.
90. Randhawa, P.,, and D. C. Brennan. 2006. BK virus infection in transplant recipients: an overview and update. Am. J. Transplant. 6: 20002005.
91. Reploeg, M. D.,, G. A. Storch, and, D. B. Clifford. 2001. BK virus: a clinical review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 191202.
92. Ricciardiello, L.,, L. Laghi,, P. Ramamirtham,, C. L. Chang,, D. K. Chang,, A. E. Randolph, and, C. R. Boland. 2000. JC virus DNA sequences are frequently present in the human upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 119: 12281235.
93. Richardson, E. P. 1961. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. N. Engl. J. Med. 265: 815823.
94. Rodrigues, C.,, D. Pinto, and, R. Medeiros. 2007. Molecular epidemiology characterization of the urinary excretion of polyomavirus in healthy individuals from Portugal—a Southern European population. J. Med. Virol. 79: 11941198.
95. Rollison, D. E.,, W. F. Page,, H. Crawford,, G. Gridley,, S. Wacholder,, J. Martin,, R. Miller, and, E. A. Engels. 2004. Case-control study of cancer among US Army veterans exposed to simian virus 40-contaminated adenovirus vaccine. Am. J. Epidemiol. 160: 317324.
96. Rollison, D. E.,, U. Utaipat,, C. Ryschkewitsch,, J. Hou,, P. Goldthwaite,, R. Daniel,, K. J. Helzlsouer,, P. C. Burger,, K. V. Shah, and, E. O. Major. 2005. Investigation of human brain tumors for the presence of polyomavirus genome sequences by two independent laboratories. Int. J. Cancer 113: 769774.
97. Romero, J. R.,, and D. W. Kimberlin. 2003. Molecular diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system. Clin. Lab. Med. 23: 843865, vi.
98. Salmaggi, A.,, E. Maccagnano,, A. Castagna,, S. Zeni,, F. Fantini,, P. Cinque, and, M. Savoiardo. 2001. Reversal of CSF positivity for JC virus genome by cidofovir in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Neurol. Sci. 22: 1720.
99. Samorei, I. W.,, M. Schmid,, M. Pawlita,, H. V. Vinters,, K. Diebold,, C. Mundt, and, R. W. von Einsiedel. 2000. High sensitivity detection of JC-virus DNA in postmortem brain tissue by in situ PCR. J. Neurovirol. 6: 6174.
100. Schmidbauer, M.,, H. Budka, and, K. V. Shah. 1990. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in AIDS and in the pre-AIDS era. A neuropathological comparison using immunocytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridization for virus detection. Acta Neuropathol. 80: 375380.
101. Seif, I.,, G. Khoury, and, R. Dhar. 1979. The genome of human papovavirus BKV. Cell 18: 963977.
102. Shah, K. V. 2006. SV40 and human cancer: a review of recent data. Int. J. Cancer 120: 215223.
103. Shah, K. V. 1996. Polyomaviruses, p. 2027–2043. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe, and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
104. Shah, K. V.,, R. W. Daniel,, H. D. Strickler, and, J. J. Goedert. 1997. Investigation of human urine for genomic sequences of the primate polyomaviruses simian virus 40, BK virus, and JC virus. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 16181621.
105. Shah, K. V.,, D. A. Galloway,, W. A. Knowles, and, R. P. Viscidi. 2004. Simian virus 40 (SV40) and human cancer: a review of the serological data. Rev. Med. Virol. 14: 231239.
106. Shimizu, N.,, A. Imamura,, O. Daimaru,, H. Mihara,, Y. Kato,, R. Kato,, T. Oguri,, M. Fukada,, T. Yokochi,, K. Yoshikawa,, H. Komatsu,, R. Ueda, and, M. Nitta. 1999. Distribution of JC virus DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of hematological disease cases. Intern. Med. 38: 932937.
107. Smith, M. A.,, H. D. Strickler,, M. Granovsky,, G. Reaman,, M. Linet,, R. Daniel, and, K. V. Shah. 1999. Investigation of leukemia cells from children with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia for genomic sequences of the primate polyomaviruses JC virus, BK virus, and simian virus 40. Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 33: 441443.
108. Subsai, K.,, S. Kanoksri,, C. Siwaporn,, L. Helen,, O. Kanokporn, and, P. Wantana. 2006. Neurological complications in AIDS patients receiving HAART: a 2-year retrospective study. Eur. J. Neurol. 13: 233239.
109. Sundsfjord, A.,, A. R. Spein,, E. Lucht,, T. Flaegstad,, O. M. Seternes, and, T. Traavik. 1994. Detection of BK virus DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with respiratory infections but not in saliva from immunodeficient and immunocompetent adult patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 13901394.
110. Tada, H.,, J. Rappaport,, M. Lashgari,, S. Amini,, F. Wong-Staal, and, K. Khalili. 1990. Trans-activation of the JC virus late promoter by the tat protein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus in glial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 34793483.
111. Tevethia, S. S. 1990. Recognition of simian virus 40 T antigen by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Mol. Biol. Med. 7: 8396.
112. Tsai, R. T.,, M. Wang,, W. C. Ou,, Y. L. Lee,, S. Y. Li,, C. Y. Fung,, Y. L. Huang,, T. Y. Tzeng,, Y. Chen, and, D. Chang. 1997. Incidence of JC viruria is higher than that of BK viruria in Taiwan. J. Med. Virol. 52: 253257.
113. Van Assche, G.,, M. Van Ranst,, R. Sciot,, B. Dubois,, S. Vermeire,, M. Noman,, J. Verbeeck,, K. Geboes,, W. Robberecht, and, P. Rutgeerts. 2005. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab therapy for Crohn’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 362368.
114. Vanchiere, J. A.,, R. K. Nicome,, J. M. Greer,, G. J. Demmler, and, J. S. Butel. 2005. Frequent detection of polyomaviruses in stool samples from hospitalized children. J. Infect. Dis. 192: 658664.
115. Vazeux, R.,, M. Cumont,, P. M. Girard,, X. Nassif,, P. Trotot,, C. Marche,, L. Matthiessen,, C. Vedrenne,, J. Mikol, and, D. Henin. 1990. Severe encephalitis resulting from coinfections with HIV and JC virus. Neurology 40: 944948.
116. Verma, S.,, K. Cikurel,, I. J. Koralnik,, S. Morgello,, C. Cunningham-Rundles,, Z. R. Weinstein,, C. Bergmann, and, D. M. Simpson. 2007. Mirtazapine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with polycythemia vera. J. Infect. Dis. 196: 709711.
117. Viallard, J. F.,, E. Ellie,, E. Lazaro,, M. E. Lafon, and, J. L. Pellegrin. 2005. JC virus meningitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 14: 964966.
118. White, F. A., III,, M. Ishaq,, G. L. Stoner, and, R. J. Frisque. 1992. JC virus DNA is present in many human brain samples from patients without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J. Virol. 66: 57265734.
119. Wyen, C.,, C. Lehmann,, G. Fätkenheuer, and, C. Hoffmann. 2005. AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the era of HAART: report of two cases and review of the literature. AIDS Patient Care STDS 19: 486494.
120. Yogo, Y.,, T. Kitamura,, C. Sugimoto,, T. Ueki,, Y. Aso,, K. Hara, and, F. Taguchi. 1990. Isolation of a possible archetypal JC virus DNA sequence from nonimmunocompromised individuals. J. Virol. 64: 31393143.
121. Zaragoza, C.,, R. M. Li,, G. A. Fahle,, S. H. Fischer,, M. Raffeld,, A. M. Lewis, Jr., and, J. B. Kopp. 2005. Squirrel monkeys support replication of BK virus more efficiently than simian virus 40: an animal model for human BK virus infection. J. Virol. 79: 13201326.
122. Zhong, S.,, H. Y. Zheng,, M. Suzuki,, Q. Chen,, H. Ikegaya,, N. Aoki,, S. Usuku,, N. Kobayashi,, S. Nukuzuma,, Y. Yasuda,, N. Kuniyoshi,, Y. Yogo, and, T. Kitamura. 2007. Age-related urinary excretion of BK polyomavirus by nonimmunocompromised individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 193198.


Generic image for table

Major human and animal polyomaviruses

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27
Generic image for table

Functions of early and late polyomavirus-encoded proteins

Citation: Greenlee J, O’Neill F. 2009. Polyomaviruses, p 581-601. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch27

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error