Chapter 14 : The Impact of Imports

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Impact of Imports, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap14-2.gif


Canada was not the only country dealing with contamination in imported frog legs in the 1970s. During the first half of the decade, -contaminated frog legs from countries such as Mexico, Japan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Indonesia accounted for the highest rate of violations of all foods regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This chapter presents a table that lists examples of food-borne disease outbreaks associated with imported foods. Canada exported -contaminated chocolate to the United States in 1972 and imported -contaminated chocolate from Belgium in 1985; European Union (EU) member countries imported contaminated snack foods from Israel and exported contaminated meat, dairy products, and produce to their fellow members; the United States has imported contaminated produce from Mexico, Honduras, and Guatemala and-twice in the last 5 years-exported contaminated raw almonds to several countries around the world, including Mexico and Canada. The Almond Board of California, an industry trade association, funded research to determine the potential sources of in orchards, to understand the ability of to survive in the environment, and to develop and validate treatments to kill and other pathogens that might contaminate the nuts during harvest or processing. One way for a country to prevent imported foods from causing illness is to embargo imports from high-risk countries or to embargo high-risk foods from any country. Many countries have chosen to embargo imports of beef or live cattle from countries perceived to be at high risk for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

Citation: Entis P. 2007. The Impact of Imports, p 253-272. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch14
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Alfano-Sobsey, E. M.,, M. L. Eberhard,, J. R. Seed,, D. J. Weber,, K. Y. Won,, E. K. Nace,, and C. L. Moe. 2004. Human challenge pilot study with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 726 728.
2. Allen, J. E. 3 April 1997. Hepatitis contamination sparks scare; executive quits as investigators track suspected frozen strawberries. Austin American Statesman, Austin, Tex..
3. Andrews, W. H.,, C. R. Wilson,, P. L. Poelma,, and A. Romero. 1977. Comparison of methods for the isolation of Salmonella from imported frog legs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33: 65 68.
4..Anonymous. 25 March 1996. Agreed minutes from the meeting of experts of the government of the United States of America and the government of the Russia Federation regarding the application of sanitary measures to exports of poultry products from the United States to Russia. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service. [Online.] http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/agreements/ruspoul.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
5.Anonymous. 28 March 1997. Officials target berries in hepatitis A outbreak. The Grand Rapids Press, Grand Rapids, Mich..
6.Anonymous. 18 April 1997. Illegal fruit report too late to halt outbreak. Times Union, Albany, N.Y..
7.Anonymous. 14 November 1997. Strawberry supplier pleads guilty in hepatitis. The Oregonian, Portland, Oreg..
8..Anonymous. 1998. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis—Ontario, Canada, May 1998. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47: 806 809.
9.Anonymous. 16 June 1998. Food executive gets prison term for lying. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
10.Anonymous. 24 May 2004. Marler Clark sues Paramount Farms over Salmonella-tainted almonds. Business Wire, Spokane, Wash.
11..Anonymous. 2005. Hughson Nut. [Online.] http://www.hughsonnut.com/index.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
12. Artero, S. 8 June 1996. Fruit salad suspect in possible Cyclospora cases. Palm Beach Post, West Palm Beach, Fla..
13. Artero, S. 11 June 1996. Cyclospora is showing scary affinity for strawberries. Palm Beach Post, West Palm Beach, Fla..
14. Bern, C.,, B. Hernandez,, M. B. Lopez,, M. J. Arrowood,, M. Alvarez de Mejia,, A. M. de Merida,, A. W. Hightower,, L. Venczel,, B. L. Herwaldt,, and R. E. Klein. 1999. Epidemiologic studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 766 774.
15.. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 12 April 2001. Health hazard alert. Almonds may contain dangerous bacteria. Canadian Food Inspection Agency,Office of Food Safety and Recall, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. [Online.] http://www.inspection.gc.ca /english/corpaffr/recarapp/2001/20010412be.shtml. Accessed 2 July 2006.
16. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 18 April 2001. Health hazard alert. Mixed snack products containing almonds sold by Bulk Barn may contain dangerous bacteria. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Office of Food Safety and Recall, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. [Online.] http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/corpaffr/recarapp/2001/20010418e.shtml. Accessed 2 July 2006.
17.. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 18 May 2001. Health hazard alert. Almonds may contain dangerous bacteria. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Office of Food Safety and Recall, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. [Online.] http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/corpaffr/recarapp/2001/20010518de.shtml. Accessed 2 July 2006.
18. Chambers, J.,, S. Somerfeldt,, L. Mackey,, S. Nichols,, R. Ball,, D. Roberts,, N. Dufford,, A. Reddick,, and J. Gibson. 1996. Outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection—United States, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45: 549 551.
19. Chan, E. S.,, J. Aramini,, B. Ciebin,, D. Middleton,, R. Ahmed,, M. Howes,, I. Brophy,, I. Mentis,, F. Jamieson,, F. Rodgers,, M. Nazarowec-White,, S. C. Pichette,, J. Farrar,, M. Gutierrez,, W. J. Weis,, L. Lior,, A. Ellis,, and S. Isaacs. 2002. Preliminary report. Natural or raw almonds and an outbreak of a rare phage type of Salmonella enteritidis infection. Can. Commun. Dis. Rep. 28: 97 99. [Online.] http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat /ccdr-rmtc/02vol28/dr2812ea.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
20. Claiborne, W. 11 June 1997. Firm faces charges in tainted berry case. The Oregonian, Portland, Oreg.
21.. Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems. 2004. Joint FAO/ WHO food standards programme. Proposed draft guidelines for risk-based inspection of imported foods. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and World Health Organization. [Online.] http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/intactivit /fc13_05_e.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2006.
22. Craven, P. C.,, D. C. Mackel,, W. B. Baine,, W. H. Barker,, E. J. Gangarosa,, M. Goldfield,, H. Rosenfeld,, R. Altman,, G. Lachapelle,, J. W. Davies,, and R. C. Swanson. 1975. International outbreak of Salmonella eastbourne infection traced to contaminated chocolate. Lancet i: 788 793.
23. Crist, A.,, C. Morningstar,, R. Chambers,, T. Fitzgerald,, D. Stoops,, M. Deffley,, Y. Reyes,, T. Hiden,, J. Sullivan,, D. Hawk,, P. Lurie,, M. Moll,, S. Yeager,, L. Lind,, J. Burkee,, K. Warren,, M. Marcus,, J. Reeser,, H. Davidson,, S. Thomas,, B. L. Herwaldt,, M. Hlavsa,, S. P. Johnston,, H. Bishop,, A. daSilva,, A. Hightower,, D. K. El Reda,, and N. Flowers. 2004. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with snow peas Pennsylvania, 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53: 876 878.
24. Crowe, L.,, L. Chui,, D. Everett,. S. Brisdon,, L. Gustafson,, E. Galanis,, L. McIntyre,, L. MacDougall,, L. Wilcott,, A. Paccagnella,, D. MacDonald,, A. Ellis,, A. Drake,, J. Koepsell,, C. DeBolt,, S. McKeirnan,, J. Duchin,, R. Baer,, M. Leslie,, M. L. Collins,, J. M. Johnson,, D. E. Farmer,, C. E. Keys,, H. Ekperigin,, F. Angulo,, and R. E. Colindres. 2006. Human salmonellosis associated with animal-derived pettreats—United States and Canada, 2005. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 702 705.
25. Dalton, C. B.,, J. Gregory,, M. D. Kirk,, R. J. Stafford,, E. Kraa,, and D. Gould. 2004. Foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia, 1995 to 2000. Commun. Dis. Intell. 28: 211 224.
26. Dato, V.,, A. Weltman,, K. Waller,, M. A. Ruta,, A. Highbaugh-Battle,, C. Hembree,, S. Evenson,, C. Wheeler,, and T. Vogt. 2003. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52: 1155 1157.
27.. Department of Agriculture. 2005. National school lunch program. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. [Online.] http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/default.htm. Accessed 2 July 2006.
28. Elliott, V. 3 May 2006. Russia bans British poultry imports. The Times, London, United Kingdom.
29. Espié, E.,, and V. Vaillant. 2005. International outbreak of Salmonella Stourbridge infection, April-July 2005: results of epidemiological, food and veterinary investigations in France. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/050811.asp#3. Accessed 2 July 2006.
30. Ethelberg, S. 2005. Salmonellosis outbreak linked to carpaccio made from imported raw beef, Denmark, June-August 2005. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/050922.asp#3. Accessed 2 July 2006.
31. Falkenhorst, G.,, L. Krusell,, M. Lisby,, S. B. Madsen,, B. Böttiger,, and K. Mølbak. 2005. Imported frozen raspberries cause a series of Norovirus outbreaks in Denmark, 2005. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/050922.asp#2. Accessed 2 July 2006.
32.. Food and Drug Administration. 2001. FDA survey of imported fresh produce. FY 1999 field assignment. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsur6.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
33.. Food and Drug Administration. 2003. Protecting the food supply. FDA actions on new bioterrorism legislation. Fact sheet on FDA’s new food bioterrorism regulation: interim Final Rule prior notice of imported food shipments. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fsbtac13.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
34.. Food and Drug Administration. 18 May 2004. Paramount Farms announces nationwide recall of whole natural raw almonds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/oc/po/firmrecalls/paramount05_04.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
35.. Food and Drug Administration. 22 May 2004. Paramount Farms expands recall of raw almonds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http:// www.fda.gov/oc/po/firmrecalls/paramountexp05_04.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
36.. Food and Drug Administration. 2004. Recalls, market withdrawals and safety alerts archive. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/oc/po/firmrecalls/archive_2004.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
37.. Food and Drug Administration. 2005. FDA survey of imported fresh produce. Import produce assignment (DFP # 05-16) - HIGH Priority. ORA Concurrence # 2005031601. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsu12.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
38.. Food and Drug Administration. 2006. FIARS import alerts. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Regulatory Affairs. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/ora/fiars/ora_import_alerts.html. Accessed 1 July 2006.
39. Francis, B. J.,, and J. P. Davis. 1984. Update: gastrointestinal illness associated with imported semi-soft cheese. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 16, 22.
40. Francis, B. J.,, J. V. Altamirano,, M. G. Stobierski,, W. Hall,, B. Robinson,, S. Dietrich,, R. Martin,, F. Downes,, K. R. Wilcox, Jr.,, C. Hedberg,, R. Wood,, M. Osterholm,, C. Genese,, M. J. Hung,, S. Paul,, K. C. Spitalny,, C. Whalen,, and J. Spika. 1991. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella poona infections United States and Canada, 1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40: 549 552.
41. Gaulin, C. D.,, D. Ramsay,, P. Cardinal,, and M. A. D’Halevyn. 1999. Epidemic of gastroenteritis of viral origin associated with eating imported raspberries [Article in French; English abstract]. Can. J. Public Health 90: 37 40.
42.. General Accounting Office. 2000. FDA’s use of faster tests to assess the safety of imported foods. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. [Online.] http://www.gao.gov/new.items/rc00065.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2006.
43.. General Accounting Office. 2004. FDA’s imported seafood safety program shows some progress, but further improvements are needed. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. [Online.] http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04246.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2006.
44. Goswami, B. B., 2001. Detection and quantitation of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by the polymerase chain reaction, p. 26.01 26.05. In G. J. Jackson,, R. I. Merker,, and R. Bandler, BAM Project Coordinators, Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-26.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
45. Gustavsen, S.,, and O. Breen. 1984. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella oranienburg infections in Norway, caused by contaminated black pepper. Am. J. Epidemiol. 119: 806 812.
46. Health Protection Branch, J. Hofmann,, Z. Liu,, C. Genese,, G. Wolf,, W. Manley,, K. Pilot,, E. Dalley,, and L. Finelli. 1996. Update: outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection—United States and Canada, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45: 611 612.
47. Herwaldt, B. L. 2000. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 1040 1057.
48. Herwaldt, B. L.,, M.-L. Ackers, and The Cyclospora Working Group. 1997. An outbreak in 1996 of cyclosporiasis associated with imported raspberries. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 1548 1556.
49. Herwaldt, B. L.,, M. J. Beach, and The Cyclospora Working Group. 1999. The return of Cyclospora in 1997: another outbreak of cyclosporiasis in North America associated with imported raspberries. Ann. Intern. Med. 130: 210 220.
50. Hjertqvist, M.,, R. Eitrem,, R. Wollin,, L. Plym-Forshell,, and J. Giesecke. 2003. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 108 (or DT 170) due to imported contaminated kebab meat in Sweden. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 7. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2003/030814.asp#1. Accessed 2 July 2006.
51. Hjertqvist, M.,, I. Luzzi,, S. Löfdahl,, A. Olsson,, J. Rådal,, and Y. Andersson. 2006. Unusual phage pattern of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from Swedish patients and Italian salami. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 11. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2006/060209.asp#3. Accessed 2 July 2006.
52. Ho, A. Y.,, A. S. Lopez,, M. G. Eberhart,, R. Levenson,, B. S. Finkel,, A. J. da Silva,, J. M. Roberts,, P. A. Orlandi,, C. C. Johnson,, and B. L. Herwaldt. 2002. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with imported raspberries, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 783 788.
53. Hockin, J. C.,, J.-Y. D’Aoust,, D. Bowering,, J. H. Jessop,, B. Khanna,, H. Lior,, and M. E. Milling. 1989. An international outbreak of Salmonella nima from imported chocolate . J. Food Prot. 52: 51 54.
54. Hutin, Y. J. F.,, V. Pool,, E. H. Cramer,, O. V. Nainan,, J. Weth,, I. T. Williams,, S. T. Goldstein,, K. F. Gensheimer,, B. P. Bell,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter,, and H. S. Margolis. 1999. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 595 602.
55. Isaacs, S.,, J. Aramini,, B. Ciebin,, J. A. Farrar,, R. Ahmed,, D. Middleton,, A. U. Chandran,, L. J. Harris,, M. Howes,, E. Chan,, A. S. Pichette,, K. Campbell,, A. Gupta,, L. Y. Lior,, M. Pearce,, C. Clark,, F. Rodgers,, F. Jamieson,, I. Brophy,, and A. Ellis. 2005. An international outbreak of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds contaminated with a rare phage type of Salmonella Enteritidis. J. Food Prot. 68: 191 198.
56. Isakbaeva, E.,, B.-A. Lindstedt,, B. Schimmer,, T. Vardund,, T.-L. Stavnes,, K. Hauge,, B. Gondrosen,, H. Blystad,, H. Kløvstad,, P. Aavitsland,, K. Nygård,, and G. Kapperud. 2005. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 outbreak linked to imported minced beef, Norway, October-November 2005. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/051110.asp#1. Accessed 30 June 2006.
57. Kapperud, G.,, L. M. Rørvik,, V. Hasseltvedt,, E. A. Høiby,, B. G. Iversen,, K. Staveland,, G. Johnsen,, J. Leitao,, H. Herikstad,, Y. Andersson,, G. Langeland,, B. Gondrosen,, and J. Lassen. 1995. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported iceberg lettuce. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 609 614.
58. Katz, D. J.,, M. A. Cruz,, M. J. Trepka,, J. A. Suarez,, P. D. Fiorella,, and R. M. Hammond. 2002. An outbreak of typhoid fever in Florida associated with an imported frozen fruit. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 234 239.
59. Keady, S.,, G. Briggs,, J. Farrar,, J. C. Mohle-Boetani,, J. O’Connell,, S. B. Werner,, D. Anderson,, L. Tenglesen,, S. Bidols,, B. Albanese,, C. Gordan,, E. DeBess,, J. Hatch,, W. E. Keene,, M. Plantenga,, J. Tierheimer,, A. L. Hackman,, C. E. Rinehardt,, C. H. Sandt,, A. Ingram,, S. Hansen,, S. Hurt,, M. Poulson,, R. Pallipamu,, J. Wicklund,, C. Braden,, J. Lockett,, S. Van Duyne,, A. Dechet,, and C. Smelser. 2004. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infections associated with raw almonds—United States and Canada, 2003-2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53: 484 487.
60. Killalea, D.,, L. R. Ward,, D. Roberts,, J. de Louvois,, F. Sufi,, J. M. Stuart,, P. G. Wall,, M. Susman,, M. Schwieger,, P. J. Sanderson,, I. S. T. Fisher,, P. S. Mead,, O. N. Gill,, C. L. R. Bartlett,, and B. Rowe. 1996. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack—I: England and Wales and the United States. BMJ 313: 1105 1107.
61. King, W. 29 May 2004. Tainted raw almonds made 4 ill in state. Recall covers 13 million pounds sold under various brands. Seattle Times, Seattle, Wash..
62. Koch, J.,, A. Schrauder,, K. Alpers,, D. Werber,, C. Frank,, R. Prager,, W. Rabsch,, S. Broll,, F. Feil,, P. Roggentin,, J. Bockemühl,, H. Tschäpe,, A. Ammon,, and K. Stark. 2005. Salmonella agona outbreak from contaminated aniseed, Germany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1124 1127.
63. Koumans, E. H. A.,, D. J. Katz,, J. M. Malecki,, S. Kumar,, S. P. Wahlquist,, M. J. Arrowood,, A. W. Hightower,, and B. L. Herwaldt. 1998. An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Florida in 1995: a harbinger of multistate outbreaks in 1996 and 1997. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 159: 235 242.>
64. Krusell, L.,, and N. Lohse. 2003. A case of human botulism in Denmark after consumption of garlic in chili oil dressing produced in Germany. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 7. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2003/030213.asp#1. Accessed 2 July 2006.
65. Kudaka, J.,, R. Asato,, K. Itokazu,, M. Nakamura,, K. Taira,, H. Kuniyosi,, Y. Kinjo,, J. Terajima,, H. Watanabe,, J. Kobayashi,, B. Swaminathan,, C. R. Braden,, and J. R. Dunn. 2005. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with ground beef from a U.S. military installation—Okinawa, Japan, February 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 40-– 42.
66. Lacey, C.,, R. Talbot,, J. Taylor,, D. Dwyer,, B. Jolbitado,, C. Morrison,, E. Butler-Senkel,, S. Strauss,, D. Murphy-Baxam,, J. Libonati,, E. Israel,, N. Ridley,, M. Smith,, J. Zingeser,, G. Miller, Jr.,, and K. Ungchusak. 1991. Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk—Maryland, 1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40: 844 845.
67. Levy, M. E. 1983. Gastrointestinal illness associated with imported brie cheese—District of Columbia. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 32: 533.
68. Mahon, B. E.,, A. Pönkä,, W. N. Hall,, K. Komatsu,, S. E. Dietrich,, A. Siitonen,, G. Cage,, P. S. Hayes,, M. A. Lambert-Fair,, N. H. Bean,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 1997. An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 876 882.
69. Mohle-Boetani, J. C.,, R. Reporter,, S. B. Werner,, S. Abbott,, J. Farrar,, S. H. Waterman,, and D. J. Vugia. 1999. An outbreak of Salmonella serogroup Saphra due to cantaloupes from Mexico. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 1361 1364.
70. Nygård, K.,, J. Lassen,, L. Vold,, P. Aavitsland,, and I. Fisher. 2004. International outbreak of Salmonella Thompson caused by contaminated ruccola salad update. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 8. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2004/041216.asp#2. Accessed 2 July 2006.
71. Olsen, S. J.,, L. C. MacKinon,, J. S. Goulding,, N. H. Bean,, and L. Slutsker. 2000. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 1993-1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49(SS-01): 1 51..
72. Orlandi, P. A.,, C. Frazar,, L. Carter,, and D.-M. T. Chu. 2004. Detection of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium from fresh produce: isolation and identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopic analysis. In G. J. Jackson, R. I. Merker, and R. Bandler, BAM Project Coordinators, Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online, Chapter 19 A. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-19a.html#authors. Accessed 2 July 2006.
73. Pratdesaba, R. A.,, M. González,, E. Piedrasanta,, C. Mérida,, K. Contreras,, C. Vela,, F. Culajay,, L. Flores,, and O. Torres. 2001. Cyclospora cayetanensis in three populations at risk in Guatemala. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 2951 2953.
74.. Public Health Agency of Canada. 19 October 2001. Salmonella Stanley and Salmonella Newport: Canada, Australia, United Kingdom. Infectious Diseases News Brief. [Online.] http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/2001/nb4201_e.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
75. Rodriguez, R. 26 May 2004. University of California researcher had been studying Salmonella in almonds. Fresno Bee, Fresno, Calif..
76. Shohat, T.,, M. S. Green,, D. Merom,, O. N. Gill,, A. Reisfeld,, A. Matas,, D. Blau,, N. Gal,, and P. E. Slater. 1996. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack—II: Israel. BMJ 313: 1107 1109.
77. Sivapalasingam, S.,, E. Barrett,, A. Kimura,, S. Van Duyne,, W. De Witt,, M. Ying,, A. Frisch,, Q. Phan,, E. Gould,, P. Shillam,, V. Reddy,, T. Cooper,, M. Hoekstra,, C. Higgins,, J. P. Sanders,, R. V. Tauxe,, and L. Slutsker. 2003. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infection linked to mango consumption: impact of water-dip disinfestation technology. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 1585 1590.
78. Smyth, J. 9 February 2006. EU defends rules on genetically modified crops. Irish Times, Dublin, Ireland.
79. Soave, R.,, and W. D. Johnson, Jr. 1995. Cyclospora: conquest of an emerging pathogen. Lancet 345: 667 668.
80. SoRelle, R. 27 June 1996. More berries tested in Cyclospora cases. Houston Chronicle, Houston, Tex..
81. Stout, D. 10 July 1996. Intestinal ailment is linked to Latin American raspberries. New York Times, New York, N.Y..
82. Tauxe, R. V.,, and J. M. Hughes. 1996. International investigation of outbreaks of foodborne disease. Public health responds to the globalisation of food. BMJ 313: 1093 1094.
83. Taylor, J. L.,, J. Tuttle,, T. Pramukul,, K. O’Brien,, T. J. Barrett,, B. Jolbitado,, Y. L. Lim,, D. Vugia,, J. G. Morris, Jr., R. V. Tauxe, and D. M. Dwyer. 1993. An outbreak of cholera in Maryland associated with imported commercial frozen fresh coconut milk. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 1330 1335.
84. Unicomb, L.,, M. Kirk,, G. Hogg,, P. Jelfs,, G. Simmons,, J. Gregory,, and C. Nicol. 2003. Salmonella Montevideo in sesame seed-based products imported into Australia and New Zealand may have implications for Europe and elsewhere. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 7. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2003/030918.asp#3. Accessed 2 July 2006.
85.. White House. 3 July 1999. The President announces new measures to prevent unsafe food from entering our borders. White House Briefing Room. [Online.] http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/fs-wh17.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
86.. World Health Organization. 4 November 2005. Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in poultry and in humans: food safety implications. World Health Organization, International Food Safety Authorities Network. [Online.] http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/subjects/documents/ai/Foodsafety.pdf. Accessed 1 July 2006.
87.. World Trade Organization. 2005. International trade statistics 2005. Table IV.3, World trade in agricultural products, 2004, and Table IV.8, Leading exporters and importers of agricultural products, 2004. World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. [Online.] http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2005_e/its05_bysector_e.htm. Accessed 2 July 2006.
88.. WorldTradeOrganization. 2005. World trade developments in 2004 and prospects for 2005. World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.[Online.] http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2005_e/its05_toc_e.htm. Accessed 2 July 2006. 167: 13301335.


Generic image for table
Table 14.1

Examples of food-borne disease outbreaks associated with imported foods

Citation: Entis P. 2007. The Impact of Imports, p 253-272. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch14

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error