Chapter 18 : Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses

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Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne infections caused by bacteria belonging to the genus within the family in the order . Most of these zoonoses are transmitted by ticks, but some are vectored by lice, fleas, or mites. Tick-borne rickettsioses have specific geographic distributions, directly dependent on the distribution of their vectors. These rickettsioses are among the oldest known arthropod-borne diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) was first reported in 1899 by Maxcey; its vector, , was described in 1909. One year later, Conor and Bruch described Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Tunisia. Over the last 12 years, another 10 of these infections have been characterized, including Astrakhan fever, Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF), African tick-bite fever (ATBF), Japanese spotted fever (JSF), tick-borne lymphadenitis (TIBOLA), lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis (LAR) due to , and unnamed infections caused by , and “” Thus, many of the tick-borne rickettsioses are considered to be emerging infections. This chapter considers various aspects of tick-borne rickettsioses, including the description of rickettsiae, their vectors and the relationships between rickettsiae and ticks, an overview of the various diseases recognized to date, a description of rickettsiae of unknown pathogenicity, and a report on modern diagnostic tools and treatments used for tick-transmitted rickettsioses.

Citation: Fournier P, Raoult D. 2005. Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, p 302-327. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch18
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Figure 1

Phylogenetic organization of tick-transmitted rickettsiae based on the comparison of , , , and 4 (gene D) gene sequences by the parsimony method.

Citation: Fournier P, Raoult D. 2005. Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, p 302-327. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch18
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