1887

Chapter 3 : Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816353/9781555812072_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816353/9781555812072_Chap03-2.gif

Abstract:

This section talks about gastrointestinal tract infections and presents case studies relating to this subject. The major clinical manifestation of infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract is diarrhea. Diarrheal pathogens have two basic mechanisms by which they produce diarrhea. One is by the production of toxins called enterotoxins. , which produces the enterotoxin cholera toxin, is a classic example of a diarrheal pathogen which produces a secretory diarrhea due to the action of an enterotoxin. The other major mechanism of diarrheal disease is by damage to the intestinal epithelium. Organisms may also produce toxins that directly damage the intestinal epithelium. The protozoan produces such a cytotoxin. A number of gastrointestinal pathogens, including spp., spp., and are capable of invading the intestinal epithelium. Diarrheal diseases are almost always spread by the fecal-oral route. Since the major pathophysiologic effect of diarrhea is dehydration due to fluid and electrolyte loss, the most important treatment is rehydration. In addition to diarrheal disease, hepatitis is an important infection in the gastrointestinal system. The epidemiology of hepatitis A and E viruses is the same as that of diarrheal pathogens. They are usually obtained by ingestion of raw shellfish taken from water contaminated by human sewage or from food handled by infected people with poor personal hygiene, i.e., individuals who fail to wash their hands after a bowel movement. Hepatitis B, C, and D are spread by contaminated blood.

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Serologic and clinical patterns observed during acute HBV infection. SGPT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. (Reprinted from , 7th ed., ©1999 ASM Press, with permission.)

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Typical sequence of serologic markers in patients with acute hepatitis B who develop persistent infection after exposure to HBV. (Reprinted from , 7th ed., ©1999 ASM Press, with permission.)

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816353.chap3
1. Altekruse, S. F.,, N. J. Stern,, P. I. Field,, and D. V. Swerdlow. 1999. Campylobacter jejuni—an emerging foodborne pathogen. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 28 35.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses—selected sites, United States, 1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 201205.
3. Saenz, Y.,, M. Zarazaga,, M. Lantera,, M. J. Gastnares,, F. Banquero,, and C. Torres. 2000. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter strains isolated from animals, foods, and humans in Spain in 1997-1998. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 267 271.
4. Smith, K. E.,, J. M. Besser,, C. W. Hedberg,, F. T. Leano,, J. B. Bender,, J. H. Wicklund,, B. P. Johnson,, K. A. Moore,, M. T. Osterholm, and the Investigation Team. 1999. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992-1998. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 1525 1532.
5. Wegener, H. C. 1999. The consequences for food safety of the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 1581 1582.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infections associated with eating fresh parsley—United States and Canada, July-August 1998. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 285289.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses—selected sites, United States, 1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep. 49: 201205.
3. Finlay, B. B.,, and P. Cossart. 1997. Exploitation of mammalian host cell functions by bacterial pathogens. Science 276: 718 725.
4. Jensen, V. B.,, J. T. Harty,, and B. D. Jones. 1998. Interactions of the invasive pathogens Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Shigella flexneri with M cells and murine Peyer’s patches. Infect. Immun. 66: 3758 3766.
5. Mounier, J.,, F. K. Bahrani,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1997. Secretion of Shigella flexneri Ipa invasins on contact with epithelial cells and subsequent entry of the bacterium into cells are growth stage dependent. Infect. Immun. 65: 774 782.
6. Replogle, M. L.,, D. W. Fleming,, and P. R. Cieslak. 2000. Emergence of antimicrobial-resistant shigellosis in Oregon. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 515 519.
1. Adam, R. D. 2001. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 447 475.
2. Furness, B. W.,, M. J. Beach,, and J. M. Roberts. 2000. Giardiasis surveillance—United States, 1992-1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49(SS-7): 1 13.
3. Ortega, Y. R.,, and R. D. Adam. 1997. Giardia: overview and update. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 545 550.
4. Sharp, S. E.,, C. A. Suarez,, Y. Duran,, and R. J. Poppiti. 2001. Evaluation of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel for the detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum in patient stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 332 334.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Intussusception among recipients of rotavirus vaccine—United States, 1998-1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 577581.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Withdrawal of rotavirus vaccine recommendation. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 1007.
3. Glass, R. I.,, J. R. Gentsch,, and B. Ivanoff. 1996. New lessons for rotavirus vaccines. Science 272: 46 48.
4. Keusch, G. T.,, and R. A. Cash. 1997. A vaccine against rotavirus—when is too much too much? N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1228 1229.
5. Lundgren, O.,, A. T. Peregrin,, K. Perrson,, S. Kordasti,, I. Uhnoo,, and L. Svensson. 2000. Role of the enteric nervous system in the fluid and electrolyte secretion of rotavirus diarrhea. Science 287: 491 495.
1. Barbut, F.,, A. Richard,, K. Hamadi,, V. Chomette,, B. Burghoffer,, and J.-C. Petit. 2000. Epidemiology of recurrences or reinfections of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2386 2388.
2. Cohen, S. H.,, Y. J. Tang,, and J. Silva, Jr. 2000. Analysis of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile strains. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 659 663.
3. Johnson, S.,, and D. N. Gerding. 1998. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 1027 1036.
4. Karlstrom, O.,, B. Frykund,, K. Tullus,, L. G. Burman, and the Swedish C. difficile Study Group. 1998. A prospective nationwide study of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in Sweden. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16: 141 145.
5. Moncrief, J. S.,, L. Zheng,, L. M. Neville,, and D. M. Lyerly. 2000. Genetic characterization of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile isolates by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3072 3075.
1. Clark, D. P. 1999. New insights into human cryptosporidiosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 554 563.
2. MacKenzie, W. R.,, N. J. Hoxie,, M. E. Proctor,, M. S. Gradus,, K. A. Blair,, D. E. Peterson,, J. J. Kazmierczak,, D. G. Addiss,, K. R. Fox,, J. B. Rose,, and J. P. Davis. 1994. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 161 167.
3. Manabe, Y. C.,, D. P. Clark,, R. D. Moore,, J. A. Lumadue,, H. P. Dahlman,, P. C. Belitsos,, R. E. Chaisson,, and C. L. Sears. 1998. Cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS: correlates of disease and survival. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 536 542.
4. Peng, M. M.,, L. Xiao,, A. R. Freeman,, M. J. Arrowood,, A. A. Escalante,, A. C. Weltman,, C. S. L. Ong,, W. R. MacKenzie,, A. A. Lal,, and C. B. Beard. 1997. Genetic polymorphism among Cryptosporidium parvum isolates: evidence of two distinct human transmission cycles. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 567 573.
5. Rossignol, J.-F.,, A. Ayoub,, and M. S. Ayers. 2001. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide. J. Infect. Dis. 184: 103 106.
1. Garcia, L. S.,, and D. A. Bruckner. 1997. Intestinal nematodes, p. 219 247. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
2. Khuroo, M. S. 1996. Ascariasis. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 25: 553 577.
1. Espinosa-Cantellano, M.,, and A. Martinez-Palomo. 2000. Pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis: from molecules to disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 318 331.
2. Haque, R.,, I. K. M. Ali,, S. Akther,, and W. A. Petri, Jr. 1998. Comparison of PCR, isoenzyme analysis, and antigen detection for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 449 452.
3. Haque, R.,, N. U. Mollah,, I. K. M. Ali,, K. Alam,, A. Eubanks,, D. Lyely,, and W. A. Petri Jr., 2000. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess and intestinal infection with the TechLab Entamoeba histolytica II antigen detection and antibody tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3235 3239.
4. Pillai, D. L.,, J. S. Keystone,, D. C. Sheppard,, J. D. MacLean,, D. W. MacPherson,, and K. C. Kain. 1999. Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: epidemiology and comparison of diagnostic methods in a setting of nonendemicity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 1315 1318.
1. Gordon, V. M.,, K. L. Nelson,, J. T. Buckley,, V. L. Stevens,, R. K. Tweten,, P. C. Elwood,, and S. H. Leppla. 1999. Clostridium septicum alpha toxin uses glycosylphosphatidylinositol- anchored protein receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 27274 27280.
2. Larson, C. M.,, M. P. Bubrick,, D. M. Jacobs,, and M. A. West. 1995. Malignancy, mortality, medicosurgical management of Clostridium septicum infection. Surgery 118: 592 598.
3. MacFarlane, S.,, M. L. Hopkins,, and G. T. MacFarlane. 2001. Toxin synthesis and mucin breakdown are related to swarming phenomenon in Clostridium septicum. Infect. Immun. 69: 1120 1126.
4. Stevens, D. L.,, D. M. Musher,, D. A. Watson,, H. Eddy,, R. J. Hamill,, R. Gyorkey,, H. Rosen,, and J. Mader. 1990. Spontaneous, nontraumatic gangrene due to Clostridium septicum. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: 286 296.
1. Dienstag, J. L.,, E. R. Schiff,, T. L. Wright,, R. P. Perrillo,, H. W. Hann,, Z. Goodman,, L. Crowther,, L. D. Condreay,, M. Woessner,, M. Rubin,, and N. A. Brown. 1999. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 1256 1263.
2. Lee, W. M. 1997. Hepatitis B virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1733 1745.
3. Zuckerman, A. J. 2000. Effect of hepatitis B virus mutants on efficacy of vaccination. Lancet 355: 1382 1384.
1. Bell, B. P.,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter,, L. A. Moyer,, F. N. Judson,, K. Mottram,, M. Fleenor,, P. L. Ryder,, and H. S. Margolis. 1998. The diverse pattern of hepatitis A epidemiology in the United States—implications for vaccination strategies. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 1579 1584.
2. Blair, D. C. 1997. A week in the life of a travel clinic. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 650 673.
3. Cuthbert, J. A. 2001. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 38 58.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 3

SELECTED GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT PATHOGENS

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE

INTERPRETATION OF HEPATITIS B SEROLOGIC STUDIES

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error