Chapter 15 : A Raw Deal

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

A Raw Deal, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap15-2.gif


Aficionados of raw milk insist that it tastes better, is more nutritious, and is safer than pasteurized milk. Taste is an important criterion for some people, but the purported nutritional benefits of raw milk carry even greater weight. The desire of consumers to eat raw or minimally processed food extends far beyond the realm of raw milk. Fermented dairy products made from unpasteurized milk; raw, cured, or fermented meats; raw shellfish (oysters and mussels); sushi, sashimi, and other dishes based on raw fish and seafood; and vegetables all appear frequently on restaurant menus and on many dinner tables sometimes with unexpected and unhappy consequences. The steaks produced by Stampede Meat, which had caused infection during late June 2003 in the United States, had been treated by injection with a tenderizing and seasoning solution. Most likely, the tenderizing process transferred bacteria, including O157:H7, from the surface of the meat into its center. Some of those bacteria would have been able to survive cooking, especially if the steak was only lightly cooked. Eating a raw food diet is a modern fad, which has evolved into a new industry. Interest in this diet fad has been fueled in part by its celebrity boosters. However, celebrity status does not equate to nutritional or food safety knowledge. Consumers who embrace raw food diets open themselves to an increased risk of becoming victims of food-borne disease agents.

Citation: Entis P. 2007. A Raw Deal, p 273-294. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch15
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 15.1
Figure 15.1

Raw milk processing and bottling at Young's Jersey Dairy ( ).

Citation: Entis P. 2007. A Raw Deal, p 273-294. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abeyta, C., Jr., F. G. Deeter, C. A. Kaysner, R. F. Stott, and M. M. Wekell. 1993. Campylobacter jejuni in a Washington State shellfish growing bed associated with illness. J. Food Prot. 56: 323 325.
2. Adams, D.,, S. Well,, B. F. Brown,, S. Gregorio,, L. Townsend,, J. W. Skaggs,, and M. W. Hinds. 1984. Salmonellosis from inadequately pasteurized milk—Kentucky. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 505 506.
3. Alexander, E. R.,, J. Boase,, M. Davis,, L. Kirchner,, C. Osaki,, T. Tanino,, M. Samadpour,, P. Tarr,, M. Goldoft,, S. Lankford,, J. Kobyashi,, P. Stehr-Green,, P. Bradley,, B. Hinton,, P. Tighe,, B. Pearson,, G. R. Flores,, S. Abbott,, R. Bryant,, S. B. Werner,, and D. J. Vugia. 1995. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to commercially distributed dry-cured salami—Washington and California, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44: 157 160.
4. Allerberger, F.,, M. Wagner,, P. Schweiger,, H.-P. Rammer,, A. Resch,, M. P. Dierich,, A. W. Friedrich,, and H. Karch. 2001. Escherichia coli O157 infections and unpasteurised milk. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 6: 147 151. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v06n10/0610-222.asp. Accessed 6 July 2006.
5. Ancelle, T.,, A. De Bruyne,, D. Poisson,, and J. Dupouy-Camet. 2005. Outbreak of trichinellosis due to consumption of bear meat from Canada, France, September 2005. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/051013.asp#3. Accessed 6 July 2006.
6.Anonymous. 1984. Campylobacter outbreak associated with certified raw milk products—California. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 562.
7..Anonymous. 1998. Cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with unpasteurised cream in England. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 2. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/1998/981022.asp#5. Accessed 6 July 2006.
8..Anonymous. 2003. Preserving the people’s right to choose the healthy foods they want, through education and activism. Right to Choose Healthy Food, Santa Monica, Calif. [Online.]http://www.rawmilk.org/. Accessed 6 July 2006.
9..Anonymous. 2004. Welcome to BONSAH. Billinghurst’s Optimal Nutrition Society for Animal Health. [Online.] http://www.bonsah.com/index.php.Accessed 6 July 2006.
10..Anonymous. 2005. Why a campaign for real milk? Weston A. Price Foundation, Washington, D.C. [Online.] http://www.realmilk.com/why.html. Accessed 6 July 2006.
11.Anonymous. 9 July 2003. Coloradans told to check freezers for tainted steak. The Pueblo Chieftain, Pueblo, Colo..
12. Ashraf, S.,, S. Gee,, and S. O’Brien. 1998. Defective pasteurisation linked to outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive phage type 104 in England. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 2. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/1998/980917.asp#3. Accessed 6 July 2006.
13.. Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. 2006. History of the refrigerator. The History Channel . A&E Television Networks. [Online.] http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/modern/fridge.html. Accessed 5 July 2006.
14.. Australia. 2005. Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. Standard 1.6.2: processing requirements. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. [Online.] http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandardscode/index.cfm#_FSCchapter1. Accessed 6 July 2006.
15.. BARF World. 2005. Dr. Billinghurst’s BARF Diet™. Biologically Appropriate Raw Foods. [Online.] http://www.barfworld.com/html/learn_more/what_is_barf.shtml. Accessed 6 July 2006.
16. Barralet, J.,, R. Stafford,, C. Towner,, and P. Smith. 2004. Outbreak of Salmonella Singapore associated with eating sushi. Commun. Dis. Intel. 28. [Online.] http://www.health.gov.au/internet /wcms/publishing.nsf/Content /cda-2004-cdi2804p.htm. Accessed 6 July 2006.
17. Benda, B.,, J. Pollak,, R. Benjamin,, T. Livermore,, H. Mitchell,, S. B. Werner,, and J. Chin. 1986. Campylobacter outbreak associated with raw milk provided on a dairy tour—California. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 35: 311 312.
18. Bendall, J. G. 2001. Aroma compounds of fresh milk from New Zealand cows fed different diets. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4825 4832.
19. Berg, D. E.,, M. A. Kohn,, T. A. Farley,, and L. M. McFarland. 2000. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J. Infect. Dis. 181: S381 S386.
20. Besong, S.,, J. A. Jackson,, C. L. Hicks,, and R. W. Hemken. 1996. Effects of a supplemental liquid yeast product on feed intake, ruminal profiles, and yield, composition, and organoleptic characteristics of milk from lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79: 1654 1668.
21. Bielaszewska, M.,, J. Janda,, K. Blahova,, H. Minarikova,, E. Jikova,, M. A. Karmali,, J. Laubova,, J. Sikulova,, M. A. Preston,, R. Khakhria,, H. Karch,, H. Klazarova,, and O. Nyc. 1997. Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurized goat’s milk. Epidemiol. Infect. 119: 299 305.
22. Billinghurst, I. 2005. BARF Australia. [Online.] http://www.drianbillinghurst.com/index.html. Accessed 6 July 2006.
23. Blessing, D. J.,, M. Thompson,, B. Fisher,, D. Schooley,, M. J. Kramer,, T. M. DeMelfi,, M. A. McCarthy,, E. J. Witte,, C. W. Hays,, and J. Smucker. 1983. Campylobacteriosis associated with raw milk consumption—Pennsylvania. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 32: 337 338, 344.
24. Blythe, D.,, M. Goldoft,, J. Lewis,, P. Stehr-Green,, R. Chehey,, J. Greenblatt,, P. R. Cieslak,, K. R. Stefonek,, F. C. Hoesly,, and D. Fleming. 1997. Salmonella serotype Montevideo infections associated with chicks—Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, spring 1995 and 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46: 237 239.
25. Boggs, J. D.,, R. E. Whitwam,, L. M. Hale,, R. P. Briscoe,, S. E. Kahn,, J. N. MacCormack,, J.-M. Maillard,, S. C. Grayson,, K. S. Sigmon,, J. W. Reardon,, and J. R. Saah. 2001. Outbreak of listeriosis associated with homemade Mexican-style cheese—North Carolina, October 2000-January 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 560 562.
26. Brett, M. S. Y.,, P. Short,, and J. McLauchlin. 1998. A small outbreak of listeriosis associated with smoked mussels. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 43: 223 229.
27. Caldow, G. L.,, and M. M. Graham. 1998. Abortion in foxhounds and a ewe flock associated with Salmonella montevideo infection. Vet. Rec. 142: 138 139.
28.. California. 2005. California Food and Agriculture Code, section 35781-35788. [Online.] http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=fac&group=35001-36000&file=35781-35788. Accessed 6 July 2006.
29. Cave, N. J.,, S. L. Marks,, P. H. Kass,, A. C. Melli,, and M. A. Brophy. 2002. Evaluation of a routine diagnostic fecal panel for dogs with diarrhea. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 221: 52 59.
30. Chai, J.-Y.,, E.-T. Han,, E.-H. Shin,, J.-H. Park,, J.-P. Chu,, M. Hirota,, F. Nakamura-Uchiyama,, and Y. Nawa. 2003. An outbreak of gnatho-stomiasis among Korean emigrants in Myanmar. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 67 73.
31. Chalmers, J. W. T.,, and J. H. McMillan. 1995. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with adequately prepared oysters. Epidemiol. Infect. 115: 163 167.
32. Chengappa, M. M.,, J. Staats,, R. D. Oberst,, N. H. Gabbert,, and S. McVey. 1993. Prevalence of Salmonella in raw meat used in diets of racing greyhounds. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 5: 372 377.
33. Cherry, B.,, A. Burns,, G. S. Johnson,, H. Pfeiffer,, N. Dumas,, D. Barrett,, P. L. McDonough,, and M. Eidson. 2004. Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with veterinary clinic. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 2249 2251.
34.. Code o fFederal Regulations. 1992. Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. Code of Federal Regulations 21CFR 1240.61. [Online.] http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfCFR/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=1240.61. Accessed 6 July 2006.
35.. Code of Federal Regulations. 2005. Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements. Code of Federal Regulations 21CFR 1240.62. [Online.] http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfCFR/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=1240.62. Accessed 6 July 2005.
36. Conaty, S.,, P. Bird,, G. Bell,, E. Kraa,, G. Grohmann,, and J. M. McAnulty. 2000. Hepatitis A in New South Wales, Australia from consumption of oysters: the first reported outbreak. Epidemiol. Infect. 124: 121 130.
37.. Connecticut Department of Agriculture. 2003. Public Act 05-175—an act concerning the revision and modernization of milk regulation statutes and the licensing of poultry dealers. State of Connecticut, Department of Agriculture, Hartford, Conn. [Online.] http://www.ct.gov/doag/cwp/view.asp?a=1366&q=296822. Accessed 6 July 2006.
38. Conrad, C.,, K. Hemphill,, S. Wilson,, L. McFarland,, K. Coulbourne,, S. Qarni,, S. Poster,, C. Groves,, C. Slemp,, E. Butler,, D. Matuszak,, D. Dwyer,, E. Israel,, J. Cirino,, D. Cumberland,, L. Pollack,, B. Brackin,, M. Currier,, H. Morris,, M. Bissett,, S. Evans,, B. Respess,, B. Jenkins,, J. Maillard,, R. Meriwether,, J. N. MacCormack,, B. Creasy,, J. Veazey,, K. Calci,, S. Rippey,, and G. Hoskin. 1993. Multistate outbreak of viral gastroenteritis related to consumption of oysters Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and North Carolina, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42: 945 948.
39. Cowden, J. M.,, M. O’Mahony,, C. L. Bartlett,, B. Rana,, B. Smyth,, D. Lynch,, H. Tillett,, L. Ward,, D. Roberts,, R. J. Gilbert,, A. C. Baird-Parker,, and D. C. Kilsby. 1989. A national outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT 124 caused by contaminated salami sticks. Epidemiol. Infect. 103: 219 225.
40. Cronquist, A.,, S. Wedel,, B. Albanese,, C. M. Sewell,, D. Hoang-Johnson,, T. Ihry,, M. Lynch,, J. Lockett,, N. Kazerouni,, C. O’Reilly,, D. Ferguson, and EIS officers, CDC. 2006. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections associated with eating ground beef—United States, 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 180 182.
41. Curnow, J. 1999. Escherichia coli O157 outbreak in Scotland linked to unpasteurised goat’s milk. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 3. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/1999/990610.asp#2. Accessed 6 July 2006.
42. Damborg, P.,, K. E. P. Olsen,, E. Møller Nielsen,, and L. Guardabassi. 2004. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in pets living with human patients infected with C. jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1363 1364.
43. Desenclos, J.-C.,, P. Bouvet,, E. Benz-Lemoine,, F. Grimont,, H. Desqueyroux,, I. Rebiere,, and P. A. Grimont. 1996. Large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi B infection caused by a goats’ milk cheese, France 1993: a case finding and epidemiological study. BMJ 312: 91 94.
44. Desenclos, J. C.,, K. C. Klontz,, M. H. Wilder,, O. V. Nainan,, H. S. Margolis,, and R. A. Gunn. 1991. A multistate outbreak of hepatitis A caused by the consumption of raw oysters. Am. J. Public Health 81: 1268 1272.
45. Dessi, S.,, C. Sanna,, and L. Paghi. 1992. Human salmonellosis transmitted by a domestic turtle. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 8: 120 121.
46. De Valk, H.,, E. Delarocque-Astagneau,, G. Colomb,, S. Ple,, E. Godard,, V. Vaillant,, S. Haeghebaert,, P. H. Bouvet,, F. Grimont,, P. Grimont,, and J. C. Desenclos. 2000. A community-wide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection associated with eating a raw milk soft cheese in France. Epidemiol. Infect. 124: 1 7.
47. Doran, M.,, P. Shillam,, R. E. Hoffman,, and L. M. McFarland. 1989. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 infection acquired in Colorado. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 38: 19 20.
48. Ellis, A.,, M. Preston,, A. Borczyk,, B. Miller,, P. Stone,, B. Hatton,, A. Chagla,, and J. Hockin. 1998. A community outbreak of Salmonella berta associated with a soft cheese product. Epidemiol. Infect. 120: 29 35.
49. Erickson, J. 9 July 2003. Firm recalls frozen steaks; 16 E. coli infections linked to beef from Chicago business. Rocky Mountain News, Denver, Colo..
50. Ericsson, H.,, A. Eklöw,, M.-L. Danielsson-Tham,, S. Loncarevic,, L.-O. Mentzing,, I. Persson,, H. Unnerstad,, and W. Tham. 1997. An outbreak of listeriosis suspected to have been caused by rainbow trout. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2904 2907.
51. Espié, E.,, and V. Vaillant. 2005. International outbreak of Salmonella Stourbridge infection, April-July 2005: results of epidemiological, food and veterinary investigations in France. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/050811.asp#3. Accessed 6 July 2006.
52. Espinosa, F. H.,, W. M. Ryan,, P. L. Vigil,, D. F. Gregory,, R. B. Hilley,, D. A. Romig,, R. B. Stamm,, E. D. Suhre,, P. S. Taulbee,, L. H. Zucal,, R. W. Honsinger, Jr.,, P. J. Lindberg,, M. Barcheck,, J. A. Miller,, R. Mitzelfelt,, J. M. Montes,, L. J. Nims,, O. J. Rollag,, N. Weber,, and J. M. Mann. 1983. Group C streptococcal infections associated with eating homemade cheese—New Mexico. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 32: 510, 515 516.
53. Ethelberg, S. 2005. Salmonellosis outbreak linked to carpaccio made from imported raw beef, Denmark, June-August 2005. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10.[Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/050922.asp#3. Accessed 6 July 2006.
54.. European Communities. 1996. S.I. No. 9/1996: European Communities (hygienic production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk-based products) regulations, 1996. European Communities. [Online.]http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZSI9Y1996.html#ZZSI9Y1996. Accessed 6 July 2006.
55. Ezell, H.,, B. Tramontin,, R. Hudson,, L. Tengelsen,, C. Hahn,, K. Smith,, J. Bender,, D. Boxrud,, J. Adams,, R. Frank,, K. Culbertson,, T. Besser,, D. Rice,, R. Gautom,, R. Pallipamu,, M. Goldoft,, J. Grendon,, J. Kobayashi,, F. Angulo,, T. Barrett,, S. Rossiter,, S. Sivapalasingam,, and J. Wright. 2001. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium associated with veterinary facilities—Idaho, Minnesota, and Washington, 1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 701 704.
56. Fallon, S. 2001. Is raw milk safe for babies? Real Milk Updates. [Online.] http://www.realmilk.com/raw-milk-babies.html. Accessed 6 July 2006.
57. Farley, T. A.,, L. McFarland,, M. Estes,, and K. Schwab. 1997. Viral gastroenteritis associated with eating oysters—Louisiana, December 1996-January 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46: 1109 1112.
58.Federal Register. 1999. Beef products contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Fed. Regist. 64: 28032805.
59. Fontaine, R. E.,, S. Arnon,, W. T. Martin,, T. M. Vernon, Jr., E. J. Gangarosa, J. J. Farmer III, A. B. Moran, J. H. Silliker, and D. L. Decker. 1978. Raw hamburger: an interstate common source of human salmonellosis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 107: 36 45.
60.. Food and Drug Administration. 2004. Guidance for Industry #122. Manufacture and labeling of raw meat foods for companion and captive noncompanion carnivores and omnivores. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/cvm/Guidance/Guide122.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2006.
61.. Food and Drug Administration. 30 June 2006. FDA commemorates a century of protecting and promoting public health. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01403.html. Accessed 5 July 2006.
62.. Food Safety and Inspection Service. 29 June 2003. Recall Release FSISRC-028-2003. Illinois firm recalls beef products for possible E. coli O157:H7. Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. [Online.]http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OA/recalls/prelease/pr028-2003.htm. Accessed 6 July 2006.
63. Foster, E. M. 1997. Historical overview of key issues in food safety. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 481 482.
64. Fox, N. 1997. Spoiled. The Dangerous Truth about a Food Chain Gone Haywire. BasicBooks, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., New York, N.Y..
65. Frazak, P. A.,, J. J. Kazmierczak,, M. E. Proctor,, J. P. Davis,, J. Larson,, and R. Loerke. 1995. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infection associated with eating raw ground beef—Wisconsin, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44: 905 909.
66. Fukata, T.,, F. Naito,, N. Yoshida,, T. Yamaguchi,, Y. Mizumura,, and K. Hirai. 2002. Incidence of Salmonella infection in healthy dogs in Gifu prefecture, Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64: 1079 1080.
67. Fyfe, M.,, M. T. Kelly,, S. T. Yeung,, P. Daly,, K. Schallie,, S. Buchanan,, P. Waller,, J. Kobayashi,, N. Therien,, M. Guichard,, S. Lankford,, P. Stehr-Green,, R. Harsch,, E. DeBess,, M. Cassidy,, T. McGivern,, S. Mauvais,, D. Fleming,, M. Lippmann,, L. Pong,, R. W. McKay,, D. E. Cannon,, S. B. Werner,, S. Abbott,, M. Hernandez,, C. Wojee,, J. Waddell,, S. Water-man,, J. Middaugh,, D. Sasaki,, P. Effler,, C. Groves,, N. Curtis,, D. Dwyer,, G. Dowdle,, and C. Nichols. 1998. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections associated with eating raw oysters—Pacific Northwest, 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47: 457 462.
68. Giljahn, L. K.,, and T. J. Halpin. 1986. Turtle-associated salmonellosis—Ohio. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 35: 733 734.
69. Gilsdorf, A.,, A. Jansen,, K. Alpers,, H. Dieckmann,, U. van Treeck,, A. M. Hauri,, G. Fell,, M. Littmann,, P. Rautenberg,, R. Prager,, W. Rabsch,, P. Roggentin,, A. Schroeter,, A. Miko,, E. Bartelt,, J. Bräunig,, and A. Ammon. 2005. A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans PT24, Germany, December 2004 -March 2005. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/050324.asp#1. Accessed 6 July 2006.
70. Gray, J. T.,, L. L. Hungerford,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray,, and M. L. Headrick. 2004. Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolates of animal origin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 3179 3181.
71. Guardabassi, L.,, S. Schwarz,, and D. H. Lloyd. 2004. Pet animals as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 321 332.
72. Haeghebaert, S.,, L. Duché,, C. Gilles,, B. Masini,, M. Dubreuil,, J. C. Minet,, P. Bouvet,, F. Grimont,, E. Delarocque Astagneau,, and V. Vaillant. 2001. Minced beef and human salmonellosis: review of the investigation of three outbreaks in France. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 6: 21 26. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v06n02/0602-222.asp. Accessed 6 July 2006.
73. Haeghebaert, S.,, P. Sulem,, L. Deroudille,, E. Vanneroy-Adenot,, O. Bagnis,, P. Bouvet,, F. Grimont,, A. Brisabois,, F. Le Querrec,, C. Hervy,, E. Espié,, H. de Valk,, and V. Vaillant. 2003. Two outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8 linked to the consumption of Cantal cheese made with raw milk, France, 2001. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 8: 151 156. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v08n07/v08n07.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2006.
74. Harrington, P.,, J. Archer,, J. P. Davis,, D. R. Croft,, and J. K. Varma. 2002. Outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk procured through a cow-leasing program—Wisconsin, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 548 549.
75.. Health Canada. 2005. Statement from Health Canada about drinking raw milk. Health Canada, Food and Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit /facts-faits/rawmilk-laitcru_e.html. Accessed 6 July 2006.
76. Heikens, N. 15 October 2003. Indiana residents refusing to kowtow to state milk rules. The Indianapolis Star, Indianapolis, Ind..
77. Higashihara, S.,, B. Kanenaka,, M. Ching-Lee,, P. Effler,, D. Akiyama,, M. Sugi,, E. Pon,, K. Sharifzadeh,, R. Waskiewicz,, N. Ridley,, W. Hohmann,, W. Higson,, M. Sobsey,, and D. Wait. 1991. Gastroenteritis associated with consumption of raw shellfish—Hawaii, 1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40: 303 305.
78. Istre, G. R.,, M. J. Blaser,, P. Shillam,, and R. S. Hopkins. 1984. Campylobacter enteritis associated with undercooked barbecued chicken. Am. J. Public Health 74: 1265 1267.
79. Joffe, D. J.,, and D. P. Schlesinger. 2002. Preliminary assessment of the risk of Salmonella infection in dogs fed raw chicken diets. Can. Vet. J. 43: 441 442.
80. Kálmán, M.,, E. Szöllösi,, B. Czermann,, M. Zimányi,, S. Szekeres,, and M. Kálmán. 2000. Milkborne Campylobacter infection in Hungary. J. Food Prot. 63: 1426 1429.
81. Keene, W. E.,, K. Hedberg,, D. E. Herriott,, D. D. Hancock,, R. W. McKay,, T. J. Barrett,, and D. W. Fleming. 1997. A prolonged outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections caused by commercially distributed raw milk. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 815 818.
82. Keene, W. E.,, E. Sazie,, J. Kok,, D. H. Rice,, D. D. Hancock,, V. K. Balan,, T. Zhao,, and M. P. Doyle. 1997. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections traced to jerky made from deer meat. JAMA 277: 1229 1231.
83. Klein, B. S.,, J. M. Vergeront,, M. J. Blaser,, P. Edmonds,, D. J. Brenner,, D. Janssen,, and J. P. Davis. 1986. Campylobacter infection associated with raw milk. An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter jejuni and thermotolerant Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. JAMA 255: 361 364.
84. Laine, E. S.,, J. M. Scheftel,, D. J. Boxrud,, K. J. Vought,, R. N. Danila,, K. M. Elfering,, and K. E. Smith. 2005. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infections associated with nonintact blade-tenderized frozen steaks sold by door-to-door vendors. J. Food Prot. 68: 1198 1202.
85. Lanzillo, L.,, J. Reid,, S. Cobb,, M. DiManno,, E. Podgorski,, J. Lyons,, D. Greenstein,, N. Maher,, N. Schell,, V. Tulumello,, D. Klotz,, H. Foust,, L. Bonser,, J. Debbie,, R. Deibel,, B. Fear,, J. Guzewich,, K. Henry,, J. Raucci,, I. Loudon,, D. Morse,, J. Pert,, M. Shayegani,, P. Smith,, A. Squire,, R. Stricof,, R. Svenson,, and R. Rothenberg. 1982. Enteric illness associated with raw clam consumption—New York. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 31: 449 451.
86. Levings, R. S.,, D. Lightfoot,, R. M. Hall,, and S. P. Djordjevic. 2006. Aquariums as reservoirs for multidrug-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi B. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 507 510.
87. Lieftucht, A. 1999. An outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with a farm in Germany. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 3. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/1999/991125.asp#1. Accessed 6 July 2006.
88.. LifeEnthusiastCo-op. 2006. Nutrition: raw food. Primal diet testimony. Life Enthusiast Co-op. [Online.] http://www.life-enthusiast.com/index.php?Q1=Education&Q2=NutritionRaw. Accessed 6 July 2006.
89. Linnan, M. J.,, L. Mascola,, X. D. Lou,, V. Goulet,, S. May,, C. Salminen,, D. W. Hird,, M. L. Yonekura,, P. Hayes,, R. Weaver,, A. Audurier,, B. D. Plikaytis,, S. L. Fannin,, A. Kleks,, and C. V. Broome. 1988. Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 823 828.
90. Longcore, K. 2 July 2003. Kent health detective’s work triggers meat recall; she traces illness caused by E. coli to tenderized steaks produced by a Chicago meat packer. The Grand Rapids Press, Grand Rapids, Mich..
91. MacDougall, L.,, M. Fyfe,, L. McIntyre,, A. Paccagnella,, K. Cordner,, A. Kerr,, and J. Aramini. 2004. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips—a newly identified risk factor for Salmonella Heidelberg infection in British Columbia, Canada. J. Food Prot. 67: 1111 1115.
92. Machi, T.,, S. Okino,, Y. Saito,, Y. Horita,, T. Taguchi,, T. Nakazawa,, Y. Nakamura,, H. Hirai,, H. Miyamori,, and S. Kitagawa. 1997. Severe chest pain due to gastric anisakiasis. Intern. Med. 36: 28 30.
93. MacRae, S.,, T. Clements,, and J. Cournoyer. 1982. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae gastroenteritis—New Hampshire. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 31: 538 539.
94. Maguire, H.,, J. Cowden,, M. Jacob,, B. Rowe,, D. Roberts,, J. Bruce,, and E. Mitchell. 1992. An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows’ milk cheese. Epidemiol. Infect. 109: 389 396.
95. Maguire, H. C.,, A. A. Codd,, V. E. Mackay,, B. Rowe,, and E. Mitchell. 1993. A large outbreak of human salmonellosis traced to a local pig farm. Epidemiol. Infect. 110: 239 246.
96. Mascola, L.,, M. Tormey,, D. Dassey,, L. Kilman,, S. Harvey,, A. Medina,, A. Tilzer,, and S. Waterman. 1996. Vibrio vulnificus infections associated with eating raw oysters—Los Angeles, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45: 621 624..
97. Mazurek, J.,, E. Salehi,, D. Propes,, J. Holt,, T. Bannerman,, L. M. Nicholson,, M. Bundesen,, R. Duffy,, and R. L. Moolenaar. 2004. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection linked to raw milk consumption—Ohio, 2003. J. Food Prot. 67: 2165 2170.
98. McCoy, R. H.,, and R. J. Seidler. 1973. Potential pathogens in the environment: isolation, enumeration, and identification of seven genera of intestinal bacteria associated with small green pet turtles. Appl. Microbiol. 25: 534 538.
99. McDonough, S.,, F. Heer,, and L. Shireley. 1991. Foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7—North Dakota, 1990. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40: 265 267.
100. McIntyre, L.,, J. Fung,, A. Paccagnella,, J. Isaac-Renton,, F. Rockwell,, B. Emerson,, and T. Preston. 2002. Escherichia coli O157 outbreak associated with the ingestion of unpasteurized goat’s milk in British Columbia, 2001. Can. Commun. Dis. Rep. 28: 6 8.
101. McVey, D. S.,, M. M. Chengappa,, D. E. Mosier,, G. G. Stone,, R. D. Oberst,, M. J. Sylte,, N. M. Gabbert,, S. M. Kelly-Aehle,, and R. Curtiss, III. 2002. Immunogenicity of X 4127 phoP- Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in dogs. Vaccine 20: 1618 1623.
102. Méndez Martínez, C.,, A. Páez Jiménez,, M. Cortés Blanco,, E. Salmoral Chamizo,, E. Mohedano Mohedano,, C. Plata,, A. Varo Baena,, and F. Martíinez Navarro. 2003. Brucellosis outbreak due to unpasteurized raw goat cheese in Andalucia (Spain), January-March 2002. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 8: 164 -– 168. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v08n07/0807-223.asp. Accessed 6 July 2006.
103. Mercola, J. 1999. Milk linked to autism, schizophrenia. [Online.] http://www.mercola.com/1999/archive/milk_linked_to_autism.htm. Accessed 6 July 2006.
104. Moio, L.,, L. Rillo,, A. Ledda,, and F. Addeo. 1996. Odorous constituents of ovine milk in relationship to diet. J. Dairy Sci. 79: 1322 1331.
105. Morse, D. L.,, J. J. Guzewich,, J. P. Hanrahan,, R. Stricof,, M. Shayegani,, R. Deibel,, J. C. Grabau,, N. A. Nowak,, J. E. Herrmann,, G. Cukor,, and N. R. Blacklow. 1986. Widespread outbreaks of clam- and oyster-associated gastroenteritis. Role of Norwalk virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 678 681.
106. Morse, E. V.,, and M. A. Duncan. 1975. Canine salmonellosis: prevalence, epizootiology, signs, and public health significance. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 167: 817 820.
107. Morse, E. V.,, M. A. Duncan,, D. A. Estep,, W. A. Riggs,, and B. O. Blackburn. 1976. Canine salmonellosis: a review and report of dog to child transmission of Salmonella enteritidis. Am. J. Public Health 66: 82 83.
108.. New Zealand Minister for Food Safety. 2002. New Zealand (milk and milk products processing) food standards 2002. New Zealand Food Safety Authority. [Online.] http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz /policy-law/legislation/foodstandards/nz-food-standards-2002-milk.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2006.
109. Noh, J. H.,, B.-J. Kim,, S. M. Kim,, M.-S. Ock,, M. I. Park,, and J. Y. Goo. 2003. A case of acute gastric anisakiasis provoking severe clinical problems by multiple infection. Korean J. Parasitol. 41: 97 100.
110. O’Brien, S.,, H. Smith,, L. Lighton,, and A. Mellanby. 2000. Outbreaks of VTEC O157 infection linked to consumption of unpasteurised milk. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 4. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2000/000608.asp#4. Accessed 6 July 2006.
111. Osterholm, M. T.,, K. L. MacDonald,, K. E. White,, J. G. Wells,, J. S. Spika,, M. E. Potter,, J. C. Forfang,, R. M. Sorenson,, P. T. Milloy,, and P. A. Blake. 1986. An outbreak of a newly recognized chronic diarrhea syndrome associated with raw milk consumption. JAMA 256: 484 490.
112. Perkins, P.,, A. Rogers,, M. Key,, V. Pappas,, R. Wende,, J. Epstein,, M. Thapar,, F. Jensen,, T. L. Gustafson,, and E. Young. 1983. Brucellosis—Texas. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 32: 548 553.
113. Pozio, E.,, D. Sacchini,, P. Boni,, A. Tamburrini,, F. Alberici,, and F. Paterlini. 1998. Human outbreak of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of horsemeat in Italy. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 3: 85 86. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v03n08/0308-222.asp. Accessed 6 July 2006.
114. Rabatsky-Ehr, T.,, D. Dingman,, R. Marcus,, R. Howard,, A. Kinney,, and P. Mshar. 2002. Deer meat as the source for a sporadic case of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection, Connecticut. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 525 527.
115. Rahim, S. 1 January 2003. Young’s problem likely tied to human; number of Salmonella cases rises to 47. Dayton Daily News, Dayton, Ohio.
116. Rahim, S. 17 January 2003. Young’s to stop selling, using unpasteurized milk. Health officials say Salmonella outbreak ended. Cox News Service, Dayton, Ohio. [Online.] http://foodhaccp.com/msgboard.mv?parm_func=showmsg+parm_msgnum=1006741. Accessed 6 July 2006.
117.Randby, Å. T., I. Selmer-Olsen, and L. Baevre. 1999. Effect of ethanol in feed on milk flavor and chemical composition. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 420 428.
118.. Rawfoodnetwork.com. 2006. Raw and living food forums, mailing lists, and newsletters. Blue Horizon Enterprises, Wynnewood, Pa. [Online.] http://www.rawfoodnetwork.com/mailinglists.html. Accessed 6 July 2006.
119. Rehmet, S.,, G. Sinn,, O. Robstad,, L. Petersen,, A. Ammon,, D. Lesser,, H. David,, K. Noeckler,, G. Scherholz,, K.-D. Erkrath,, D. Pechmann,, R. Kundt,, G. Oltmans,, R. Lange,, J. Laumen,, U. Nogay,, M. Dixius,, J. Eichenberg,, F. Dinse,, D. Stegemann,, W. Lotz,, D. Franke,, P. Hagelschur,, and M. Steigert. 1999. Two outbreaks of trichinellosis in the state of Northrhine-Westfalia, Germany, 1998. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 4: 78 81. [Online.]http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v04n08/0408-222.asp. Accessed 6 July 2006.
120. Riley, L. W.,, G. T. DiFerdinando, Jr., T. M. DeMelfi, and M. L. Cohen. 1983. Evaluation of isolated cases of salmonellosis by plasmid profile analysis: introduction and transmission of a bacterial clone by precooked roast beef. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 12 17.
121..Rodrigue, D. C., E. E. Mast, K. D. Greene, J. P. Davis, M. A. Hutchinson, J. G. Wells, T. J. Barrett, and P. M. Griffin. 1995. A university outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with roast beef and an unusually benign clinical course. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 11221125.
122. Ross, R. A. 2005. Raw news: the truth about toxins in cooked foods is making mainstream headlines. Raw Food Life. Adventures Marketing, LLC. [Online.]http://www.rawfoodlife.com/. Accessed 6 July 2006.
123. Ryan, C. A.,, M. K. Nickels,, N. T. Hargrett-Bean,, M. E. Potter,, T. Endo,, L. Mayer,, C. W. Langkop,, C. Gibson,, R. C. McDonald,, R. T. Kenney,, N. D. Puhr,, P. J. McDonnell,, R. J. Martin,, M. L. Cohen,, and P. A. Blake. 1987. Massive outbreak of antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis traced to pasteurized milk. JAMA 258: 3269 3274.
124. Salna, B.,, T. Monson,, T. Kurzynski,, K. Gundlach,, P. E. Fox,, J. Kazmierczak,, M. Wegner,, J. P. Davis,, R. Harrington,, M. Dowell,, R. Heald,, R. Harris,, W. Manley,, J. Snow,, A. Heryford,, and S. Seys. 2005. Salmonellosis associated with pet turtles—Wisconsin and Wyoming, 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 223 226.
125. Sato, Y.,, T. Mori,, T. Koyama,, and H. Nagase. 2000. Salmonella Virchow infection in an infant transmitted by household dogs. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62: 767 769.
126. Sauer, C. J.,, J. Majkowski,, S. Green,, and R. Eckel. 1997. Foodborne illness outbreak associated with a semi-dry fermented sausage product. J. Food Prot. 60: 1612 1617.
127. Shapiro, R.,, M.-L. Ackers,, S. Lance,, M. Rabbani,, L. Schaefer,, J. Daugherty,, C. Thelen,, and D. Swerdlow. 1999. Salmonella Thompson associated with improper handling of roast beef at a restaurant in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. J. Food Prot. 62: 118 122.
128. Smith, K.,, D. Boxrud,, F. Leano,, C. Snider,, C. Braden,, J. Lockett,, S. Montgomery,, S. Swanson,, and C. O’Reilly. 2005. Outbreak of multidrugresistant Salmonella Typhimurium associated with rodents purchased at retail pet stores—United States, December 2003-October 2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 429 433.
129. Spitalny, K. C.,, E. N. Okowitz,, and R. L. Vogt. 1984. Salmonellosis outbreak at a Vermont hospital. South. Med. J. 77: 168 172.
130. Spite, G. T.,, D. F. Brown,, and R. M. Twedt. 1978. Isolation of an enteropathogenic, Kanagawa-positive strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from seafood implicated in acute gastroenteritis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35: 1226 1227.
131. Stiver, S. L.,, K. S. Frazier,, M. J. Mauel,, and E. L. Styer. 2003. Septicemic salmonellosis in two cats fed a raw-meat diet. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 39: 538 542.
132. Stone, G. G.,, M. M. Chengappa,, R. D. Oberst,, N. H. Gabbert,, S. McVey,, K. J. Hennessy,, M. Muenzenberger,, and J. Staats. 1993. Application of polymerase chain reaction for the correlation of Salmonella serovars recovered from greyhound feces with their diet. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 5: 378 385.
133. Strohmeyer, R. A.,, P. S. Morley,, D. R. Hyatt,, D. A. Dargatz,, A. V. Scorza,, and M. R. Lappin. 2006. Evaluation of bacterial and protozoal contamination of commercially available raw meat diets for dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 228: 537 542.
134. Svitlik, C.,, M. Cartter,, Y. McCarter,, J. L. Hadler,, D. Goeller,, C. Groves,, D. Dwyer,, D. Tilghman,, E. Israel,, R. Housenecht,, S. Yeager,, and D. R. Tavris. 1992. Salmonella hadar associated with pet ducklings—Connecticut, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, 1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 41: 185 187.
135. Telzak, E. E.,, E. P. Bell,, D. A. Kautter,, L. Crowell,, L. D. Budnick,, D. L. Morse,, and S. Schultz. 1990. An international outbreak of type E botulism due to uneviscerated fish. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 340 342.
136. Timmons, J. S.,, W. P. Weiss,, D. L. Palmquist,, and W. J. Harper. 2001. Relationships among dietary roasted soybeans, milk components, and spontaneous oxidized flavor of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 2440 2449.
137. Vaillant, V.,, S. Haeghebaert,, J. C. Desenclos,, P. Bouvet,, F. Grimont,, P. A. Grimont,, and A. P. Burnens. 1996. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin infection in France, November-December 1995. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 1: 9-– 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v01n02/0102-221.asp. Accessed 6 July 2006.
138. Van Duijkeren, E.,, and D. Houwers. 2002. [ Salmonella enteritis in dogs, not relevant?] [English abstract; article in Dutch]. Tijdschr. Diergeneeskd. 127: 716 717.
139. Van Immerseel, F.,, F. Pasmans,, J. De Buck,, I. Rychlik,, H. Hradecka,, J.-M. Collard,, C. Wildemauwe,, M. Heyndrickx,, R. Ducatelle,, and F. Haesebrouck. 2004. Cats as a risk for transmission of antimicrobial drugresistant Salmonella. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 2169 2174.
140. Weaver, D. 2003. The ecological wisdom of enjoying raw foods. River Canyon Retreat. [Online.] http://www.rivercanyonretreat.com/article1.html. Accessed 6 July 2006.
141. Weber, J. T.,, R. G. Hibbs, Jr., A. Darwish, B. Mishu, A. L. Corwin, M. Rakha, C. L. Hatheway, S. El Sharkawy, S. Abd El-Rahim, M. F. S. Al-Hamd, J. E. Sarn, P. A. Blake, and R. V. Tauxe. 1993. A massive outbreak of type E botulism associated with traditional salted fish in Cairo. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 451 454.
142. Wechsler, E.,, C. D’Aleo,, V. A. Hill,, J. Hopper,, D. Myers-Wiley,, E. O’Keeffe,, J. Jacobs,, F. Guido,, A. Huang,, S. N. Dodt,, B. Rowan,, M. Sherman,, A. Greenberg,, D. Schneider,, B. Noone,, L. Fanella,, B. R. Williamson,, E. Dinda,, M. Mayer,, M. Backer,, A. Agasan,, L. Kornstein,, F. Stavinsky,, B. Neal,, D. Edwards,, M. Haroon,, D. Hurley,, L. Colbert,, J. Miller,, B. Mojica,, E. Carloni,, B. Devine,, M. Cambridge,, T. Root,, D. Schoonmaker,, M. Shayegani,, W. Hastback,, B. Wallace,, S. Kondracki,, P. Smith,, S. Matiuck,, K. Pilot,, M. Acharya,, G. Wolf,, W. Manley,, C. Genese,, J. Brooks,, Z. Dembek,, and J. Hadler. 1999. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection associated with eating raw oysters and clams harvested from Long Island Sound—Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York, 1998. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 48 51.
143. Weese, J. S.,, J. Rousseau,, and L. Arroyo. 2005. Bacteriological evaluation of commercial canine and feline raw diets. Can. Vet. J. 46: 513 516.
144. Weiner, P. D.,, and J. J. Kermans. 1976. United States Patent 3,961,090. Method of preparing rare roast beef. United States Patent Office. [Online.]http://xrint.com/patents/us/3961090. Accessed 15 March 2006.
145. Wells, J. G.,, G. McConnell Clark,, and G. K. Morris. 1974. Evaluation of methods for isolating Salmonella and Arizona organisms from pet turtles. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 8 10.
146. Werner, S. B.,, F. R. Morrison,, G. L. Humphrey,, R. A. Murray,, and J. Chin. 1984. Salmonella dublin and raw milk consumption—California. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 196 198.
147. Winters, A.,, C. Driver,, M. Macaraig,, C. Clark,, S. S. Munsiff,, C. Pichardo,, J. Driscoll,, M. Salfinger,, B. Kreiswirth,, J. Jereb,, P. LoBue,, and M. Lynch. 2005. Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis—New York City, 2001-2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 605 608.
148. Woodward, D. L.,, R. Khakhria,, and W. M. Johnson. 1997. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2786 2790.
149. Wright, J. G.,, L. A. Tengelsen,, K. E. Smith,, J. B. Bender,, R. K. Frank,, J. H. Grendon,, D. H. Rice,, A. M. B. Thiessen,, C. J. Gilbertson,, S. Sivapalasingam,, T. J. Barrett,, T. E. Besser,, D. D. Hancock,, and F. J. Angulo. 2005. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in four animal facilities. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1235 1241.
150. Yu, J.-R.,, M. Seo,, Y.-W. Kim,, M.-H. Oh,, and W.-M. Sohn. 2001. A human case of gastric infection by Pseudoterranova decipiens larva. Korean J. Parasitol. 39: 193 196.
151. Zagrebneviene, G.,, V. Jasulaitiene,, B. Morkunas,, S. Tarbunas,, and J. Ladygaite. 2005. Shigella sonnei outbreak due to consumption of unpasteurised milk curds in Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004. Eur. Surveill. Wkly. 10. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2005/051201.asp#3. Accessed 6 July 2006.
152. Zansky, S.,, B. Wallace,, D. Schoonmaker-Bopp,, P. Smith,, F. Ramsey,, J. Painter,, A. Gupta,, P. Kalluri,, and S. Noviello. 2002. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Newport—United States, January-April 2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 545 548.


Generic image for table
Table 15.1

Examples of food-borne illness attributed to raw milk and other dairy products made from unpasteurized milk

Citation: Entis P. 2007. A Raw Deal, p 273-294. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch15
Generic image for table
Table 15.2

Examples of food-borne illness attributed to uncooked cured, fermented, or dried meat or poultry products or to raw or undercooked meat or poultry

Citation: Entis P. 2007. A Raw Deal, p 273-294. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch15
Generic image for table
Table 15.3

Examples of food-borne illness attributed to uncooked cured or dried fish and shellfish products or to raw or undercooked fish and shellfish

Citation: Entis P. 2007. A Raw Deal, p 273-294. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error