1887

Chapter 6 : The Human Reaction to Ticks

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Human Reaction to Ticks, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816490/9781555812386_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816490/9781555812386_Chap06-2.gif

Abstract:

Diseases transmitted by ticks are the primary concern when dealing with human infestation. One's knowledge of human reactions is largely based on case reports and retrospective studies, whereas most of the understanding of the tick-host interface is derived from experimental work with domestic and laboratory animals. The idea of immunological control of ticks dates back to 1939 (196). The environmental advantages of anti-tick vaccines may outweigh the benefits of acaricides in many settings. The concept of saliva-activated pathogen transmission has led to the idea of novel transmission blocking vaccines. These would also be of interest for human use and are currently being explored in several laboratories. This chapter first discusses the common features of tick biology and pharmacology in the context of the physiology of tick feeding. Then, it describes immunological reactions before separately reviewing the pathological conditions caused by ticks in their own right, i.e., local skin reactions and systemic toxicoses. Finally, the chapter briefly explores current research directions, as they are rapidly changing one's perception of the tick-host interface and have led to the use of ticks as innovative pharmacological repositories.

Citation: Müller-Doblier U, Wikel S. 2005. The Human Reaction to Ticks, p 102-122. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Schematic representation of tick attachment variants in hard ticks. The depth of feeding and the cement cone structure show a high degree of variability between different genera and species of hard ticks. This has important implications for the physiological and immunological structure of the tick-host interface. Adapted from Moorhouse ( ) with the permission of the publisher.

Citation: Müller-Doblier U, Wikel S. 2005. The Human Reaction to Ticks, p 102-122. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Tick anticoagulants. A simplified scheme of the blood coagulation cascade, indicating factors inhibited by various tick species. Green arrows indicate the conversion of a factor. Factors targeted by tick molecules are highlighted in pink. Phospholipids (PL) and Ca (Ca) are cofactors in several steps. The analysis of all the inhibitors identified to date indicates evolutionary significant inhibition targets that may also be useful targets for the pharmacological control of blood clotting. (a) inhibitor of factor VII (65) and (b) the tissue factor pathway inhibitor homologue Ixolaris ( ) both inhibit the extrinsic pathway. (c) Factor X inhibitors have been identified in numerous species, e.g., ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), or ( ). (d) A second activity in targeting the intrinsic pathway is factor IX inhibitor, which was described more than 35 years ago ( ). (e) Recently Salp14, a third intrinsic pathway inhibitor, was described from ( ). The common pathway of coagulation is targeted by . factor V inhibitor ( ). (g) Thrombin, the activated factor II, is inhibited by ( ), americanin from ( ), and savignin from ( ). The inhibition of thrombin prevents the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin as well as the activation of factor XIII, which contributes to the polymerization of fibrin monomers. (h) produces variabilin, an antagonist of platelet fibrinogen and vibronectin receptors. (i) Platelet aggregation is also inhibited by the apyrase activity detected in ( ), ( ), and ( ).

Citation: Müller-Doblier U, Wikel S. 2005. The Human Reaction to Ticks, p 102-122. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816490.chap6
1. Abdul-Amir, I. M.,, and J. S. Gray. 1987. Resistance of sheep to laboratory infestations of the tick, Ixodes ricinus. Res. Vet. Sci. 43: 266 267.
2. Ackerman, S.,, F. B. Clare,, T. W. McGill,, and D. E. Sonenshine. 1981. Passage of host serum components, including antibody, across the digestive tract of Dermacentor variabilis (Say). J. Parasitol. 67: 737 740.
3. Alarcon-Chaidez, F. J.,, U. U. Müller-Doblies,, and S. K. Wikel. 2003. Characterization of a recombinant immunomodulatory protein from the salivary glands of Dermacentor andersoni. Parasite Immunol. 25: 69 77.
4. Alexander, J. 1986. The physiology of itch. Parasitol. Today 2: 345 351.
5. Allen, A. C. 1948. Persistent “insect bites” (dermal eosinophilic granulomas) simulating lymphoblastoma, histiocytoses and squamous cell carcinoma. Amer. J. Pathol. 24: 367 373.
6. Allen, J. R. 1973. Tick resistance: basophils in skin reactions of resistant guinea pigs. Int. J. Parasitol. 3: 195 200.
7. Allen, J. R.,, B. M. Doube,, and D. H. Kemp. 1977. Histology of bovine skin reactions to Ixodes holocyclus Neumann. Can. J. Comp. Med. 41: 27 35.
8. Allen, J. R.,, H. M. Khalil,, and J. E. Graham. 1979. The location of tick salivary antigens, complement and immunoglobulin in the skin of guinea-pigs infested with Dermacentor andersoni larvae. Immunology 38: 467 472.
9. Allen, J. R.,, H. M. Khalil,, and S. K. Wikel. 1979. Langerhans cells trap tick salivary gland antigens in tick-resistant guinea pigs. J. Immunol. 122: 563 565.
10. Amosova, L. I. 1997. Ultrastructural features of histopathologic changes at the site of attachment of the larva of the Ixodid tick Haemaphysalis longicornis to the body of the host. Parazitologiia 31: 514 520.
11. Anastopoulos, P.,, M. J. Thurn,, and K. W. Broady. 1991. Anticoagulant in the tick Ixodes holocyclus. Aust. Vet. J. 68: 366 367.
12. Anderson, J. F. 2002. The natural history of ticks. Med. Clin. North Am. 86: 205 218.
13. Anguita, J.,, N. Ramamoorthi,, J. W. Hovius,, S. Das,, V. Thomas,, R. Persinski,, D. Conze,, P. W. Askenase,, M. Rincon,, F. S. Kantor,, and E. Fikrig. 2002. Salp15, an Ixodes scapularis salivary protein, inhibits CD4(_) T cell activation. Immunity 16: 849 859.
14. Balashov, Y. S. 1972. Bloodsucking ticks (Ixodoidea)—vectors of disease of man and animals. Entomol. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. 8: 163 376.
15. Battsetseg, B.,, K. Mamiro,, N. Inoue,, L. Makala,, H. Nagasanw,, Y. Iwakura,, Y. Toyoda,, T. Mikami,, and K. Fujisaki. 2002. Immune responses of interferon gamma (IFNgamma) knock out mice to repeated Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymph infestations. J. Med. Entomol. 39: 173 176.
16. Beaudouin, E.,, G. Kanny,, B. Guerin,, L. Guerin,, F. Plenat,, and D. A. Moneret-Vautrin. 1997. Unusual manifestations of hypersensitivity after a tick bite: report of two cases. Ann. Allergy Asthma. Immunol. 79: 43 46.
17. Bergman, D., 1996. Mouthparts and feeding mechanisms of haematopgagous arthropods, p. 30 61. In S. Wikel (ed.) , The Immunology of Host-Ectoparasitic Arthropod Relationships . CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
18. Bergman, D. K.,, M. J. Palmer,, M. J. Caimano,, J. D. Radolf,, and S. K. Wikel. 2000. Isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from Dermacentor andersoni salivary gland. J. Parasitol. 86: 516 525.
19. Bior, A. D.,, R. C. Essenberg,, and J. R. Sauer. 2002. Comparison of differentially expressed genes in the salivary glands of male ticks, Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor andersoni. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32: 645 655.
20. Bird, J. J.,, D. R. Brown,, A. C. Mullen,, N. H. Moskowitz,, M. A. Mahowald,, J. R. Sider,, T. F. Gajewski,, C. R. Wang,, and S. L. Reiner. 1998. Helper T cell differentiation is controlled by the cell cycle. Immunity 9: 229 237.
21. Bode, D.,, P. Speicher,, and H. Harlan. 1987. A seed tick infestation of the conjunctiva: Amblyomma americanum larva. Ann. Ophthalmol. 19: 63 64.
22. Brossard, M. 1977. Rabbits infested with the adults of Ixodes ricinus L.: passive transfer of resistance with immune serum. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 70: 289 294.
23. Brossard, M.,, and V. Fivaz. 1982. Ixodes ricinus L.: mast cells, basophils and eosinophils in the sequence of cellular events in the skin of infested or re-infested rabbits. Parasitology 85: 583 592.
24. Brossard, M.,, and S. K. Wikel. 1997. Immunology of interactions between ticks and hosts. Med. Vet. Entomol. 11: 270 276.
25. Brown, A. F.,, and D. L. Hamilton. 1998. Tick bite anaphylaxis in Australia. J. Accid. Emerg. Med. 15: 111 113.
26. Brown, S. J., , and P. W. Askenase. 1981 . Cutaneous basophil responses and immune resistance of guinea pigs to ticks: passive transfer with peritoneal exudate cells or serum. J. Immunol. 127: 2163 2167.
27. Brown, S. J.,, and P. W. Askenase. 1985. Rejection of ticks from guinea pigs by anti-hapten-antibody-mediated degranulation of basophils at cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity sites: role of mediators other than histamine. J. Immunol. 134: 1160 1165.
28. Brown, S. J.,, S. J. Galli,, G. J. Gleich,, and P. W. Askenase. 1982. Ablation of immunity to Amblyomma americanum by anti-basophil serum: cooperation between basophils and eosinophils in expression of immunity to ectoparasites (ticks) in guinea pigs. J. Immunol. 129: 790 796.
29. Brown, S. J.,, and F. W. Knapp. 1981. Response of hypersensitized guinea pigs to the feeding of Amblyomma americanum ticks. Parasitology 83: 213 223.
30. Champagne, D. E.,, and J. G. Valenzuela,. 1996. Pharmacology of haemathophagous arthropod saliva , p. 85 106. In S. Wikel (ed.) , The Immunology of Host-Ectoparasitic Arthropod Relationships. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
31. Chesney, J.,, C. Metz,, M. Bacher,, T. Peng,, A. Meinhardt,, and R. Bucala. 1999. An essential role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in angiogenesis and the growth of a murine lymphoma. Mol. Med. 5: 181 191.
32. Chesney, T. M., 2000. Non-infectious predominantly deep inflammatory diseases , p. 635 641. In A. F. Hood (ed.) , Pathology of the Skin. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y.
33. Chinery, W. A.,, and E. Ayitey-Smith. 1977. Histamine blocking agent in the salivary gland homogenate of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sanguineus. Nature 265: 366 367.
34. Christe, M.,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 1998. Susceptibility of BALB/c mice to nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus after modulation of IgE production with anti-interleukin-4 or antiinterferon- gamma monoclonal antibodies. Parasitol. Res. 84: 388 393.
35. Christe, M.,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 1999. Influence of the genetic background and parasite load of mice on the immune response developed against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. Parasitol. Res. 85: 557 561.
36. Christe, M.,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 2000. Cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-gamma) and antibodies (IgE and IgG2a) produced in mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto via nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks or syringe inoculations. Parasitol. Res. 86: 491 496.
37. Clark, W. G. 1979. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 25, p. 311 356 . Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
38. Cooper, B. J.,, and I. Spence. 1976. Temperature-dependent inhibition of evoked acetylcholine release in tick paralysis. Nature 263: 693 695.
39. Coppolino, M. G.,, and S. Dedhar. 1998. Calreticulin. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30: 553 558.
40. Crampton, A. L.,, C. Miller,, G. D. Baxter,, and S. C. Barker. 1998. Expressed sequenced tags and new genes from the cattle tick , Boophilus microplus. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 22: 177 186.
41. Culp, J. S. 1987. Seed ticks. Am. Fam. Physician 36: 121 123.
42. Das, S.,, G. Banerjee,, K. DePonte,, N. Marcantonio,, F. S. Kantor,, and E. Fikrig. 2001. Salp25D, an Ixodes scapularis antioxidant, is 1 of 14 immunodominant antigens in engorged tick salivary glands. J. Infect. Dis. 184: 1056 1064.
43. denHollander, N.,, and J. R. Allen. 1985. Dermacentor variabilis: acquired resistance to ticks in BALB/c mice. Exp. Parasitol. 59: 118 129.
44. denHollander, N.,, and J. R. Allen. 1985. Dermacentor variabilis: resistance to ticks acquired by mast cell-deficient and other strains of mice. Exp. Parasitol. 59: 169 179.
45. Dessens, J. T.,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1998. Mx1-based resistance to thogoto virus in A2G mice is bypassed in tick-mediated virus delivery. J. Virol. 72: 8362 8364.
46. Dickinson, R. G.,, J. E. O’Hagan,, M. Schotz,, K. C. Binnington,, and M. P. Hegarty. 1976. Prostaglandin in the saliva of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 54: 475 486.
47. Duckworth, P. F., Jr.,, G. F. Hayden,, and C. N. Reed. 1985. Human infestation by Amblyomma americanum larvae (“seed ticks”). South. Med. J. 78: 751 753.
48. Dvorak, H. F.,, M. C. Mihm, Jr.,, A. M. Dvorak,, R. A. Johnson,, E. J. Manseau,, E. Morgan,, and R. B. Colvin. 1974. Morphology of delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in man. I. Quantitative description of the inflammatory response. Lab. Investig. 31: 111 130.
49. Estrada-Pena, A.,, and F. Jongejan. 1999. Ticks feeding on humans: a review of records on human-biting Ixodoidea with special reference to pathogen transmission. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 23: 685 715.
50. Failing, R. M.,, C. B. Lyon,, and J. E. McKittrick. 1972. The pajaroello tick bite. The frightening folklore and the mild disease. Calif. Med. 116: 16 19.
51. Ferreira, B. R.,, and J. S. Silva. 1998. Saliva of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick impairs T cell proliferation and IFN-_-induced macrophage microbicidal activity. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 64: 279 293.
52. Ferreira, B. R.,, and J. S. Silva. 1999. Successive tick infestations selectively promote a T-helper 2 cytokine profile in mice. Immunology 96: 434 439.
53. Ferreira, C. A.,, I. Da Silva Vaz,, S. S. da Silva,, K. L. Haag,, J. G. Valenzuela,, and A. Masuda. 2002. Cloning and partial characterization of a Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) calreticulin. Exp. Parasitol. 101: 25 34.
54. Francischetti, I. M.,, J. G. Valenzuela,, J. F. Andersen,, T. N. Mather,, and J. M. Ribeiro. 2002. Ixolaris, a novel recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) from the salivary gland of the tick, Ixodes scapularis: identification of factor X and factor Xa as scaffolds for the inhibition of factor VIIa/ tissue factor complex. Blood 99: 3602 3612.
55. Fujisaki, K.,, T. Kamio,, and S. Kitaoka. 1984. Passage of host serum components, including antibodies specific for Theileria sergenti, across the digestive tract of argasid and ixodid ticks. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 78: 449 450.
56. Galli, S. J.,, and H. E. Dvorak,. 1979. Basophils and mast cells: structure, function and role in hypersensitivity , p. 1 53. In S. Gupta, and R. A. Good (ed.) , Comprehensive Immunology, vol. 6 . Plenum Medical Book Company, New York, N.Y.
57. Ganapamo, F.,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 1995. In vitro production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma by lymph node cells from BALB/c mice infested with nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. Immunology 85: 120 124.
58. Gauci, M.,, R. K. Loh,, B. F. Stone,, and Y. H. Thong. 1989. Allergic reactions to the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus: diagnostic evaluation by skin test and radioimmunoassay. Clin. Exp. Allergy 19: 279 283.
59. Gauci, M.,, R. K. Loh,, B. F. Stone,, and Y. H. Thong. 1990. Evaluation of partially purified salivary gland allergens from the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus in diagnosis of allergy by RIA and skin prick test. Ann. Allergy 64: 297 299.
60. Gauci, M.,, B. F. Stone,, and Y. H. Thong. 1988. Detection in allergic individuals of IgE specific for the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 85: 190 193.
61. Gauci, M.,, B. F. Stone,, and Y. H. Thong. 1988. Isolation and immunological characterisation of allergens from salivary glands of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 87: 208 212.
62. Gaunder, B. N. 1986. Insect bites and stings: managing allergic reactions. Nurse Pract. 11: 16, 19 22, 27 28.
63. Gillespie, R. D.,, M. C. Dolan,, J. Piesman,, and R. G. Titus. 2001. Identification of an IL-2 binding protein in the saliva of the Lyme disease vector tick, Ixodes scapularis. J. Immunol. 166: 4319 4326.
64. Gillespie, R. D.,, M. L. Mbow,, and R. G. Titus. 2000. The immunomodulatory factors of bloodfeeding arthropod saliva. Parasite Immunol. 22: 319 331.
65. Gordon, J. R.,, and J. R. Allen. 1991. Factors V and VII anticoagulant activities in the salivary glands of feeding Dermacentor andersoni ticks. J. Parasitol. 77: 167 170.
66. Gordon, S. 2003. Alternative activation of macrophages. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3: 23 35.
67. Gothe, R. 1999. Zeckentoxikosen—Tick toxicoses . Hieronymus Buchreproduktions GMBH, Munich, Germany.
68. Götz, H.,, and C. Patiri. 1975. Zeckenbiβbedingte Dermatosen. Med. Klin. 70: 1332 1339.
69. Gregson, J. D. 1960. Morphology and functioning of the mouthparts of Dermacentor andersoni. Acta Trop. 17: 46 79.
70. Hajnicka, V.,, P. Kocakova,, M. Slavikova,, M. Slovak,, J. Gasperik,, N. Fuchsberger,, and P. A. Nuttall. 2001. Antiinterleukin- 8 activity of tick salivary gland extracts. Parasite Immunol. 23: 483 489.
71. Haller, O.,, and G. Kochs. 2002. Interferon-induced mx proteins: dynamin-like GTPases with antiviral activity. Traffic 3: 710 717.
72. Hellmann, K.,, and R. I. Hawkins. 1967. The action of tick extracts on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Thromb. Diath. Haemorrh. 18: 617 625.
73. Herms, W. B.,, and M. T. James. 1961. Medical Entomology, 5th ed . The Macmillan Company, New York, N.Y.
74. Heyl, T. 1982. Tick bite alopecia. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 7: 537 542.
75. Heyne, H.,, E. A. Ueckermann,, and L. Coetzee. 2001. First report of a parasitic mite, Leptotrombidium ( Hypotrombidium) subquadratum (Lawerence) (Acari: Trombiculidae: Trombiculinae), from dogs and children in the Bloemfontein area, South Africa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 72: 105 106.
76. Higgs, G. A.,, J. R. Vane,, R. J. Hart,, C. Potter,, and R. G. Wilson. 1976. Prostaglandins in the saliva of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acarina, Ixodidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 66: 665 670.
77. Hill, C. A.,, and J. A. Gutierrez. 2000. Analysis of the expressed genome of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using an expressed sequence tag approach. Microb. Comp. Genomics 5: 89 101.
78. Hoeppli, R.,, and H. H. Schumacher. 1962. Histological reactions to trombiculid mites with special reference to “natural” and “unnatural” hosts. Z. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 13: 419 428.
79. Hoffmann, A.,, P. Walsmann,, G. Riesener,, M. Paintz,, and F. Markwardt. 1991. Isolation and characterization of a thrombin inhibitor from the tick Ixodes ricinus. Pharmazie 46: 209 212.
80. Humphery-Smith, I.,, Y. H. Thong,, D. Moorhouse,, C. Creevey,, M. Gauci,, and B. Stone. 1991. Reactions to argasid tick bites by island residents on the Great Barrier Reef. Med. J. Aust. 155: 181 186.
81. Hwong, H.,, D. Jones,, V. G. Prieto,, C. Schulz,, and M. Duvic. 2001. Persistent atypical lymphocytic hyperplasia following tick bite in a child: report of a case and review of the literature. Pediatr. Dermatol. 18: 481 484.
82. Ibrahim, M. A.,, A. H. Ghazy,, T. M. Maharem,, and M. I. Khalil. 2001. Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor from the nymphs of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 130: 501 512.
83. Jasinskas, A.,, D. C. Jaworski,, and A. G. Barbour. 2000. Amblyomma americanum: specific uptake of immunoglobulins into tick hemolymph during feeding. Exp. Parasitol. 96: 213 221.
84. Jaworski, D. C.,, A. Jasinskas,, C. N. Metz,, R. Bucala,, and A. G. Barbour. 2001. Identification and characterization of a homologue of the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the tick, Amblyomma americanum. Insect Mol. Biol. 10: 323 331.
85. Jaworski, D. C.,, F. A. Simmen,, W. Lamoreaux,, L. B. Coons,, M. T. Muller,, and G. R. Needham. 1995. A secreted calreticulin protein in ixodid tick ( Amblyomma americanum) saliva. J. Insect Physiol. 41: 369 375.
86. Jones, B. E. 1981. Human ‘seed tick’ infestation. Amblyomma americanum larvae. Arch. Dermatol. 117: 812 814.
87. Jones, L. D.,, E. Hodgson,, T. Williams,, S. Higgs,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1992. Saliva activated transmission (SAT) of Thogoto virus: relationship with vector potential of different haematophagous arthropods. Med. Vet. Entomol. 6: 261 265.
88. Joubert, A. M.,, J. C. Crause,, A. R. Gaspar,, F. C. Clarke,, A. M. Spickett,, and A. W. Neitz. 1995. Isolation and characterization of an anticoagulant present in the salivary glands of the bont-legged tick, Hyalomma truncatum. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 19: 79 92.
89. Joubert, A. M.,, A. I. Louw,, F. Joubert,, and A. W. Neitz. 1998. Cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of the gene encoding factor Xa inhibitor from the salivary glands of the tick, Ornithodoros savignyi. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 22: 603 619.
90. Jutel, M.,, T. Watanabe,, M. Akdis,, K. Blaser,, and C. A. Akdis. 2002. Immune regulation by histamine. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 14: 735 740.
91. Karczewski, J.,, R. Endris,, and T. M. Connolly. 1994. Disagregin is a fibrinogen receptor antagonist lacking the Arg- Gly-Asp sequence from the tick, Ornithodoros moubata. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 6702 6708.
92. Kassis, I.,, I. Ioffe-Uspensky,, I. Uspensky,, and K. Y. Mumcuoglu. 1997. Human toxicosis caused by the tick Ixodes redikorzevi in Israel. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 33: 760 761.
93. Kaufman, W. R. 1989. Tick-host interaction: a synthesis of current concepts. Parasitol. Today 5: 47 56.
94. Kemp, D. H.,, and A. Bourne. 1980. Boophilus microplus: the effect of histamine on the attachment of cattle-tick larvae— studies in vivo and in vitro. Parasitology 80: 487 496.
95. Kemp, D. H.,, B. F. Stone,, and K. C. Binnington,. 1982. Tick attachment and feeding: role of the mouthparts, feeding apparatus, salivary gland secretions and the host response, p. 119 168. In F. D. Obenchain, and R. Galun (ed.) , Physiology of Ticks, vol. 1 . Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
96. Klompen, H.,, and D. Grimaldi. 2001. First mesozoic record of a parasitiform mite: a larval argasid tick in cretaceous amber (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94: 10 15.
97. Kopecky, J.,, M. Kuthejlova,, and J. Pechova. 1999. Salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks inhibits production of interferon-gamma by the upregulation of interleukin-10. Parasite Immunol. 21: 351 356.
98. Kovacs, H.,, I. D. Campbell,, P. Strong,, S. Johnson,, F. J. Ward,, K. B. Reid,, and P. Eggleton. 1998. Evidence that C1q binds specifically to CH2-like immunoglobulin gamma motifs present in the autoantigen calreticulin and interferes with complement activation. Biochemistry (Moscow) 37: 17865 17874.
99. Kovar, L.,, J. Kopecky,, and B. Rihova. 2001. Salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus tick polarizes the cytokine profile toward Th2 and suppresses proliferation of T lymphocytes in human PBMC culture. J. Parasitol. 87: 1342 1348.
100. Kovar, L.,, J. Kopecky,, and B. Rihova. 2002. Salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus tick modulates the host immune response towards the Th2 cytokine profile. Parasitol. Res. 88: 1066 1072.
101. Kubes, M.,, N. Fuchsberger,, M. Labuda,, E. Zuffova,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1994. Salivary gland extracts of partially fed Dermacentor reticulatus ticks decrease natural killer cell activity in vitro. Immunology 82: 113 116.
102. Kubes, M.,, P. Kocakova,, M. Slovak,, M. Slavikova,, N. Fuchsberger,, and P. A. Nuttall. 2002. Heterogeneity in the effect of different ixodid tick species on human natural killer cell activity. Parasite Immunol. 24: 23 28.
103. Kuthejlova, M.,, J. Kopecky,, G. Stepanova,, and A. Macela. 2001. Tick salivary gland extract inhibits killing of Borreliaafzelii spirochetes by mouse macrophages. Infect. Immun. 69: 575 578.
104. Labuda, M.,, O. Kozuch,, E. Zuffova,, E. Eleckova,, R. S. Hails,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1997. Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission between ticks cofeeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts. Virology 235: 138 143.
105. Lacombe, E. H.,, P. W. Rand,, and R. P. Smith, Jr. 1999. Severe reaction in domestic animals following the bite of Ixodes muris (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 36: 227 232.
106. Latif, A. A.,, J. N. Maina,, T. S. Dhadialla,, and S. Nokoe. 1990. Histological reactions to bites of Amblyomma variagatum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) fed simultaneously on naive or sensitized rabbits. J. Med. Entomol. 27: 316 323.
107. Lavaud, F.,, F. Bouchet,, P. M. Mertes,, and S. Kochman. 1999. Allergy to the bites of blood-sucking insects: clinical manifestations. Allerg. Immunol. ( Paris) 31: 311 316.
108. Lavoipierre, M. M. 1965. Feeding mechanism of bloodsucking arthropods. Nature 208: 302 303.
109. Lawrie, C. H.,, and P. A. Nuttall. 2001. Antigenic profile of Ixodes ricinus: effect of developmental stage, feeding time and the response of different host species. Parasite Immunol. 23: 549 556.
110. Lawrie, C. H.,, S. E. Randolph,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1999. Ixodes ticks: serum species sensitivity of anticomplement activity. Exp. Parasitol. 93: 207 214.
111. Leboulle, G.,, M. Crippa,, Y. Decrem,, N. Mejri,, M. Brossard,, A. Bollen,, and E. Godfroid. 2002. Characterization of a novel salivary immunosuppressive protein from Ixodes ricinus ticks. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 10083 10089.
112. Leboulle, G.,, C. Rochez,, J. Louahed,, B. Ruti,, M. Brossard,, A. Bollen,, and E. Godfroid. 2002. Isolation of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland mRNA encoding factors induced during blood feeding. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 225 233.
113. Li, L.,, S. W. Reddel,, and S. A. Krilis,. 2000. Phenotypic similarities and differences between human basophils and mast cells , p. 97 130. In S. J. Galli (ed.), Mast Cells and Basophils. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
114. Limo, M. K.,, W. P. Voigt,, A. G. Tumbo Oeri,, R. M. Njogu,, and O. K. Ole MoiYoi. 1991. Purification and characterization of an anticoagulant from the salivary glands of the ixodid tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Exp. Parasitol. 72: 418 429.
115. Lue, H.,, R. Kleemann,, T. Calandra,, T. Roger,, and J. Bernhagen. 2002. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF): mechanisms of action and role in disease. Microbes Infect. 4: 449 460.
116. Mann, K. G. 1999. Biochemistry and physiology of blood coagulation. Thromb. Haemost. 82: 165 174.
117. Mans, B. J.,, A. R. Gaspar,, A. I. Louw,, and A. W. Neitz. 1998. Apyrase activity and platelet aggregation inhibitors in the tick Ornithodoros savignyi (Acari: Argasidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 22: 353 366.
118. Mans, B. J.,, A. I. Louw,, and A. W. Neitz. 2002. Savignygrin, a platelet aggregation inhibitor from the soft tick Ornithodoros savignyi, presents the RGD integrin recognition motif on the Kunitz-BPTI fold. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 21371 21378.
119. Mans, B. J.,, C. M. Steinmann,, J. D. Venter,, A. I. Louw,, and A. W. Neitz. 2002. Pathogenic mechanisms of sand tampan toxicoses induced by the tick, Ornithodoros savignyi. Toxicon 40: 1007 1016.
120. Marshall, J. 1966. Alopecia after tick bite. S. Afr. Med. J. 40: 555 556.
121. Marshall, J. 1967. Ticks and the human skin. Dermatologica 135: 60 65.
122. Masina, S.,, and K. W. Broady. 1999. Tick paralysis: development of a vaccine. Int. J. Parasitol. 29: 535 541.
123. Mastellos, D.,, and J. D. Lambris. 2002. Complement: more than a ‘guard’ against invading pathogens? Trends Immunol. 23: 485 491.
124. Matsuda, H.,, K. Fukui,, Y. Kiso,, and Y. Kitamura. 1985. Inability of genetically mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice to acquire resistance against larval Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks. J. Parasitol. 71: 443 448.
125. Matsuda, H.,, T. Nakano,, Y. Kiso,, and Y. Kitamura. 1987. Normalization of anti-tick response of mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice by intracutaneous injection of cultured mast cells. J. Parasitol. 73: 155 160.
126. Matsuda, H.,, N. Watanabe,, Y. Kiso,, S. Hirota,, H. Ushio,, Y. Kannan,, M. Azuma,, H. Koyama,, and Y. Kitamura. 1990. Necessity of IgE antibodies and mast cells for manifestation of resistance against larval Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in mice. J. Immunol. 144: 259 262.
127. Matsushita, M.,, S. Thiel,, J. C. Jensenius,, I. Terai,, and T. Fujita. 2000. Proteolytic activities of two types of mannosebinding lectin-associated serine protease. J. Immunol. 165: 2637 2642.
128. Mbow, M. L.,, M. Christe,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 1994. Absence of acquired resistance to nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks in BALB/c mice developing cutaneous reactions. J. Parasitol. 80: 81 87.
129. Mbow, M. L.,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 1994. IFN-_ IL-2, and IL-4 mRNA expression in the skin and draining lymph nodes of BALB/c mice repeatedly infested with nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. Cell. Immunol. 156: 254 261.
130. Medzhitov, R.,, and C. A. Janeway, Jr. 1997. Innate immunity: impact on the adaptive immune response. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 9: 4 9.
131. Mejri, N.,, N. Franscini,, B. Rutti,, and M. Brossard. 2001. Th2 polarization of the immune response of BALB/c mice to Ixodes ricinus instars, importance of several antigens in activation of specific Th2 subpopulations. Parasite Immunol. 23: 61 69.
132. Miadonna, A.,, A. Tedeschi,, E. Leggieri,, P. Falagiani,, M. Nazzari,, M. Manzoni,, and C. Zanussi. 1982. Anaphylactic shock caused by allergy to the venom of Argas reflexus. Ann. Allergy 49: 293 294.
133. Miller, M. K. 2002. Massive tick ( Ixodes holocyclus) infestation with delayed facial-nerve palsy. Med. J. Aust. 176: 264 265.
134. Mocellin, S.,, M. C. Panelli,, E. Wang,, D. Nagorsen,, and F. M. Marincola. 2003. The dual role of IL-10. Trends Immunol. 24: 36 43.
135. Moneret-Vautrin, D. A.,, E. Beaudouin,, G. Kanny,, L. Guerin,, and J. F. Roche. 1998. Anaphylactic shock caused by ticks ( Ixodes ricinus). J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 101: 144 145.
136. Moorhouse, D. E. 1969. The attachment of some ixodid ticks to their natural hosts , p. 319 327. In Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Acarology. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
137. Moorhouse, D. E., 1981. Ticks and their medical importance: a problem in human disease , p. 63 69. In J. Pearn (ed.), Animal Toxins and Man: Human Poisoning by Toxic Australian Venomous Creatures. Division of Health Education and Information, Brisbane, Australia.
138. Mulenga, A.,, C. Sugimoto,, G. Ingram,, K. Ohashi,, and M. Onuma. 1999. Molecular cloning of two Haemaphysalis longicornis cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase genes. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 61: 497 502.
139. Mulenga, A.,, M. Sugino,, M. Nakajima,, C. Sugimoto,, and M. Onuma. 2001. Tick-encoded serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins); potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 63: 1063 1069.
140. Mulenga, A.,, A. Tsuda,, M. Onuma,, and C. Sugimoto. 2003. Four serine proteinase inhibitors (serpin) from the brown ear tick, Rhiphicephalus appendiculatus; cDNA cloning and preliminary characterization. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33: 267 276.
141. Munksgaard, L.,, M. Frisch,, M. Melbye,, and H. Hjalgrim. 2000. Incidence patterns of Lyme disease and cutaneous Bcell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the United States. Dermatology 201: 351 352.
142. Murphy, K. M.,, and S. L. Reiner. 2002. The lineage decisions of helper T cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2: 933 944.
143. Narasimhan, S.,, R. A. Koski,, B. Beaulieu,, J. F. Anderson,, N. Ramamoorthi,, F. Kantor,, M. Cappello,, and E. Fikrig. 2002. A novel family of anticoagulants from the saliva of Ixodes scapularis. Insect Mol. Biol. 11: 641 650.
144. Need, J. T.,, and J. F. Butler. 1991. Sequential feedings by two species of argasid tick on laboratory mice: effects on tick survival, weight gain, and attachment time. J. Med. Entomol. 28: 37 40.
145. Needham, G. R.,, D. C. Jaworski,, F. A. Simmen,, N. Sherif,, and M. T. Muller. 1989. Characterization of ixodid tick salivary- gland gene products, using recombinant DNA technology. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 7: 21 32.
146. Nienaber, J.,, A. R. Gaspar,, and A. W. Neitz. 1999. Savignin, a potent thrombin inhibitor isolated from the salivary glands of the tick Ornithodoros savignyi (Acari: Argasidae). Exp. Parasitol. 93: 82 91.
147. Nithiuthai, S.,, and J. R. Allen. 1984. Significant changes in epidermal Langerhans cells of guinea-pigs infested with ticks ( Dermacentor andersoni). Immunology 51: 133 141.
148. Nithiuthai, S.,, and J. R. Allen. 1985. Langerhans cells present tick antigens to lymph node cells from tick-sensitized guinea-pigs. Immunology 55: 157 163.
149. Nuttall, P. A.,, L. D. Jones,, M. Labuda,, and W. R. Kaufman. 1994. Adaptations of arboviruses to ticks. J. Med. Entomol. 31: 1 9.
150. Nuttall, P. A.,, G. C. Paesen,, C. H. Lawrie,, and H. Wang. 2000. Vector-host interactions in disease transmission. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2: 381 386.
151. Paesen, G. C.,, P. L. Adams,, K. Harlos,, P. A. Nuttall,, and D. I. Stuart. 1999. Tick histamine-binding proteins: isolation, cloning, and three-dimensional structure. Mol. Cell 3: 661 671.
152. Paesen, G. C.,, P. L. Adams,, P. A. Nuttall,, and D. L. Stuart. 2000. Tick histamine-binding proteins: lipocalins with a second binding cavity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1482: 92 101.
153. Paine, S. H.,, D. H. Kemp,, and J. R. Allen. 1983. In vitro feeding of Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles): effects of histamine and other mediators. Parasitology 86: 419 428.
154. Parola, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 897 928.
155. Patterson, J. W.,, J. E. Fitzwater,, and J. Connell. 1979. Localized tick bite reaction. Cutis 24: 168 169, 172.
156. Pearn, J. 1977. The clinical features of tick bite. Med. J. Aust. 2: 313 318.
157. Reference deleted.
158. Petrovsky, N.,, and R. Bucala. 2000. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). A critical neurohumoral mediator. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 917: 665 671.
159. Proud, D.,, and A. P. Kaplan. 1988. Kinin formation: mechanisms and role in inflammatory disorders. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 6: 49 83.
160. Qian, Y.,, R. C. Essenberg,, J. W. Dillwith,, A. S. Bowman,, and J. R. Sauer. 1997. A specific prostaglandin E2 receptor and its role in modulating salivary secretion in the female tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 27: 387 395.
161. Rai, R.,, P. A. Sprengeler,, K. C. Elrod,, and W. B. Young. 2001. Perspectives on factor Xa inhibition. Curr. Med. Chem. 8: 101 119.
162. Rand, K. N.,, T. Moore,, A. Sriskantha,, K. Spring,, R. Tellam,, P. Willadsen,, and G. S. Cobon. 1989. Cloning and expression of a protective antigen from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 9657 9661.
163. Raoult, D.,, A. Lakos,, F. Fenollar,, J. Beytout,, P. Brouqui,, and P. E. Fournier. 2002. Spotless rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia slovaca and associated with Dermacentor ticks. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 1331 1336.
164. Rathinavelu, S.,, A. Broadwater,, and A. M. de Silva. 2003. Does host complement kill Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks? Infect. Immun. 71: 822 829.
165. Ravanti, L.,, and V. M. Kahari. 2000. Matrix metalloproteinases in wound repair (review). Int. J. Mol. Med. 6: 391 407.
166. Ribeiro, J. M. 1987. Ixodes dammini: salivary anti-complement activity. Exp. Parasitol. 64: 347 353.
167. Ribeiro, J. M. 1989. Role of saliva in tick/host interactions. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 7: 15 20.
168. Ribeiro, J. M. 1995. Blood-feeding arthropods: live syringes or invertebrate pharmacologists? Infect. Agents Dis. 4: 143 152.
169. Ribeiro, J. M.,, T. M. Endris,, and R. Endris. 1991. Saliva of the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata, contains anti-platelet and apyrase activities. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 100: 109 112.
170. Ribeiro, J. M.,, P. M. Evans,, J. L. MacSwain,, and J. Sauer. 1992. Amblyomma americanum: characterization of salivary prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha by RP-HPLC/bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exp. Parasitol. 74: 112 116.
171. Ribeiro, J. M.,, G. T. Makoul,, J. Levine,, D. R. Robinson,, and A. Spielman. 1985. Antihemostatic, antiinflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of the saliva of a tick, Ixodes dammini. J. Exp. Med. 161: 332 344.
172. Ribeiro, J. M.,, and T. N. Mather. 1998. Ixodes scapularis: salivary kininase activity is a metallo dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase. Exp. Parasitol. 89: 213 221.
173. Ribeiro, J. M.,, and A. Spielman. 1986. Ixodes dammini: salivary anaphylatoxin inactivating activity. Exp. Parasitol. 62: 292 297.
174. Ribeiro, J. M.,, J. J. Weis,, and S. R. Telford III. 1990. Saliva of the tick Ixodes dammini inhibits neutrophil function. Exp. Parasitol. 70: 382 388.
175. Ribeiro, J. M. C. 1995. How ticks make a living. Parasitol. Today 11: 91 93.
176. Samuel, C. E. 2001. Antiviral actions of interferons. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 778 809.
177. Sanders, M. L.,, G. E. Glass,, R. B. Nadelman,, G. P. Wormser,, A. L. Scott,, S. Raha,, B. C. Ritchie,, D. C. Jaworski,, and B. S. Schwartz. 1999. Antibody levels to recombinant tick calreticulin increase in humans after exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Say) and are correlated with tick engorgement indices. Am. J. Epidemiol. 149: 777 784.
178. Sandrock, M.,, M. Frese,, O. Haller,, and G. Kochs. 2001. Interferon- induced rat Mx proteins confer resistance to Rift Valley fever virus and other arthropod-borne viruses. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 21: 663 668.
179. Sangamnatdej, S.,, G. C. Paesen,, M. Slovak,, and P. A. Nuttall. 2002. A high affinity serotonin- and histamine-binding lipocalin from tick saliva. Insect Mol. Biol. 11: 79 86.
180. Sauer, J. R.,, R. C. Essenberg,, and A. S. Bowman. 2000. Salivary glands in ixodid ticks: control and mechanism of secretion. J. Insect Physiol. 46: 1069 1078.
181. Sauer, J. R.,, J. L. McSwain,, and R. C. Essenberg. 1994. Cell membrane receptors and regulations of cell function in ticks and blood-sucking insects. Int. J. Parasitol. 24: 33 52.
182. Schoeler, G. B.,, S. A. Manweiler,, and S. K. Wikel. 1999. Ixodes scapularis: effects of repeated infestations with pathogen- free nymphs on macrophage and T lymphocyte cytokine responses of BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice. Exp. Parasitol. 92: 239 248.
183. Schoeler, G. B.,, and S. K. Wikel. 2001. Modulation of host immunity by haematophagous arthropods. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 95: 755 771.
184. Sirianni, M. C.,, G. Mattiacci,, B. Barbone,, A. Mari,, F. Aiuti,, and J. Kleine-Tebbe. 2000. Anaphylaxis after Argas reflexus bite. Allergy 55: 303.
185. Solley, G. O. 1990. Allergy to stinging and biting insects in Queensland. Med. J. Aust. 153: 650 654.
186. Sonenshine, D. E. 1991. Biology of Ticks, vol. 1. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
187. Stone, B. F. 1988. Tick paralysis, particularly involving Ixodes holocyclus and other Ixodes species. Adv. Dis. Vector Res. 5: 61 85.
188. Sutherst, R. W.,, and D. E. Moorhouse. 1971. Ixodes holocyclus larvae and ‘scrub-itch’ in southeast Queensland. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2: 82 83.
189. Swenson, S.,, L. R. Bush,, and F. S. Markland. 2000. Chimeric derivative of fibrolase, a fibrinolytic enzyme from southern copperhead venom, possesses inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 384: 227 237.
190. Szabo, M. P.,, and G. H. Bechara. 1999. Sequential histopathology at the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick feeding site on dogs and guinea pigs. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 23: 915 928.
191. Tanaka, A. S.,, R. Andreotti,, A. Gomes,, R. J. Torquato,, M. U. Sampaio,, and C. A. Sampaio. 1999. A double headed serine proteinase inhibitor—human plasma kallikrein and elastase inhibitor—from Boophilus microplus larvae. Immunopharmacology 45: 171 177.
192. Tatchell, R. J.,, and D. E. Moorhouse. 1970. Neutrophils: their role in the formation of a tick feeding lesion. Science 167: 1002 1003.
193. Thurn, M.,, A. Gooley,, and K. W. Broady,. 1992. Identification of the neurotoxin from the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus. In C. K. Tan (ed.), Recent Advances in Toxicology Research , vol. 2. Venom and Toxin Research Group , National University of Singapore, Singapore.
194. Tobias, N. 1949. Tickbite granuloma. J. Invest. Dermatol. 12: 255 259.
195. Tokura, Y.,, S. Ishihara,, S. Tagawa,, N. Seo,, K. Ohshima,, and M. Takigawa. 2001. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of a juvenile type of Epstein- Barr virus-associated natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 45: 569 578.
196. Trager, W. 1939. Acquired immunity to ticks. J. Parasitol. 25: 57 81.
197. Tsai, M.,, C. S. Lantz,, and S. J. Galli,. 2000. Regulation of mast cell and basophil development by stem cell factor and interleukin 3 , p. 3 20. In S. J. Galli (ed.), Mast Cells and Basophils . Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
198. Tsuji, N.,, T. Kamio,, T. Isobe,, and K. Fujisaki. 2001. Molecular characterization of a peroxiredoxin from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Insect Mol. Biol. 10: 121 129.
199. Ushio, H.,, S. Hirota,, T. Jippo,, S. Higuchi,, K. Kawamoto,, Y. Kitamura,, and H. Matsuda. 1995. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in mice infested with larval Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks. Immunology 84: 469 475.
200. Valenzuela, J. G.,, R. Charlab,, T. N. Mather,, and J. M. Ribeiro. 2000. Purification, cloning, and expression of a novel salivary anticomplement protein from the tick, Ixodes scapularis. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 18717 18723.
201. Valenzuela, J. G.,, I. M. Francischetti,, V. M. Pham,, M. K. Garfield,, T. N. Mather,, and J. M. Ribeiro. 2002. Exploring the sialome of the tick Ixodes scapularis. J. Exp. Biol. 205: 2843 2864.
202. Veraldi, S.,, M. Barbareschi,, R. Zerboni,, and G. Scarabelli. 1998. Skin manifestations caused by pigeon ticks ( Argas reflexus). Cutis 61: 38 40.
203. Veraldi, S.,, G. Scarabelli,, and R. Grimalt. 1996. Acute urticaria caused by pigeon ticks ( Argas reflexus). Int. J. Dermatol. 35: 34 35.
204. Waladde, S. M.,, and M. J. Rice,. 1982. The sensory basis of tick feeding behaviour, p. 71 118. In F. D. Obenchain, and R. Galun (ed.) , Physiology of Ticks, vol. 1. Pergamon Press , Oxford, United Kingdom.
205. Wang, H.,, W. R. Kaufman,, W. W. Cui,, and P. A. Nuttall. 2001. Molecular individuality and adaptation of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in changed feeding environments. Med. Vet. Entomol. 15: 403 412.
206. Wang, H.,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1994. Excretion of host immunoglobulin in tick saliva and detection of IgG-binding proteins in tick haemolymph and salivary glands. Parasitology 109: 525 530.
207. Wang, H.,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1995. Immunoglobulin G binding proteins in male Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. Parasite Immunol. 17: 517 524.
208. Wang, H.,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1995. Immunoglobulin-G binding proteins in the ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma variegatum and Ixodes hexagonus. Parasitology 111: 161 165.
209. Wang, H.,, and P. A. Nuttall. 1999. Immunoglobulin-binding proteins in ticks: new target for vaccine development against a blood-feeding parasite. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 56: 286 295.
210. Wang, X.,, L. B. Coons,, D. B. Taylor,, S. E. Stevens, Jr.,, and T. K. Gartner. 1996. Variabilin, a novel RGD-containing antagonist of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa and platelet aggregation inhibitor from the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 17785 17790.
211. Waxman, L.,, and T. M. Connolly. 1993. Isolation of an inhibitor selective for collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 5445 5449.
212. Waxman, L.,, D. E. Smith,, K. E. Arcuri,, and G. P. Vlasuk. 1990. Tick anticoagulant peptide (TAP) is a novel inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa. Science 248: 593 596.
213. Whelen, A. C.,, and S. K. Wikel. 1993. Acquired resistance of guinea pigs to Dermacentor andersoni mediated by humoral factors. J. Parasitol. 79: 908 912.
214. Wikel, S. K. 1979. Acquired resistance to ticks: expression of resistance by C4-deficient guinea pigs. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28: 586 590.
215. Wikel, S. K. 1980. Host resistance to tick-borne pathogens by virtue of resistance to tick infestation. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 74: 103 104.
216. Wikel, S. K. 1982. Histamine content of tick attachment sites and the effects of H1 and H2 histamine antagonists on the expression of resistance. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 76: 179 185.
217. Wikel, S. K. 1999. Tick modulation of host immunity: an important factor in pathogen transmission. Int. J. Parasitol. 29: 851 859.
218. Wikel, S. K.,, and J. R. Allen. 1976. Acquired resistance to ticks. I. Passive transfer of resistance. Immunology 30: 311 316.
219. Wikel, S. K.,, and J. R. Allen. 1978. Acquired resistance to ticks. III. Cobra venom factor and the resistance response. Immunology 32: 457 465.
220. Wikel, S. K.,, and D. Bergman. 1997. Tick-host immunology: significant advances and challenging opportunities. Parasitol. Today 13: 383 389.
221. Willadsen, P.,, and F. Jongejan. 1999. Immunology of the tick-host interaction and the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Parasitol. Today 15: 258 262.
222. Willadsen, P.,, G. A. Riding,, R. V. McKenna,, D. H. Kemp,, R. L. Tellam,, J. N. Nielsen,, J. Lahnstein,, G. S. Cobon,, and J. M. Gough. 1989. Immunologic control of a parasitic arthropod. Identification of a protective antigen from Boophilus microplus. J. Immunol. 143: 1346 1351.
223. Willadsen, P.,, D. Smith,, G. Cobon,, and R. V. McKenna. 1996. Comparative vaccination of cattle against Boophilus microplus with recombinant antigen Bm86 alone or in combination with recombinant Bm91. Parasite Immunol. 18: 241 246.
224. Willadsen, P.,, G. M. Wood,, and G. A. Riding. 1979. The relation between skin histamine concentration, histamine sensitivity, and the resistance of cattle to the tick, Boophilus microplus. Z. Parasitenkd. 59: 87 93.
225. Worms, M. J.,, P. W. Askenase,, and S. J. Brown. 1988. Requirement for host Fc receptors and IgG antibodies in host immune responses against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Vet. Parasitol. 28: 153 161.
226. Yeruham, I.,, A. Hadani,, I. Aroch,, F. Galker,, H. Gilor,, and S. Rodrig. 2000. Cases of apparent tick toxicosis in humans and dogs, caused by Ixodes redikorzevi s.l. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 94: 413 415.
227. Yesudian, P.,, and A. S. Thambiah. 1973. Persistent papules after tick-bites. Dermatologica 147: 214 218.
228. Zeidner, N. S.,, B. S. Schneider,, M. S. Nuncio,, L. Gern,, and J. Piesman. 2002. Coinoculation of Borrelia spp. with tick salivary gland lysate enhances spirochete load in mice and is tick species-specific. J. Parasitol. 88: 1276 1278.
229. Zhu, K.,, A. S. Bowman,, D. L. Brigham,, R. C. Essenberg,, J. W. Dillwith,, and J. R. Sauer. 1997. Isolation and characterization of americanin, a specific inhibitor of thrombin, from the salivary glands of the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum (L.). Exp. Parasitol. 87: 30 38.
230. Zhu, K.,, J. W. Dillwith,, A. S. Bowman,, and J. R. Sauer. 1997. Identification of hemolytic activity in saliva of the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 34: 160 166.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Tick species implicated in human toxicosis and paralysis syndromes

Citation: Müller-Doblier U, Wikel S. 2005. The Human Reaction to Ticks, p 102-122. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error