Chapter 3 : Recipes for Disaster

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Recipes for Disaster, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap03-2.gif


The egg was once hailed as one of nature’s perfect foods. It was ostracized due to our fear of cholesterol and in the late 1980s, Salmonella further poisoned the egg’s reputation. Reports of food-borne outbreaks-many of them traced to eggs served at food service locations such as cafeterias, hospital kitchens, and restaurants-started flowing into government health department offices in several countries, including the United States. serotype Enteritidis barely grows at refrigeration temperature but multiplies very readily in eggs that are stored at room temperature. -positive eggs present another risk of which many food handlers are unaware-cross-contamination. Recipes that do not include an adequate final cooking step have become increasingly popular with consumers and can be a significant source of food-borne illness. The health risks associated with these recipes are magnified when ingredients are not chosen wisely or are mishandled. Food handlers, whether manufacturers, food service workers, or consumers, must adapt their techniques in the face of newly recognized pathogens—or old familiar pathogens in new settings—in order to ensure the safety of the food they prepare.

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Recipes for Disaster, p 31-52. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch3
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 3.1
Figure 3.1

Stages in the evolution of a shell egg.

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Recipes for Disaster, p 31-52. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Almeida, W. A. F.,, A. Berchieri, Jr., and P. A. Barrow. 2002. The effect of serial culture and storage on the protective potential of a competitive exclusion preparation. Brazil. J. Poult. Sci. 4: 163 167.
2. Angulo, F. J.,, J. Getz,, J. P. Taylor,, K. A. Hendricks,, C. L. Hatheway,, S. S. Barth,, H. M. Solomon,, A. E. Larson,, E. A. Johnson,, L. N. Nickey,, and A. A. Ries. 1998. A large outbreak of botulism: the hazardous baked potato. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 172 177.
3.Anonymous. 1988. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4: chicken and egg. Lancet ii: 720722.
4.Anonymous. 14 April 1997. Investigators discover source of El Paso botulism outbreak. Houston Chronicle, Houston, Tex..
5..Anonymous. 2005. Opinion of the scientific panel on biological hazards on the request from the commission related to the microbiological risks on washing of table eggs. EFSA J. 269: 1 39. [Online.] http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/biohaz/biohaz_opinions/1196/biohaz_op_ej269_washing_eggs_en1.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2006.
6. Audisio, M. C.,, G. Oliver,, and M. C. Apella. 2000. Protective effect of Enterococcus faecium J96, a potential probiotic strain, on chicks infected with Salmonella Pullorum. J. Food Prot. 63: 1333 1337.
7. Bailey, J. S.,, and D. E. Cosby. 2005. Salmonella prevalence in free-range and certified organic chickens. J. Food Prot. 68: 2451 2453.
8. Bailey, J. S.,, N. J. Stern,, and N. A. Cox. 2000. Commercial field trial evaluation of mucosal starter culture to reduce Salmonella incidence in processed broiler carcasses. J. Food Prot. 63: 867 870.
9. Barnhart, H. M.,, D. W. Dreesen,, and J. L. Burke. 1993. Isolation of Salmonella from ovaries and oviducts from whole carcasses of spent hens. Avian Dis. 37: 977 980.
10. Barrow, P. A. 1990. Immunity to experimental fowl typhoid in chickens induced by a virulence plasmid-cured derivative of Salmonella gallinarum. Infect. Immun. 58: 2283 2288.
11. Bell, E.,, P. Bennett,, S. Friedman,, C. Riceberg,, H. Baskind,, M. Beim,, C. McGiven,, M. Moynihan,, S. Shahidi,, and D. Sencer. 1985. Botulism associated with commercially distributed kapchunka—New York City. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 34: 546 547.
12. Berghold, C.,, C. Kornschober,, and S. Weber. 2003. A regional outbreak of S. enteritidis phage type 5, traced back to the flocks of an egg producer, Austria. Euro. Surveill. 8: 195 198. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v08n10/0810-222.asp. Accessed 25 May 2006.
13. Binkin, N.,, G. Scuderi,, F. Novaco,, G. L. Giovanardi,, G. Paganelli,, G. Ferrari,, O. Cappelli,, L. Ravaglia,, F. Zilioli,, V. Amadei,, W. Magliani,, I. Viani,, D. Ricco,, B. Borrini,, M. Magri,, A. Alessandrini,, G. Bursi,, G. Barigazzi,, M. Fantasia,, E. Filetici,, and S. Salmaso. 1993. Egg-related Salmonella enteritidis, Italy, 1991. Epidemiol. Infect. 110: 227 237.
14. Brashears, M. M.,, D. Jaroni,, and J. Trimble. 2003. Isolation, selection, and characterization of lactic acid bacteria for a competitive exclusion product to reduce shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle. J. Food Prot. 66: 355 363.
15. Buckner, P.,, D. Ferguson,, F. Anzalone,, D. Anzalone,, J. Taylor,, W. G. Hlady,, and R. S. Hopkins. 1994. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis associated with homemade ice cream—Florida, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43: 669 671.
16.. Center for Veterinary Medicine. 1998. NADA 141-101. Freedom of information summary. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/cvm/FOI/886.htm. Accessed 18 May 2006.
17. Chàvez-de la Peña, M. E.,, A. L. Higuera-Iglesias,, M. A. Huertas-Jiménez,, R. Báez-Martinez,, J. Morales-deLeón,, F. Arteaga-Cabello,, M. S. Rangel- Frausto,, and S. PoncedeLeón-Rosales. 2001. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital (An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection among hospital workers in Mexico). Salud Pública Méx. 43: 211 216.
18. Chen, H.-C.,, and N. J. Stern. 2001. Competitive exclusion of heterologous Campylobacter spp. in chicks. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 848 851.
19. Cogan, T. A.,, and T. J. Humphrey. 2003. The rise and fall of Salmonella enteritidis in the UK. J. Appl. Microbiol. 94: 114S 119S.
20. Corrier, D. E.,, D. J. Nisbet,, J. A. Byrd II,, B. M. Hargis,, N. K. Keith,, M. Peterson,, and J. R. DeLoach. 1998. Dosage titration of a characterized competitive exclusion culture to inhibit Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens during growout. J. Food Prot. 61: 796 801.
21. Corrier, D. E.,, D. J. Nisbet,, B. M. Hargis,, P. S. Holt,, and J. R. DeLoach. 1997. Provision of lactose to molting hens enhances resistance to Salmonella enteritidis colonization. J. Food Prot. 60: 10 15.
22. Corrier, D. E.,, D. J. Nisbet,, C. M. Scanlan,, G. Tellez,, B. M. Hargis,, and J. R. DeLoach. 1994. Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis cecal and organ colonization in leghorn chicks by a defi- ned culture of cecal bacteria and dietary lactose. J. Food Prot. 56: 377 381.
23. Cosby, D. E.,, S. E. Craven,, M. A. Harrison,, and N. A. Cox. 1997. Bacterial isolates from the chicken gizzard and ceca with in vitro inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhimurium. J. Food Prot. 60: 120 124.
24. D’Argenio, P.,, F. Palumbo,, R. Ortolani,, R. Pizzuti,, M. Russo,, R. Carducci,, M. Soscia,, P. Aureli,, L. Fenicia,, G. Franciosa,, A. Parella,, and V. Scala. 1995. Type B botulism associated with roasted eggplant in oil—Italy, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44: 33 36.
25. D’Argenio, P.,, A. Romano,, and F. Autorino. 1999. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection associated with iced cake. Euro. Surveill. 9: 24 26. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v04n02/0402-224.asp. Accessed 25 May 2006.
26. Doughty, S. C.,, R. P. O’Connor,, J. Alexander,, G. J. Sidler,, S. Churchill,, J. W. Parker,, R. Tarter,, T. Woods,, T. F. Jackamore, Jr., J. C. Bhalerao, E. J. Menamin, P. Hays, M. McVay, C. Gibson, C. Langkop, R. J. Martin, B. J. Francis, M. A. Malik, and J. Damare. 1984. Foodborne botulism— Illinois. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 22 23.
27. Ebel, E.,, and W. Schlosser. 2000. Estimating the annual fraction of eggs contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis in the United States. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 61: 51 62.
28. Evans, M. R.,, P. G. Hutchings,, C. D. Ribeiro,, and D. Westmoreland. 1996. A hospital outbreak of Salmonella food poisoning due to inadequate deep-fat frying. Epidemiol. Infect. 116: 155 160.
29. Evans, M. R.,, W. Lane,, and C. D. Ribeiro. 1998. Salmonella enteritidis PT6: another egg-associated salmonellosis? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 667 669.
30.. Federal Register. 2000. Food labeling, safe handling statements, labeling of shell eggs; refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution; Final Rule. Fed. Regist. 65: 7609276114.
31.. Federal Register. 2004. Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs during production; Proposed Rule. Fed. Regist. 69: 5682456906.
32.Federal Register. 2005. Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs during production; reopening of comment period. Fed. Regist. 70: 2449024491.
33.Federal Register. 2005. Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs during production; extension of comment period. Fed. Regist. 70: 3340433405.
34. Ferreira, A. J. P.,, C. S. A. Ferreira,, T. Knobl,, A. M. Moreno,, M. R. Bacarro,, M. Chen,, M. Robach,, and G. C. Mead. 2003. Comparison of three commercial competitive-exclusion products for controlling Salmonella colonization of broilers in Brazil. J. Food Prot. 66: 490 492.
35.. Food and Drug Administration. 1 July 1999. New egg safety steps announced, safe handling labels and refrigeration will be required. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/hhseggs.html. Accessed 24 May 2006.
36.. Food and Drug Administration. 15 April 2002. FDA approves Botox to treat frown lines. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2002/ANS01147.html. Accessed 24 May 2006.
37.. FoodandDrugAdministration. 20 July 2004. FDA approves Botox to treat severe underarm sweating. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/answers/2004/ANS01301.html. Accessed 24 May 2006.
38.. Food and Drug Administration. 20 September 2004. Fact sheet on FDA’s proposed regulation: prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs during production. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fs-eggs6.html. Accessed 24 May 2006.
39.. Food Safety and Inspection Service. 2006. Shell eggs from farm to table. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. [Online.] http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Focus_On_Shell_Eggs/index.asp. Accessed 24 May 2006.
40. Fukata, T.,, K. Sasai,, T. Miyamoto,, and E. Baba. 1999. Inhibitory effects of competitive exclusion and fructooligosaccharide, singly and in combination, on Salmonella colonization of chicks. J. Food Prot. 62: 229 233.
41. Furtado, C.,, S. Crespi,, L. Ward,, and P. Wall. 1997. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 1 infection in British tourists visiting Mallorca, June 1996. Euro. Surveill. 2: 6 7. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v02n01/0201-224.asp. Accessed 25 May 2006.
42. Garriga, M.,, M. Pascual,, J. M. Monfort,, and M. Hugas. 1998. Selection of lactobacilli for chicken probiotic adjuncts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84: 125 132.
43. Gast, R. K.,, and C. W. Beard. 1990. Production of Salmonella enteritidiscontaminated eggs by experimentally infected hens. Avian Dis. 34: 438 446.
44. Gast, R. K.,, and C. W. Beard. 1990. Isolation of Salmonella enteritidis from internal organs of experimentally infected hens. Avian Dis. 34: 991 993.
45. Gast, R. K.,, and P. S. Holt. 2001. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis strains of phage types 4, 8, 13a, and 14b. J. Food Prot. 64: 865 868.
46. Genovese, K. J.,, R. C. Anderson,, R. B. Harvey,, T. R. Callaway,, T. L. Poole,, T. S. Edrington,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray,, and D. J. Nisbet. 2003. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella from the gut of neonatal and weaned pigs. J. Food Prot. 66: 1353 1359.
47. Grein, T.,, D. O’Flanagan,, T. McCarthy,, and T. Prendergast. 1997. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis food poisoning in a psychiatric hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Euro. Surveill. 2: 84 86. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v02n11/0211-222.asp. Accessed 25 May 2006.
48. Guard-Petter, J.,, D. J. Henzler,, M. M. Rahman,, and R. W. Carlson. 1997. On-farm monitoring of mouse-invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and a model for its association with the production of contaminated eggs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 1588 1593.
49. Gusils, C.,, A. P. Chaia,, S. González,, and G. Oliver. 1999. Lactobacilli isolated from chicken intestines: potential use as probiotics. J. Food Prot. 62: 252 256.
50. Hadjichristodoulou, C.,, E. Nikolakopoulou,, K. Karabinis,, E. Karakou,, A. Markogiannakis,, C. Panoulis,, M. Lampiri,, and P. Tassios. 1999. Outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among attendees of a restaurant opening ceremony in Greece, June 1998. Euro. Surveill. 4: 72 75. [Online.] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v04n06/0406-224.asp. Accessed 25 May 2006.
51. Hammack, T. S.,, P. S. Sherrod,, V. R. Bruce,, G. A. June,, F. B. Satchell,, and W. H. Andrews. 1993. Research note: growth of Salmonella enteritidis in grade A eggs during prolonged storage. Poult. Sci. 72: 373 377.
52. Hassan, J. O.,, and R. Curtiss III. 1994. Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes. Infect. Immun. 62: 5519 5527.
53. Hassan, J. O.,, and R. Curtiss III. 1996. Effect of vaccination of hens with an avirulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium on immunity of progeny challenged with wild-type Salmonella strains. Infect. Immun. 64: 938 944.
54. Henkel, J. 1995. Orphan products. New hope for people with rare disorders. FDA Consumer Special Report. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/fdac/special/newdrug/orphan.html. Accessed 24 May 2006.
55. Henzler, D. J.,, E. Ebel,, J. Sanders,, D. Kradel,, and J. Mason. 1994. Salmonella enteritidis in eggs from commercial chicken layer flocks implicated in human outbreaks. Avian Dis. 38: 37 43.
56. Henzler, D. J.,, and H. M. Opitz. 1992. The role of mice in the epizootiology of Salmonella enteritidis infection on chicken layer farms. Avian Dis. 36: 625 631.
57. Himathongkham, S.,, H. Riemann,, and R. Ernst. 1999. Efficacy of disinfection of shell eggs externally contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. Implications for egg testing. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 49: 161 167.
58. Hinton, A., Jr., D. E. Corrier, and J. R. DeLoach. 1992. In vitro inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 by an anaerobic grampositive coccus isolated from the cecal contents of adult chickens. J. Food Prot. 55: 162 166.
59. Hinton, M.,, G. C. Mead,, and C. S. Impey. 1991. Protection of chicks against environmental challenge with Salmonella enteritidis by ‘competitive exclusion’ and acid-treated feed. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 12: 69 71.
60. Hirn, J.,, E. Nurmi,, T. Johansson,, and L. Nuotio. 1992. Long-term experience with competitive exclusion and salmonellas in Finland. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15: 281 285.
61. Horn, A.,, K. Stamper,, D. Dahlberg,, J. McCabe,, M. Beller,, and J. P. Middaugh. 2001. Botulism outbreak associated with eating fermented food—Alaska, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 680 682.
62.. Hume, M. E.,, D. E. Corrier,, D. J. Nisbet,, and J. R. DeLoach. 1998. Early Salmonella challenge time and reduction in chick cecal colonization following treatment with a characterized competitive exclusion culture. J. Food Prot. 61: 673 676.
63. Hume, M. E.,, D. J. Nisbet,, S. A. Buckley,, R. L. Ziprin,, R. C. Anderson,, and L. H. Stanker. 2001. Inhibition of in vitro Salmonella Typhimurium colonization in porcine cecal bacteria continuous-flow competitive exclusion cultures. J. Food Prot. 64: 17 22.
64. Humphrey, T. J.,, A. Baskerville,, S. Mawer,, B. Rowe,, and S. Hopper. 1989. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 from the contents of intact eggs: a study involving naturally infected hens. Epidemiol. Infect. 103: 415 423.
65. Humphrey, T. J.,, M. Greenwood,, R. J. Gilbert,, B. Rowe,, and P. A. Chapman. 1989. The survival of salmonellas in shell eggs cooked under simulated domestic conditions. Epidemiol. Infect. 103: 35 45.
66. Humphrey, T. J.,, K. W. Martin,, and A. Whitehead. 1994. Contamination of hands and work surfaces with Salmonella enteritidis PT4 during the preparation of egg dishes. Epidemiol. Infect. 113: 403 409.
67. Humphrey, T. J.,, and A. Whitehead. 1993. Egg age and the growth of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 in egg contents. Epidemiol. Infect. 111: 209 219.
68. Hutchison, M. L.,, J. Gittins,, A. Walker,, N. Sparks,, T. J. Humphrey,, C. Burton,, and A. Moore. 2004. An assessment of the microbiological risks involved with egg washing under commercial conditions. J. Food Prot. 67: 4 11.
69. Keller, L. H.,, C. E. Benson,, K. Krotec,, and R. J. Eckroade. 1995. Salmonella enteritidis colonization of the reproductive tract and forming and freshly laid eggs of chickens. Infect. Immun. 63: 2443 2449.
70. Kinde, H.,, D. H. Read,, A. Ardans,, R. E. Breitmeyer,, D. Willoughby,, H. E. Little,, D. Kerr,, R. Gireesh,, and K. V. Nagaraja. 1996. Sewage effluent: likely source of Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 infection in a commercial chicken layer flock in southern California. Avian Dis. 40: 672 676.
71. Kinde, H.,, D. H. Read,, R. P. Chin,, A. A. Bickford,, R. L. Walker,, A. Ardans,, R. E. Breitmeyer,, D. Willoughby,, H. E. Little,, D. Kerr,, and I. A. Gardner. 1996. Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 infection in a commercial layer flock in Southern California: bacteriologic and epidemiologic findings. Avian Dis. 40: 665 671.
72. Levy, M.,, M. Fletcher,, M. Moody,, D. Cory,, W. Corbitt,, C. Borowiecki,, D. Gries,, J. Heidingsfelder,, A. Oglesby,, J. Butwin,, D. Ewert,, D. Bixler,, B. Barrett,, K. Laurie,, E. Muniz,, G. Steele,, A. Baldonti,, B. Williamson,, M. Layton,, E. Griffin,, M. Cambridge,, N. Fogg,, J. Guzewich,, T. Root,, D. Morse,, J. Wagoner,, M. Deasey,, and K. Miller. 1996. Outbreaks of Salmonella serotype enteritidis infection associated with consumption of raw shell eggs—United States, 1994 -1995. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45: 737 742.
73. Lin, F.-Y. C.,, J. G. Morris, Jr., D. Trump, D. Tilghman, P. K. Wood, N. Jackman, E. Israel, and J. P. Libonati. 1988. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis associated with consumption of eggs in a restaurant chain in Maryland. Am. J. Epidemiol. 128: 839 844.
74. Miyamoto, T.,, E. Baba,, T. Tanaka,, K. Sasai,, T. Fukata,, and A. Arakawa. 1997. Salmonella enteritidis contamination of eggs from hens inoculated by vaginal, cloacal, and intravenous routes. Avian Dis. 41: 296 303.
75. Morner, A.,, R. Froyman,, and B. Gautrais. 1999. Aviguard, a competitive exclusion product: a novel approach for increased food safety in poultry production. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. [Online.] http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/animalcare/amr/facts/morner.htm. Accessed 24 May 2006.
76.. Murase, T.,, K. Senjyu,, T. Maeda,, M. Tanaka,, H. Sakae,, Y. Matsumoto,, Y. Kaneda,, T. Ito,, and K. Otsuki. 2001. Monitoring of chicken houses and an attached egg-processing facility in a laying farm for Salmonella contamination between 1994 and 1998. J. Food Prot. 64: 1912 1916.
77. Nisbet, D. 2002. Defined competitive exclusion cultures in the prevention of enteropathogen colonisation in poultry and swine. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81: 481 486.
78. Nurmi, E.,, and M. Rantala. 1973. New aspects of Salmonella infection in broiler production. Nature 241: 210 211.
79. Nurmi, E. V.,, J. E. Schneitz,, and P. H. Makela. 1987. Process for the production of a bacterial preparation for the prophylaxis of intestinal disturbances in poultry. U.S. patent number 4689226. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. [Online.] http://patft1.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.htm. Accessed 24 May 2006.
80. O’Mahony, M.,, E. Mitchell,, R. J. Gilbert,, D. N. Hutchinson,, N. T. Begg,, J. C. Rodhouse,, and J. E. Morris. 1990. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt. Epidemiol. Infect. 104: 389 395.
81. Pascual, M.,, M. Hugas,, J. I. Badiola,, J. M. Monfort,, and M. Garriga. 1999. Lactobacillus salivarius CTC2197 prevents Salmonella enteritidis colonization in chickens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 4981 4986.
82. Pilon, P. A.,, and M. Laurin. 1997. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 8 in a Montreal hotel. Can. Communic. Dis. Rep. 23: 148-– 150. [Online.] http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/97vol23/dr2319eb.html. Accessed 25 May 2006.
83. Poppe, C.,, R. J. Irwin,, C. M. Forsberg,, R. C. Clarke,, and J. Oggel. 1991. The prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella spp. among Canadian registered commercial layer flocks. Epidemiol. Infect. 106: 259 270.
84. Pratt, S. 14 April 1988. Officials issue warning of possible Salmonella contamination in eggs. Chicago Tribune, Chicago, Ill..
85.. President’s Councilon Food Safety. 10 December 1999. Egg safety from production to consumption: an action plan to eliminate Salmonella Enteritidis illnesses due to eggs. President’s Council on Food Safety. [Online.] http://www. foodsafety.gov/~fsg/ceggs.html#actionplan. Accessed 24 May 2006.
86. Promsopone, B.,, T. Y. Morishita,, P. P. Aye,, C. W. Cobb,, A. Veldkamp,, and J. R. Clifford. 1998. Evaluation of an avian-specific probiotic and Salmonella typhimurium-specific antibodies on the colonization of Salmonella typhimurium in broilers. J. Food Prot. 61: 176 180.
87. Prukner-Radovcic, E.,, and I. C. Grozdanic. 2003. Competitive exclusion against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis infection in chicken. Vet. Arhiv 73: 141 152.
88. Rabsch, W.,, B. M. Hargis,, R. M. Tsolis,, R. A. Kingsley,, K.-H. Hinz,, H. Tschäpe,, and A. J. Bäumler. 2000. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella enteritidis by Salmonella gallinarum in poultry. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6: 443 448.
89. Rantala, M.,, and E. Nurmi. 1973. Prevention of the growth of Salmonella infantis in chicks by the flora of the alimentary tract of chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 14: 627 630.
90. Reporter, R.,, L. Mascola,, L. Kilman,, A. Medina,, J. Mohle-Boetani,, J. Farrar,, D. Vugia,, M. Fletcher,, M. Levy,, O. Ravenholt,, L. Empey,, D. Maxson,, P. Klouse,, A. Bryant,, R. Todd,, M. Williams,, G. Cage,, and L. Bland 2000. Outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection associated with eating raw or undercooked shell eggs—United States, 1996-1998. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 73 79.
91. Reynolds, D. J.,, R. H. Davies,, M. Richards,, and C. Wray. 1997. Evaluation of combined antibiotic and competitive exclusion treatment in broiler breeder flocks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Avian Pathol. 26: 83 95.
92. Ridzon, R.,, P. Kludt,, J. Peppe,, K. Sharifzadeh,, and S. Lett. 1997. Two outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis associated with Monte Cristo sandwiches. J. Food Prot. 60: 1568 1570.
93. Rodrigue, D. C.,, R. V. Tauxe,, and B. Rowe. 1990. International increase in Salmonella enteritidis: a new pandemic? Epidemiol. Infect. 105: 21 27.
94. Schneitz, C. 2006. The competitive exclusion product Broilact®. Orion Corporation, Turku, Finland. [Online.] http://www.orion.fi/english/business_divisions/alasivu.shtml/a03?20509. Accessed 24 May 2006.
95. Schoeni, J. L.,, K. A. Glass,, J. L. McDermott,, and A. C. L. Wong. 1995. Growth and penetration of Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella heidelberg and Salmonella typhimurium in eggs. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 24: 385 396.
96. Schultz, S.,, D. Morse,, W. Parkin,, G. F. Grady,, E. J. Witte,, J. L. Hadler,, R. L. Vogt,, E. Schwartz,, K. F. Gensheimer,, P. R. Silverman,, and E. Israel. 1987. Increasing rate of Salmonella enteritidis infections in the northeastern United States. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 36: 10 11.
97. Schultz, S.,, D. Morse,, W. Parkin,, G. F. Grady,, E. J. Witte,, J. L. Hadler,, R. L. Vogt,, E. Schwartz,, K. F. Gensheimer,, P. R. Silverman,, and E. Israel. 1987. Salmonella enteritidis infections in the northeastern United States. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 36: 204 205.
98. Sheffield, C.,, K. Andrews,, R. Harvey,, T. Crippen,, and D. Nisbet. 2006. Dereplication by automated ribotyping of a competitive exclusion culture bacterial isolate library. J. Food Prot. 69: 228 232.
99. Shirota, K.,, H. Katoh,, T. Murase,, T. Ito,, and K. Otsuki. 2001. Monitoring of layer feed and eggs for Salmonella in eastern Japan between 1993 and 1998. J. Food Prot. 64: 734 -– 737.
100. Smith, H. W. 1956. The use of live vaccines in experimental Salmonella gallinarum infection in chickens with observations on their interference effect. J. Hyg. 54: 419 432.
101. Stavric, S.,, and J.-Y. D’Aoust. 1993. Undefined and defined bacterial preparations for the competitive exclusion of Salmonella in poultry—a review . J. Food Prot. 56: 173 180.
102. Stevens, A.,, C. Joseph,, J. Bruce,, D. Fenton,, M. O’Mahony,, D. Cunningham,, B. O’Connor,, and B. Rowe. 1989. A large outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 associated with eggs from overseas. Epidemiol. Infect. 103: 425 433.
103.St. Louis, M. E., D. L. Morse, M. E. Potter, T. M. DeMelfi, J. J. Guzewich, R. V. Tauxe, P. A. Blake, and the Salmonella enteritidis Working Group. 1988. The emergence of grade A eggs as a major source of Salmonella enteritidis infections . JAMA 259: 21032107.
104.St. Louis, M. E., S. H. S. Peck, D. Bowering, G. B. Morgan, J. Blatherwick, S. Banerjee, G. D. M. Kettyls, W. A. Black, M. E. Milling, A. H. W. Hauschild, R. V. Tauxe, and P. A. Blake. 1988. Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak. Ann. Intern. Med. 108: 363368.
105. Sullivan, R. 31 July 1987. Tainted food possible in patient’s death. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
106. Sunagawa, H.,, T. Ikeda,, K. Takeshi,, T. Takada,, K. Tsukamoto,, M. Fujii,, M. Kurokawa,, K. Watabe,, Y. Yamane,, and H. Ohta. 1997. A survey of Salmonella enteritidis in spent hens and its relation to farming style in Hokkaido, Japan. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 38: 95 102.
107. Telzak, E. E.,, L. D. Budnick,, M. S. Z. Greenberg,, S. Blum,, M. Shayegani,, C. E. Benson,, and S. Schultz. 1990. A nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection due to the consumption of raw eggs. N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 394 397.
108. Tsuji, H.,, K. Shimada,, K. Hamada,, and H. Nakajima. 2000. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis caused by contaminated buns peddled by a producer using traveling cars in Hyogo and neighboring prefectures in 1999: an epidemiological study using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 53: 23 24.
109. Wagner, R. D.,, M. Holland,, and C. E. Cerniglia. 2002. An in vitro assay to evaluate competitive exclusion products for poultry. J. Food Prot. 65: 746 751.
110. Weber, J. T.,, R. G. Hibbs, Jr., A. Darwish, B. Mishu, A. L. Corwin, M. Rakha, C. L. Hatheway, S. el Sharkawy, S. A. el-Rahim, M. F. al-Hamd, J. E. Sarn, P. A. Blake, and R. V. Tauxe. 1993. A massive outbreak of type E botulism associated with traditional salted fish in Cairo. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 451 454.
111. Wierup, M.,, H. Wahlstrom,, and B. Engstrom. 1992. Experience of a 10- year use of competitive exclusion treatment as part of the Salmonella control programme in Sweden. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15: 287 291.
112. Wilks, C.,, G. Parkinson,, and P. Young. 2000. RIRDC Publication no. 00/ 145. International review of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) epidemiology and control policies. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia. [Online.] http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/EGGS/00-145.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2006.
113. Zhao, T.,, S. Tkalcic,, M. P. Doyle,, B. G. Harmon,, C. A. Brown,, and P. Zhao. 2003. Pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in neonatal calves and evaluation of fecal shedding by treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 66: 924 930.


Generic image for table
Table 3.1

Examples of egg-associated outbreaks of serotype Enteritidis food-borne illness since 1988

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Recipes for Disaster, p 31-52. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error