Chapter 8 : Crossing Over

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Crossing Over, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap08-2.gif


Pathogenic strains of fall into five distinct categories: enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, enteroinvasive, enterotoxigenic, and enterohemorrhagic, also known as verotoxigenic or Shiga toxin-producing . When school children in Sakai City began to complain of diarrhea in July 1996, epidemiologists were faced with a daunting task. Lab tests quickly established that O157:H7 was the cause of the illnesses. There were 16 outbreaks of O157:H7 in Japan between May and December 1996, encompassing more than 11,800 cases and 12 deaths. Three of the incidents were connected with meals served in nursing homes; one was linked to a factory cafeteria; two could not be traced to a specific origin; and nine outbreaks were tied to school lunches. One of the difficulties faced by investigators of food-borne outbreaks is the effectiveness of available lab methods to detect pathogens like O157:H7. There have been at least two recalls of sprouts due to O157:H7 in the United States since the 1997 outbreak. The first, in 2000, was limited to California and was the result of O157:H7 having been detected in samples of sprouts at the processing plant. The second recall, which took place in 2004, resulted from the pathogen having been found in irrigation water used to produce the sprouts. Regulators, researchers, and juice producers have known since 1975 that can survive in apple cider and still be able to cause gastroenteritis.

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Crossing Over, p 133-156. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch8
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Ackers, M.-L.,, B. E. Mahon,, E. Leahy,, B. Goode,, T. Damrow,, P. S. Hayes,, W. F. Bibb,, D. H. Rice,, T. J. Barrett,, L. Hutwagner,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 1998. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with leaf lettuce consumption. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 1588 1593.
2. Andrews, W. H. 1997. Escherichia coli organisms turn deadly. Inside Lab. Management 1: 27 29.
3.Anonymous. 8 June 1996. Food poison outbreak spreads. Mainichi Daily News (English edition), Tokyo, Japan.
4.Anonymous. 17 July 1996. Tainted food sickens 6,000 kids in Japan. Health officials suspect the outbreak of E. coli was caused by school lunches of eel sushi. Orlando Sentinel, Orlando, Fla.
5.Anonymous. 8 August 1996. Kan says radish sprouts may be source of Sakai outbreak. Mainichi Daily News (English edition), Tokyo, Japan.
6.Anonymous. 27 September 1996. Ministry report fails to pinpoint source of food poisoning. Mainichi Daily News (English edition), Tokyo, Japan.
7.Anonymous. 1996. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice—British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington, October 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45: 975.
8.Anonymous. 5 April 1997. Markets pull sprouts amid O157 fears. Mainichi Daily News (English edition), Tokyo, Japan.
9.Anonymous. 26 April 1997. O157 detected in radish sprouts in Yokohama. >Mainichi Daily News (English edition), Tokyo, Japan.
10.Anonymous. 16 May 1997. Radish sprouts disappearing from stores: action linked to gov’t report. Mainichi Daily News (English edition), Tokyo, Japan.
11. Arnold, K. W.,, and C. W. Kaspar. 1995. Starvation and stationary-phase induced acid tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 61: 2037 2039.
12. Becker, H.,, G. Schaller,, W. von Wiese,, and G. Terplan. 1994. Bacillus cereus in infant foods and dried milk products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23: 1 15.
13. Bellamy, P. 4 June 1996. Student dies in bacteria outbreak. South China Morning Post, Hong Kong.
14. Belluck, P. 10 January 1998. Criminal case being brought over lettuce in California. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
15. Belluck, P.,, and C. Drew. 5 January 1998. Tracing bout of illness to small lettuce farm; fresh hazards. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
16. Benjamin, M. M.,, and A. R. Datta. 1995. Acid tolerance of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 61: 1669 1672.
17. Benoit, V.,, P. Raiche,, M. G. Smith,, J. Guthrie,, E. F. Donnelly,, E. M. Julian,, R. Lee,, S. DiMaio,, M. Rittmann,, and B. T. Matyas. 1994. Foodborne outbreaks of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli—Rhode Island and New Hampshire, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43:81, 87 89.
18. Besser, R. E.,, S. M. Lett,, J. T. Weber,, M. P. Doyle,, T. J. Barrett,, J. G. Wells,, and P. M. Griffin. 1993. An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-pressed apple cider. JAMA 269: 2217 2220.
19. Brasseur, P.,, C. Uguen,, A. Moreno-Sabater,, L. Favennec,, and J. J. Ballet. 1998. Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in natural waters. Folia Parasitol. 45: 113 116.
20. Breuer, T.,, D. H. Benkel,, R. L. Shapiro,, W. N. Hall,, M. M. Winnett,, M. J. Linn,, J. Neimann,, T. J. Barrett,, S. Dietrich,, F. P. Downes,, D. M. Toney,, J. L. Pearson,, H. Rolka,, L. Slutsker,, P. M. Griffin, and the Investigation Team. 2001. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 977 982.
21. California Department of Health Services. 19 April 2000. Press Release No. 22-00. Salmonellosis outbreak associated with raw mung bean sprouts. C alifornia Department of Health Services, Sacramento, Calif. [Online.] http:// www.applications.dhs.ca.gov/pressreleases/store/PressReleases/22-00.html. Accessed 12 June 2006.
22. California Department of Health Services. 7 July 2000. Press Release No. 35-00. State health department warns consumers about sprouts. California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, Calif. [Online.] http:// www.applications.dhs.ca.gov/pressreleases/store/PressReleases/35-00.html. Accessed 12 June 2006.
23. Caprioli, A.,, A. E. Tozzi,, G. Rizzoni,, and H. Karch. 1997. Non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 578.
24. Center for Disease Control. 1975. Salmonella typhimurium outbreak traced to a commercial apple cider—New Jersey. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 24: 8788.
25. Cieslak, P. R.,, T. J. Barrett,, P. M. Griffin,, K. F. Gensheimer,, G. Beckett,, J. Buffington,, and M. G. Smith. 1993. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from a manured garden. Lancet 342: 367.
26. Cody, S. H.,, M. K. Glynn,, J. A. Farrar,, K. L. Cairns,, P. M. Griffin,, J. Kobayashi,, M. Fyfe,, R. Hoffman,, A. S. King,, J. H. Lewis,, B. Swaminathan,, R. G. Bryant,, and D. J. Vugia. 1999. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice. Ann. Intern. Med. 130: 202 209.
27. Como-Sabetti, K.,, S. Reagan,, S. Allaire,, K. Parrott,, C.M. Simonds,, S. Hrabowy,, B. Ritter,, W. Hall,, J. Altamirano,, R. Martin,, F. Downes,, G. Jennings,, R. Barrie,, M. F. Dorman,, N. Keon,, M. Kucab,, A. Al Shab,, B. Robinson-Dunn,, S. Dietrich,, L. Moshur,, L. Reese,, J. Smith,, K. Wilcox,, J. Tilden,, G. Wojtala,, J. D. Park,, M. Winnett,, L. Petrilack,, L. Vasquez,, S. Jenkins,, E. Barrett,, M. Linn,, D. Woolard,, R. Hackler,, H. Martin,, D. McWilliams,, B. Rouse,, S. Willis,, J. Rullan,, G. Miller, Jr.,, S. Henderson,, J. Pearson,, J. Beers,, R. Davis,, and D. Saunders. 1997. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating alfalfa sprouts—Michigan and Virginia, June-July 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46: 741 744.
28. Current, W. L.,, and L. S. Garcia. 1991. Cryptosporidiosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 325 358.
29. Danielsson, M.-L.,, R. Möllby,, H. Brag,, N. Hansson,, P. Jonsson,, E. Olsson,, and T. Wadström. 1979. Enterotoxigenic enteric bacteria in foods and outbreaks of food-borne diseases in Sweden. J. Hyg. Camb. 83: 33 40.
30. Donnenberg, M. S.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1992. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 60: 3953 3961.
31. Drew, C.,, and P. Belluck. 4 January 1998. Deadly bacteria a new threat to fruit and produce in U.S.; fresh hazards. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
32. Fang, T. J.,, C.-Y. Chen,, and W.-Y. Kuo. 1999. Microbiological quality and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in vegetarian food products. Food Microbiol. 16: 385 391.
33. Fayer, R.,, and B. L. P. Ungar. 1986. Cryptosporidium spp. and cryptosporidiosis. Microbiol. Rev. 50: 458 483.
34. Federal Register. 1998. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juice. Fed. Regist. 63: 2044920486.
35. Federal Register. 1998. Food labeling: warning and notice statements; labeling of juice products. Proposed Rule. Fed. Regist. 63: 2048620493.
36. Federal Register. 2001. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juice; Final Rule. Fed. Regist. 66: 61386202.
37. Food and Drug Administration. 2001. Food Code. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fc01-toc. html. Accessed 12 June 2006.
38. Food and Drug Administration. 2001. Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers. Definitions. Code of Federal Regulations 21(113.3).
39. Food and Drug Administration. 22 July 2004. Marjon Specialty Foods, Inc. recalls sprout products because of possible health risk. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/oc/po/ firmrecalls/marjon07_04.html. Accessed 12 June 2006.
40. Fried, J. P. 4 July 2004. Legal battle goes on over tainted lettuce. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
41. Gagliardi, J. V.,, and J. S. Karns. 2000. Leaching of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in diverse soils under various agricultural management practices. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 66: 877 883.
42. Gandhi, M.,, S. Golding,, S. Yaron,, and K. R. Matthews. 2001. Use of green fluorescent protein expressing Salmonella Stanley to investigate survival, spatial location, and control on alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64: 1891 1898.
43. Gascón, J.,, M. Vargas,, L. Quintó,, M. Corachán,, M. T. Jimenez de Anta,, and J. Vila. 1998. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains as a cause of traveler’s diarrhea: a case-control study. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 1409 1412.
44. Gill, C. J.,, W. E. Keene,, J. C. Mohle-Boetani,, J. A. Farrar,, P. L. Waller,, C. G. Hahn,, and P. R. Cieslak. 2003. Alfalfa seed decontamination in a Salmonella outbreak. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 474 479.
45. Gomez-Bautista, M.,, L. M. Ortega-Mora,, E. Tabares,, V. Lopez-Rodas,, and E. Costas. 2000. Detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and cockles ( Cerastoderma edule). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1866 1870.
46. Granum, P. E.,, S. Brynestad,, and J. M. Kramer. 1993. Analysis of enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus from dairy products, food poisoning incidents and non-gastrointestinal infections. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 17: 269 279.
47. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, H. Konuma,, M. Iwaki,, F. Kasuga,, Y. Sugita-Konishi,, Y. Ito,, and S. Kumagai. 1997. Potential hazard of radish sprouts as a vehicle of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 60: 1125 1127.
48. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, Y. Onoue,, H. Konuma,, H. Nakagawa,, and S. Kumagai. 1999. Comparison of enrichment procedures for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from ground beef and radish sprouts. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 50: 211 214.
49. Hilborn, E. D.,, J. H. Mermin,, P. A. Mshar,, J. L. Hadler,, A. Voetsch,, C. Wojtkunski,, M. Swartz,, R. Mshar,, M.-A. Lambert-Fair,, J.A. Farrar,, M. K. Glynn,, and L. Slutsker. 1999. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of mesclun lettuce. Arch. Intern. Med. 159: 1758 1764.
50. Hilborn, E. D.,, P. A. Mshar,, T. R. Fiorentino,, Z. F. Dembek,, T. J. Barrett ,, R. T. Howard,, and M. L. Cartter. 2000. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections and haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with consumption of unpasteurized apple cider. Epidemiol. Infect. 124: 31 36.
51. Itoh, Y.,, Y. Sugita-Konishi,, F. Kasuga,, M. Iwaki,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, N. Saito,, Y. Noguchi,, H. Konuma,, and S. Kumagai. 1998. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 present in radish sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1532 1535.
52. Jackson, S. G.,, R. B. Goodbrand,, R. P. Johnson,, V. G. Odorico,, D. Alves,, K. Rahn,, J. B. Wilson,, M. K. Welch,, and R. Khakhria. 1998. Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhoea associated with well water and infected cattle on an Ontario farm. Epidemiol. Infect. 120: 17 20.
53. Jay, J. M. 2000. Modern Food Microbiology, 6th ed. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.
54. Johnson, C. K. 21 October 2003. Plaintiff seeks to add eight to E. coli suit; more dance camp participants, others may be included in lawsuit against Spokane Produce. Spokesman Review, Spokane, Wash.
55. Kamat, A. S.,, D. P. Nerkar,, and P. M. Nair. 1989. Bacillus cereus in some Indian foods. Incidence and antibiotic, heat and radiation resistance. J. Food Safety 10: 31 41.
56. Kapperud, G.,, L. M. Rørvik,, V. Hasseltvedt,, E. A. Høiby,, B. G. Iversen,, K. Staveland,, G. Johnsen,, J. Leitao,, H. Herikstad,, Y. Andersson,, G. Langeland,, B. Gondrosen,, and J. Lassen. 1995. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported iceberg lettuce. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 609 614.
57. Keene, W. E.,, E. Sazie,, J. Kok,, D. H. Rice,, D. D. Hancock,, V. K. Balan,, T. Zhao,, and M. P. Doyle. 1997. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections traced to jerky made from deer meat. JAMA 277: 1229 1231.
58. Ketyi, I. 1989. Epidemiology of the enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Observations in Hungary. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 33: 261 267.
59. Khodr, M.,, S. Hill,, L. Perkins,, S. Stiefel,, C. Comer-Morrison,, S. Lee,, D. R. Patel,, D. Peery,, C. W. Armstrong,, and G. B. Miller, Jr. 1994. Bacillus cereus food poisoning associated with fried rice at two child day care centers—Virginia, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43: 177 178.
60. Kudva, I. T.,, K. Blanch,, and C. J. Hovde. 1998. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in ovine or bovine manure and manure slurry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 3166 3174.
61. Law, D. 1994. Adhesion and its role in the virulence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7: 152 173.
62. Leyer, G. J.,, L.-L. Wang,, and E. A. Johnson. 1995. Acid adaptation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 increases survival in acidic foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 3752 3755.
63. Lin, J.,, M. P. Smith,, K. C. Chapin,, H. S. Baik,, G. N. Bennett,, and J. W. Foster. 1996. Mechanisms of acid resistance in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 3094 3100.
64. Mahon, B. E.,, A. Pönkä,, W. N. Hall,, K. Komatsu,, S. E. Dietrich,, A. Siitonen,, G. Cage,, P. S. Hayes,, M. A. Lambert-Fair,, N. H. Bean,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 1997. An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 876 882.
65. McGrath, M. 6 May 1999. E. coli-lettuce link studied. Omaha World-Herald, Omaha, Nebr.
66. McKillip, J. L. 2000. Prevalence and expression of enterotoxins in Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp., a literature review. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 77: 393 399.
67. Mermin, J. H.,, and P. M. Griffin. 1999. Invited commentary: public health in crisis: outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Japan. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150: 797 803.
68. Michino, H.,, K. Araki,, S. Minami,, S. Takaya,, N. Sakai,, M. Miyazaki,, A. Ono,, and H. Yanagawa. 1999. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection in schoolchildren in Sakai City, Japan, associated with consumption of white radish sprouts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150: 787 796.
69. Michino, H.,, and K. Otsuki. 2000. Risk factors in causing outbreaks of food-borne illness originating in school lunch facilities in Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62: 557 560.
70. Millard, P. S.,, K. F. Gensheimer,, D. G. Addiss,, D. M. Sosin,, G. A. Beckett,, A. Houck-Jankoski,, and A. Hudson. 1994. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis from fresh-pressed apple cider. JAMA 272: 1592 1596.
71. Miller, L. G.,, and C. W. Kaspar. 1994. Escherichia coli O157:H7 acid tolerance and survival in apple cider. J. Food Prot. 57: 460 464.
72. Mobley, H. L. T. 2000. Virulence of the two primary uropathogens. ASM News 66: 403 410.
73. Mohle-Boetani, J. C.,, J. A. Farrar,, S. B. Werner,, D. Minassian,, R. Bryant,, S. Abbott,, L. Slutsker,, and D. J. Vugia, for the Investigation Team. 2001. Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella infections associated with sprouts in California, 1996-1998. Ann. Intern. Med. 135: 239 247.
74. Moore, K.,, T. Damrow,, D. O. Abbott,, and S. Jankowski. 1995. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis attributable to Escherichia coli serotype O104:H21— Helena, Montana, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44: 501 503.
75. Morgan, U. M.,, L. Xiao,, P. Monis,, A. Fall,, P. J. Irwin,, R. Fayer,, K. M. Denholm,, J. Limor,, A. Lal,, and R. C. A. Thompson. 2000. Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic dogs: the “dog” genotype. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2220 2223.
76. Mshar, P. A.,, Z. F. Dembek,, M. L. Cartter,, J. L. Hadler,, T. R. Fiorentino,, R. A. Marcus,, J. McGuire,, M. A. Shiffrin,, A. Lewis,, J. Feuss,, J. Van Dyke,, M. Toly,, M. Cambridge,, J. Guzewich,, J. Keithly,, D. Dziewulski,, E. Braun-Howland,, D. Ackman,, P. Smith,, J. Coates,, and J. Ferrara. 1997. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider—Connecticut and New York, October, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46: 4 8.
77. Nataro, J. P.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 142 201.
78. Nataro, J. P.,, T. Steiner,, and R. L. Guerrant. 1998. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4: 251 261.
79. Nortjé, G. L.,, S. M. Vorster,, R. P. Greebe,, and P. L. Steyn. 1999. Occurrence of Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica in South African retail meats. Food Microbiol. 16: 213 217.
80. Onoue, Y.,, H. Konuma,, H. Nakagawa,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, T. Fujita,, and S. Kumagai. 1999. Collaborative evaluation of detection methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts and ground beef. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 46: 27 36.
81. Pirttijärvi, T. S. M.,, L. M. Ahonen,, L. M. Maunuksela,, and M. S. Salkinoja-Salonen. 1998. Bacillus cereus in a whey process. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 44: 31 41.
82. Pönkä, A.,, Y. Andersson,, A. Siitonen,, B. de Jong,, M. Jahkola,, O. Haikala,, A. Kuhmonen,, and P. Pakkala. 1995. Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts. Lancet 345: 462 463.
83. Portnoy, B. L.,, J. M. Goepfert,, and S. M. Harmon. 1976. An outbreak of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resulting from contaminated vegetable sprouts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 103: 589 594.
84. Puohiniemi, R.,, T. Heiskanen,, and A. Siitonen. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of two international sprout-borne Salmonella outbreaks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2487 2491.
85. Raine, G. 8 April 1998. U.S. Army declined to carry Odwalla; inspector felt unpasteurized juice posed health hazard to military consumers. The Fresno Bee, Fresno, Calif.
86. Reed, G. H. 1994. Food-borne illness (part 4). Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. 14: 87.
87. Rice, D. H.,, D. D. Hancock,, and T. E. Besser. 1995. Verotoxigenic E. coli O157 colonisation of wild deer and range cattle. Vet. Rec. 137: 524.
88. Rodrigues, J.,, C. M. Thomazini,, A. Morelli,, and G. C. M. de Batista. 2004. Reduced etiological role for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in cases of diarrhea in Brazilian infants. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 398 400.
89. Roels, T. H.,, M. E. Proctor,, L. C. Robinson,, K. Hulbert,, C. A. Bopp,, and J. P. Davis. 1998. Clinical features of infections due to Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin during an outbreak in Wisconsin: a rarely suspected cause of diarrhea in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 898 902.
90. Seo, K. H.,, and J. F. Frank. 1999. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatment as demonstrated by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. J. Food Prot. 62: 3 9.
91. Slaghuis, B. A.,, M. C. Te Giffel,, R. R. Beumer,, and G. André. 1997. Effect of pasturing on the incidence of Bacillus cereus spores in raw milk. Int. Dairy J. 7: 201 205.
92. Solomon, E. B.,, C. J. Potenski,, and K. R. Matthews. 2002. Effect of irrigation method on transmission to and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce. J. Food Prot. 65: 673 676.
93. Solomon, E. B.,, S. Yaron,, and K. R. Matthews. 2002. Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 397 400.
94. Steele, B. T.,, N. Murphy,, G. S. Arbus,, and C. P. Rance. 1982. An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with ingestion of fresh apple juice. J. Pediatr. 101: 963 965.
95. Steele, M.,, and J. Odumeru. 2004. Irrigation water as source of food-borne pathogens on fruit and vegetables. J. Food Prot. 67: 2839 2849.
96. Takeuchi, K.,, and J. F. Frank. 2000. Penetration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce tissues as affected by inoculum size and temperature and the effect of chlorine treatment on cell viability. J. Food Prot. 63: 434 440.
97. Tarr, C. L.,, T. M. Large,, C. L. Moeller,, D. W. Lacher,, P. I. Tarr,, D. W. Acheson,, and T. S. Whittam. 2002. Molecular characterization of a serotype O121:H19 clone, a distinct shiga toxin-producing clone of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 70: 6853 6859.
98. Valcour, J. E.,, P. Michel,, S. A. McEwen,, and J. B. Wilson. 2002. Associations between indicators of livestock farming intensity and incidence of human shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 252 257.
99. Van Beneden, C. A.,, W. E. Keene,, R. A. Strang,, D. H. Werker,, A. S. King,, B. Mahon,, K. Hedberg,, A. Bell,, M. T. Kelly,, V. K. Balan,, W. R. MacKenzie,, and D. Fleming. 1999. Multinational outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections due to contaminated alfalfa sprouts. JAMA 281: 158 162.
100. Van Duynhoven, Y. T. H. P.,, M.-A. Widdowson,, C. M. de Jager,, T. Fernandes,, S. Neppelenbroek,, W. van den Brandhof,, W. J. B. Wannet,, J. A. van Kooij,, H. J. M. Rietveld,, and W. van Pelt. 2002. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4b outbreak associated with bean sprouts. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 440 443.
101. Wachtel, M. R.,, L. C. Whitehand,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Prevalence of Escherichia coli associated with a cabbage crop inadvertently irrigated with partially treated sewage wastewater. J. Food Prot. 65: 471 475.
102. Wang, G.,, and M. P. Doyle. 1998. Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in water. J. Food Prot. 61: 662 667.
103. Wang, G.,, T. Zhao,, and M. P. Doyle. 1996. Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 2567 2570.
104. Watanabe, Y.,, K. Ozasa,, J. H. Mermin,, P. M. Griffin,, K. Masuda,, S. Imashuku,, and T. Sawada. 1999. Factory outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection in Japan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 424 428.
105. Werber, D.,, A. Fruth,, A. Liesegang,, M. Littmann,, U. Buchholz,, R. Prager,, H. Karch,, T. Breuer,, H. Tschäpe,, and A. Ammon. 2002. A multistate outbreak of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 infections in Germany, detected by molecular subtyping surveillance. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 419 422.
106. Winthrop, K. L.,, M. S. Palumbo,, J. A. Farrar,, J. C. Mohle-Boetani,, S. Abbott,, M. E. Beatty,, G. Inami,, and S. B. Werner. 2003. Alfalfa sprouts and Salmonella Kottbus infection: a multistate outbreak following inadequate seed disinfection with heat and chlorine. J. Food Prot. 66: 13 17.
107. Xiao, L.,, K. Alderisio,, J. Limor,, M. Royer,, and A. A. Lal. 2000. Identification of species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts in storm waters with a small-subunit rRNA-based diagnostic and genotyping tool. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 5492 5498.
108. Zhao, T.,, M. P. Doyle,, and R. E. Besser. 1993. Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider with and without preservatives. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 2526 2530.
109. Zimmerman, S. 12 July 1996. Outbreak traced to red leaf lettuce. Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago, Ill. 5: 424 428.


Generic image for table
Table 8.1

Selected food-borne disease outbreaks associated with consumption of raw sprouts

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Crossing Over, p 133-156. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch8

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error