Chapter 41 : Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816636/9781555814731_Chap41-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816636/9781555814731_Chap41-2.gif


This chapter considers our current understanding of the epichloae, for which the recently sequenced Epichloë festucae is considered a model. The epichloae are in the family within the order Hypocreales. While it was not the first recognition of an epichloë endophyte, the discovery of an introduced tall fescue population by University of Kentucky agronomists in the early 1930s led to the development of the (in)famously popular cultivar Kentucky-31. A flourish of studies comparing endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) conspecific grasses in the 1980s and 1990s established a list of host fitness enhancements attributable to the endophyte: herbivore resistance, disease resistance, competitive ability, drought tolerance, heat tolerance, and tolerance to nutrient deficits. Researchers conducted a study to determine and compare the impacts of E+ and E- tall fescue on a natural grass community. The implications of this study reveal the concern that when introduced symbiota with pronounced fitness enhancements become established in nature, they run the risk of dominating communities and driving out some native plant species. While much of the understanding of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis has come from the characterization of the genes in the spp., disruption and characterization of key pathway genes such as , , and have also been performed for epichloë endophytes. Most of the and endophytes screened to date are able to synthesize the alkaloid peramine.

Citation: Young C, Wilkinson H. 2010. Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy, p 660-675. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch41
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Important features of the epichloë endophyte ecological strategy. The evolution of this group of closely related fungi has been studied intensively, revealing a major host shift from animals to plants, interspecific hybridization as a prevalent feature for asexual species, and concomitant cladogenesis among these fungi and their grass hosts within the Pooideae. The agricultural and ecological roles of some endophytes have been especially well studied, thus providing a sense of the potential impacts of these symbiota at a variety of ecological scales. The frequently cited “symbiotic continuum” for the species within this group represents a combination of both types of transmission strategies and the costs and benefits for the host and endophyte in a given environment.

Citation: Young C, Wilkinson H. 2010. Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy, p 660-675. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch41
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Bioprotective alkaloids and associated gene clusters of the epichloae. When possible, gene clusters from or closely related asexual species are shown. Black arrows represent genes (drawn to scale), with the abbreviated gene name above. Repetitive elements are not shown. All clusters are drawn to scale with respect to each other. The following accession numbers were used: , AY259837, AF368420, and EF125025; , EF012265 and EF012267; , DQ443465 and AY742903; , AB205145.

Citation: Young C, Wilkinson H. 2010. Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy, p 660-675. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch41
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Life cycle diagram for the epichloae. The asexual spp. exhibit only the cycle on the left (vertical transmission). Some of the sexual spp. exhibit only the cycle illustrated on the right (horizontal transmission), while others, including , exhibit the cycles shown on both sides of the figure on different tillers of the same plant (mixed transmission). Figure adapted from .

Citation: Young C, Wilkinson H. 2010. Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy, p 660-675. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch41
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Aguirre, J.,, M. Rios-Momberg,, D. Hewitt, and, W. Hansberg. 2005. Reactive oxygen species and development in microbial eukaryotes. Trends Microbiol. 13: 111118.
2. Arachevaleta, M.,, C. W. Bacon,, C. S. Hoveland, and, D. E. Radcliffe. 1989. Effect of the tall fescue endophyte on plant response to environmental stress. Agron. J. 81: 8390.
3. Arntz, C., and, P. Tudzynski. 1997. Identification of genes induced in alkaloid producing cultures of Claviceps sp. Curr. Genet. 31: 357360.
4. Bacon, C. W.,, J. K. Porter,, J. D. Robbins, and, E. S. Luttrell. 1977. Epichloë typhina from toxic tall fescue grasses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34: 576581.
5. Ball, D. M.,, J. F. Pederson, and, G. D. Lacefield. 1993. The tall-fescue endophyte. Am. Sci. 81: 370379.
6. Blankenship, J. D.,, M. J. Spiering,, H. H. Wilkinson,, F. F. Fannin,, L. P. Bush, and, C. L. Schardl. 2001. Production of loline alkaloids by the grass endophyte, Neotyphodium uncinatum, in defined media. Phytochemistry 58: 395401.
7. Bluett, S. J.,, E. R. Thom,, D. A. Clark, and, C. D. Waugh. 2005a. Effects of a novel ryegrass endophyte on pasture production, dairy cow milk production and calf liveweight gain. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 45: 1119.
8. Bluett, S. J.,, E. R. Thom,, D. A. Clark,, K. A. MacDonald, and, E. M. K. Minnee. 2005b. Effects of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR1 or wild endophyte on dairy production in the Waikato. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 48: 197212.
9. Bouton, J. H.,, G. C. M. Latch,, N. S. Hill,, C. S. Hoveland,, M. A. McCann,, R. H. Watson,, J. A. Parish,, L. L. Hawkins, and, F. N. Thompson. 2002. Reinfection of tall fescue cultivars with non-ergot alkaloid-producing endophytes. Agron. J. 94: 567574.
10. Brem, D., and, A. Leuchtmann. 2003. Molecular evidence for host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola after presumed host shifts. Evolution 57: 3751.
11. Brem, D., and, A. Leuchtmann. 1999. High prevalence of horizontal transmission of the fungal endophyte Epichloë sylvatica. Bull. Geobot. Inst. ETH 65: 312.
12. Brown, D. W.,, J.-H. Yu,, H. S. Kelkar,, M. Fernandes,, T. C. Nesbitt,, N. P. Keller,, T. H. Adams, and, T. J. Leonard. 1996. Twenty-five coregulated transcripts define a sterigmatocystin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14181422.
13. Bryant, M. K.,, K. J. May,, G. T. Bryan, and, B. Scott. 2007. Functional analysis of a beta-1,6-glucanase gene from the grass endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 808817.
14. Bultman, T. L.,, M. R. McNeill, and, S. L. Goldson. 2003. Isolate-dependent impacts of fungal endophytes in a multi-trophic interaction. Oikos 102: 491496.
15. Bultman, T. L.,, J. F. White, Jr.,, T. I. Bowdish,, A. M. Welch, and, J. Johnston. 1995. Mutualistic transfer of Epichloë spermatia by Phorbia flies. Mycologia 87: 182189.
16. Bush, L. P.,, H. H. Wilkinson, and, C. L. Schardl. 1997. Bio-protective alkaloids of grass-fungal endophyte symbioses. Plant Physiol. 114: 17.
17. Bush, L. P.,, F. F. Fannin,, M. R. Siegel,, D. L. Dahlman, and, H. R. Burton. 1993. Chemistry, occurrence and biological effects of saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids associated with endophyte-grass interactions. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 44: 81102.
18. Cheplick, G. P., and, S. H. Faeth. 2009. Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
19. Christensen, M. J.,, R. J. Bennett,, H. A. Ansari,, H. Koga,, R. D. Johnson,, G. T. Bryan,, W. R. Simpson,, J. P. Koolaard,, E. M. Nickless, and, C. R. Voisey. 2008. Epichloe endophytes grow by intercalary hyphal extension in elongating grass leaves. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45: 8493.
20. Christensen, M. J.,, R. J. Bennett, and, J. Schmid. 2002. Growth of Epichloë/ Neotyphodium and p-endophytes in leaves of Lolium and Festuca grasses. Mycol. Res. 106: 93106.
21. Christensen, M. J.,, A. Leuchtmann,, D. D. Rowan, and, B. A. Tapper. 1993. Taxonomy of Acremonium endophytes of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea), meadow fescue ( F. pratensis) and perennial rye-grass ( Lolium perenne). Mycol. Res. 97: 10831092.
22. Chung, K.-R., and, C. L. Schardl. 1997. Vegetative compatibility between and within Epichloë species. Mycologia 89: 558565.
23. Clay, K., and, J. Holah. 1999. Fungal endophyte symbiosis and plant diversity in successional fields. Science 285: 17421744.
24. Clay, K.,, J. Holah, and, J. A. Rudgers. 2005. Herbivores cause a rapid increase in hereditary symbiosis and alter plant community composition. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 1246512470.
25. Clay, K., and, C. Schardl. 2002. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses. Am. Nat. 160: S99S127.
26. Correia, T.,, N. Grammel,, I. Ortel,, U. Keller, and, P. Tudzynski. 2003. Molecular cloning and analysis of the ergopeptine assembly system in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. Chem. Biol. 10: 12811292.
27. Coyle, C. M., and, D. G. Panaccione. 2005. An ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene and clustered hypothetical genes from Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 31123118.
28. Craven, K. D.,, P. T. W. Hsiau,, A. Leuchtmann,, W. Hollin, and, C. L. Schardl. 2001. Multigene phylogeny of Epichloë species, fungal symbionts of grasses. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 88: 1434.
29. Cuomo, C. A.,, U. Guldener,, J. R. Xu,, F. Trail,, B. G. Turgeon,, A. Di Pietro,, J. D. Walton,, L. J. Ma,, S. E. Baker,, M. Rep,, G. Adam,, J. Antoniw,, T. Baldwin,, S. Calvo,, Y. L. Chang,, D. Decaprio,, L. R. Gale,, S. Gnerre,, R. S. Goswami,, K. Hammond-Kosack,, L. J. Harris,, K. Hilburn,, J. C. Kennell,, S. Kroken,, J. K. Magnuson,, G. Mannhaupt,, E. Mauceli,, H. W. Mewes,, R. Mitterbauer,, G. Muehlbauer,, M. Munsterkotter,, D. Nelson,, K. O’donnell,, T. Ouellet,, W. Qi,, H. Quesneville,, M. I. Roncero,, K. Y. Seong,, I. V. Tetko,, M. Urban,, C. Waalwijk,, T. J. Ward,, J. Yao,, B. W. Birren, and, H. C. Kistler. 2007. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization. Science 317: 14001402.
30. Daboussi, M. J. 1996. Fungal transposable elements: generators of diversity and genetic tools. J. Genet. 75: 325339.
31. Daboussi, M.-J., and, P. Capy. 2003. Transposable elements in filamentous fungi. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 57: 275299.
32. Damrongkool, P.,, A. B. Sedlock,, C. A. Young,, R. D. Johnson,, K. E. Goetz,, B. Scott,, C. L. Schardl, and, D. G. Panaccione. 2005. Structural analysis of a peptide synthetase gene required for ergopeptine production in the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium lolii. DNA Seq. 16: 379385.
33. Dean, R. A.,, N. J. Talbot,, D. J. Ebbole,, M. L. Farman,, T. K. Mitchell,, M. J. Orbach,, M. Thon,, R. Kulkarni,, J. R. Xu,, H. Pan,, N. D. Read,, Y. H. Lee,, I. Carbone,, D. Brown,, Y. Y. Oh,, N. Donofrio,, J. S. Jeong,, D. M. Soanes,, S. Djonovic,, E. Kolomiets,, C. Rehmeyer,, W. Li,, M. Harding,, S. Kim,, M. H. Lebrun,, H. Bohnert,, S. Coughlan,, J. Butler,, S. Calvo,, L. J. Ma,, R. Nicol,, S. Purcell,, C. Nusbaum,, J. E. Galagan, and, B. W. Birren. 2005. The genome sequence of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Nature 434: 980986.
34. De Bary, A. 1879. Die Erscheinung der Symbiose, p. 1–30. In K. J. Trubner (ed.), Vortrag auf der Versammlung der Naturforscher und Ärtze zu Cassel. Verlag, Strassburg, Germany.
35. de Sassi, C.,, C. B. Muller, and, J. Krauss. 2006. Fungal plant endosymbionts alter life history and reproductive success of aphid predators. Proc. Biol. Sci. 273: 13011306.
36. Faeth, S. H. 2002. Are endophytic fungi defensive plant mutualists? Oikos 98: 2536.
37. Faeth, S. H., and, W. F. Fagan. 2002. Fungal endophytes: common host plant symbionts but uncommon mutualists. Integr. Comp. Biol. 42: 360368.
38. Finkes, L. K.,, A. B. Cady,, J. C. Mulroy,, K. Clay, and, J. A. Rudgers. 2006. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields. Ecol. Lett. 9: 347356.
39. Fleetwood, D. J. 2007. Molecular characterisation of the EAS gene cluster for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in epichloë endophytes of grasses. Ph.D. dissertation. Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
40. Fleetwood, D. J.,, B. Scott,, G. A. Lane,, A. Tanaka, and, R. D. Johnson. 2007. A complex ergovaline gene cluster in epichloe endophytes of grasses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 25712579.
41. Fletcher, L. R. 1999. “Non-toxic” endophytes in ryegrass and their effect on livestock health and production, p. 133–139. In D. R. Woodfield and, C. Matthew (ed.), Ryegrass Endophyte: an Essential New Zealand Symbiosis. New Zealand Grassland Association, Napier, New Zealand.
42. Fletcher, L. R., and, I. C. Harvey. 1981. An association of a Lolium endophyte with ryegrass staggers. N. Z. Vet. J. 29: 185186.
43. Galagan, J. E.,, S. E. Calvo,, K. A. Borkovich,, E. U. Selker,, N. D. Read,, D. Jaffe,, W. FitzHugh,, L. J. Ma,, S. Smirnov,, S. Purcell,, B. Rehman,, T. Elkins,, R. Engels,, S. Wang,, C. B. Nielsen,, J. Butler,, M. Endrizzi,, D. Qui,, P. Ianakiev,, D. Bell-Pedersen,, M. A. Nelson,, M. Werner-Washburne,, C. P. Selitrennikoff,, J. A. Kinsey,, E. L. Braun,, A. Zelter,, U. Schulte,, G. O. Kothe,, G. Jedd,, W. Mewes,, C. Staben,, E. Marcotte,, D. Greenberg,, A. Roy,, K. Foley,, J. Naylor,, N. Stange-Thomann,, R. Barrett,, S. Gnerre,, M. Kamal,, M. Kamvysselis,, E. Mauceli,, C. Bielke,, S. Rudd,, D. Frishman,, S. Krystofova,, C. Rasmussen,, R. L. Metzenberg,, D. D. Perkins,, S. Kroken,, C. Cogoni,, G. Macino,, D. Catcheside,, W. Li,, R. J. Pratt,, S. A. Osmani,, C. P. DeSouza,, L. Glass,, M. J. Orbach,, J. A. Berglund,, R. Voelker,, O. Yarden,, M. Plamann,, S. Seiler,, J. Dunlap,, A. Radford,, R. Aramayo,, D. O. Natvig,, L. A. Alex,, G. Mannhaupt,, D. J. Ebbole,, M. Freitag,, I. Paulsen,, M. S. Sachs,, E. S. Lander,, C. Nusbaum, and, B. Birren. 2003. The genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Nature 422: 859868.
44. Galagan, J. E.,, S. E. Calvo,, C. Cuomo,, L. J. Ma,, J. R. Wortman,, S. Batzoglou,, S. I. Lee,, M. Basturkmen,, C. C. Spevak,, J. Clutterbuck,, V. Kapitonov,, J. Jurka,, C. Scazzocchio,, M. Farman,, J. Butler,, S. Purcell,, S. Harris,, G. H. Braus,, O. Draht,, S. Busch,, C. D’Enfert,, C. Bouchier,, G. H. Goldman,, D. Bell-Pedersen,, S. Griffiths-Jones,, J. H. Doonan,, J. Yu,, K. Vienken,, A. Pain,, M. Freitag,, E. U. Selker,, D. B. Archer,, M. A. Peñalva,, B. R. Oakley,, M. Momany,, T. Tanaka,, T. Kumagai,, K. Asai,, M. Machida,, W. C. Nierman,, D. W. Denning,, M. Caddick,, M. Hynes,, M. Paoletti,, R. Fischer,, B. Miller,, P. Dyer,, M. S. Sachs,, S. A. Osmani, and, B. W. Birren. 2005. Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae. Nature 438: 11051115.
45. Galagan, J. E., and, E. U. Selker. 2004. RIP: the evolutionary cost of genome defense. Trends Genet. 20: 417423.
46. Gallagher, R. T.,, A. G. Campbell,, A. D. Hawkes,, P. T. Holland,, D. A. McGaveston, and, E. A. Pansier. 1982. Ryegrass staggers: the presence of lolitrem neurotoxins in perennial ryegrass seed. N. Z. Vet. J. 30: 183184.
47. Gallagher, R. T.,, A. D. Hawkes,, P. S. Steyn, and, R. Vleggaar. 1984. Tremorgenic neurotoxins from perennial ryegrass causing ryegrass staggers disorder of livestock: structure elucidation of lolitrem B. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 9: 614616.
48. Gallagher, R. T.,, E. P. White, and, P. H. Mortimer. 1981. Ryegrass staggers: isolation of potent neurotoxins lolitrem A and lolitrem B from staggers-producing pastures. N. Z. Vet.J. 29: 189190.
49. Gardiner, D. M.,, A. J. Cozijnsen,, L. M. Wilson,, M. S. Pedras, and, B. J. Howlett. 2004. The sirodesmin biosynthetic gene cluster of the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. Mol. Microbiol. 53: 13071318.
50. Gatenby, W. A.,, S. C. Munday-Finch,, A. L. Wilkins, and, C. O. Miles. 1999. Terpendole M, a novel indole-diterpenoid isolated from Lolium perenne infected with the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium lolii. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 10921097.
51. Gonthier, D., J.,, T. Sullivan, J., K. Brown, L., B. Wurtzel,, R. Lawal,, K. VandenOever,, Z. Buchan, and, T. L. Bultman. 2008. Stroma-forming endophyte Epichloë glyceriae provides wound-inducible herbivore resistance to its grass host. Oikos 117: 629633.
52. Gow, N. A. 2005. Fungal genomics: forensic evidence of sexual activity. Curr. Biol. 15: R509R511.
53. Haarmann, T.,, C. Machado,, Y. Lubbe,, T. Correia,, C. L. Schardl,, D. G. Panaccione, and, P. Tudzynski. 2005. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea: extension of the cluster sequence and intra species evolution. Phytochemistry 66: 13121320.
54. Hane, J. K.,, R. G. Lowe,, P. S. Solomon,, K. C. Tan,, C. L. Schoch,, J. W. Spatafora,, P. W. Crous,, C. Kodira,, B. W. Birren,, J. E. Galagan,, S. F. Torriani,, B. A. McDonald, and, R. P. Oliver. 2007. Dothideomycete plant interactions illuminated by genome sequencing and EST analysis of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum. Plant Cell 19: 33473368.
55. Harri, S. A.,, J. Krauss, and, C. B. Müller. 2008. Fungal endosymbionts of plants reduce lifespan of an aphid secondary parasitoid and influence host selection. Proc. Biol. Sci. 275: 26272632.
56. Hartley, S. E., and, A. C. Gange. 2009. Impacts of plant symbiotic fungi on insect herbivores: mutualism in a multi-trophic context. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 54: 323342.
57. Hopkins, A. A., and, M. W. Alison. 2006. Stand persistence and animal performance for tall fescue endophyte combinations in the south central USA. Agron. J. 98: 12211226.
58. Hoveland, C. S. 1993. Importance and economic significance of the Acremonium endophytes to performance of animals and grass plants, p. 3–12. In R. Joost and, S. Quisenberry (ed.), Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
59. Iannone, L. J.,, D. Cabral,, C. L. Schardl, and, M. S. Rossi. 2009. Phylogenetic divergence, morphological and physiological differences distinguish a new Neotyphodium endophyte species in the grass Bromus auleticus from South America. Mycologia 101: 340351.
60. Idnurm, A., and, B. J. Howlett. 2003. Analysis of loss of pathogenicity mutants reveals that repeat-induced point mutations can occur in the Dothideomycete Leptosphaeria maculans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 39: 3137.
61. Jensen, A. M. D., and, N. Roulund. 2004. Occurrence of Neotyphodium endophytes in permanent grassland with perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne) in Denmark. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 104: 419427.
62. Ji, Y.,, L. Zhan,, Y. Kang,, X. Sun,, H. Yu, and, W. Wang. 2009. A new stromata-producing Neotyphodium species symbiotic with clonal grass Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth. grown in China. Mycologia 101: 200205.
63. Johnson, R.,, C. Voisey,, L. Johnson,, J. Pratt,, D. Fleetwood,, A. Khan, and, G. Bryan. 2007. Distribution of NRPS gene families within the Neotyphodium/ Epichloë complex. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 11801190.
64. Keller, N. P., and, T. M. Hohn. 1997. Metabolic pathway gene clusters in filamentous fungi. Fungal Genet. Biol. 21: 1729.
65. Keller, N. P.,, G. Turner, and, J. W. Bennett. 2005. Fungal secondary metabolism—from biochemistry to genomics. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3: 937947.
66. Kuldau, G. A.,, H.-F. Tsai, and, C. L. Schardl. 1999. Genome sizes of Epichloë species and anamorphic hybrids. Mycologia 91: 776782.
67. Kutil, B. L.,, C. Greenwald,, G. Liu,, M. J. Spiering,, C. L. Schardl, and, H. H. Wilkinson. 2007. Comparison of loline alkaloid gene clusters across fungal endophytes: predicting the co-regulatory sequence motifs and the evolutionary history. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 10021010.
68. Lane, G. A.,, M. J. Christensen, and, C. O. Miles. 2000. Co-evolution of fungal endophytes with grasses: the significance of secondary metabolites, p. 341–388. In C. W. Bacon and, J. F. J. White (ed.), Microbial Endophytes. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
69. Latch, G. C. M.,, M. J. Christensen,, B. A. Tapper,, H. S. Easton,, D. E. Hume, and, L. R. Fletcher. June 6 2000a. Rye-grass endophytes. U.S. patent 6,072,107.
70. Latch, G. C. M.,, M. J. Christensen,, B. A. Tapper,, H. S. Easton,, D. E. Hume, and, L. R. Fletcher. August 29 2000b. Tall fescue endophytes. U.S. patent 6,111,170.
71. Lemons, A.,, K. Clay, and, J. A. Rudgers. 2005. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition. Oecologia 145: 595604.
72. Leuchtmann, A. 2007. Botanophila flies on Epichloë host species in Europe and North America: no evidence for co-evolution. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 123: 1323.
73. Leuchtmann, A., and, C. L. Schardl. 1998. Mating compatibility and phylogenetic relationships among two new species of Epichloë and other congeneric European species. Mycol. Res. 102: 11691182.
74. Leuchtmann, A., and, K. Clay. 1993. Nonreciprocal compatibility between Epichloë typhina and four host grasses. Mycologia 85: 157163.
75. Leuchtmann, A.,, C. L. Schardl, and, M. R. Siegel. 1994. Sexual compatibility and taxonomy of a new species of Epichloë symbiotic with fine fescue grasses. Mycologia 86: 802812.
76. Li, W.,, Y. Ji,, H. Yu, and, Z. Wang. 2006. A new species of Epichloe symbiotic with Chinese grasses. Mycologia 98: 560570.
77. Lorenz, N.,, E. V. Wilson,, C. Machado,, C. L. Schardl, and, P. Tudzynski. 2007. Comparison of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene clusters in Claviceps species indicates loss of late pathway steps in evolution of C. fusiformis. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 73: 71857191.
78. Martin, F.,, A. Aerts,, D. Ahrén,, A. Brun,, E. G. J. Danchin,, F. Duchaussoy,, J. Gibon,, A. Kohler,, E. Lindquist,, V. Pereda,, A. Salamov,, H. J. Shapiro,, J. Wuyts,, D. Blaudez,, M. Buée,, P. Brokstein,, B. Canbäck,, D. Cohen,, P. E. Courty,, P. M. Coutinho,, C. Delaruelle,, J. C. Detter,, A. Deveau,, S. Di-Fazio,, S. Duplessis,, L. Fraissinet-Tachet,, E. Lucic,, P. Frey-Klett,, C. Fourrey,, I. Feussner,, G. Gay,, J. Grimwood,, P. J. Hoegger,, P. Jain,, S. Kilaru,, J. Labbé,, Y. C. Lin,, V. Legué,, F. Le Tacon,, R. Marmeisse,, D. Melayah,, B. Montanini,, M. Muratet,, U. Nehls,, H. Niculita-Hirzel,, M. P. Oudot-Le Secq,, M. Peter,, H. Quesneville,, B. Rajashekar,, M. Reich,, N. Rouhier,, J. Schmutz,, T. Yin,, M. Chalot,, B. Henrissat,, U. Kües,, S. Lucas,, Y. Van de Peer,, G. K. Podila,, A. Polle,, P. J. Pukkila,, P. M. Richardson,, P. Rouzé,, I. R. Sanders,, J. E. Stajich,, A. Tunlid,, G. Tuskan, and, I. V. Grigoriev. 2008. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nature 452: 8892.
79. May, K. J.,, M. K. Bryant,, X. Zhang,, B. Ambrose, and, B. Scott. 2008. Patterns of expression of a lolitrem biosynthetic gene in the Epichloë festucae-perennial ryegrass symbiosis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 21: 188197.
80. McMillan, L. K.,, R. L. Carr,, C. A. Young,, J. W. Astin,, R. G. T. Lowe,, E. J. Parker,, G. B. Jameson,, S. C. Finch,, C. O. Miles,, O. B. McManus,, W. A. Schmalhofer,, M. L. Garcia,, G. J. Kaczorowski,, M. A. Goetz,, J. S. Tkacz, and, B. Scott. 2003. Molecular analysis of two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes required for paxilline biosynthesis in Penicillium paxilli and effects of paxilline intermediates on mammalian maxi-K ion channels. Mol. Genet. Genomics 270: 923.
81. Michalakis, Y.,, I. Olivieri,, F. Renaud, and, M. Raymond. 1992. Pleiotropic action of parasites: how to be good for the host. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 5963.
82. Miles, C. O.,, S. C. Munday,, A. L. Wilkins,, R. M. Ede, and, N. R. Towers. 1994. Large-scale isolation of lolitrem B and structure determination of lolitrem E. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 14881492.
83. Moon, C. D.,, K. D. Craven,, A. Leuchtmann,, S. L. Clement, and, C. L. Schardl. 2004. Prevalence of interspecific hybrids amongst asexual fungal endophytes of grasses. Mol. Ecol. 13: 14551467.
84. Müller, C. B., and, J. Krauss. 2005. Symbiosis between grasses and asexual fungal endophytes. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8: 450456.
85. Munday-Finch, S. C.,, C. O. Miles,, A. L. Wilkins, and, A. D. Hawkes. 1995. Isolation and structure elucidation of lolitrem A, a tremorgenic mycotoxin from perennial ryegrass infected with Acremonium lolii. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 12831288.
86. Munday-Finch, S. C.,, A. L. Wilkins, and, C. O. Miles. 1998. Isolation of lolicine A, lolicine B, lolitriol, and lolitrem N from Lolium perenne infected with Neotyphodium lolii and evidence for the natural occurrence of 31-epilolitrem N and 31-epilolitrem F. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 590598.
87. Murray, F. R.,, G. C. M. Latch, and, D. B. Scott. 1992. Surrogate transformation of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, using genetically modified Acremonium endophyte. Mol. Gen. Genet. 233: 19.
88. Nielsen, K., and, J. Heitman. 2007. Sex and virulence of human pathogenic fungi. Adv. Genet. 57: 143173.
89. Nihsen, M. E.,, E. L. Piper,, C. P. West,, R. J. J. Crawford,, T. M. Denard,, Z. B. Johnson,, C. A. Roberts,, D. A. Spiers, and, C. F. J. Rosenkrans. 2004. Growth rate and physiology of steers grazing tall fescue inoculated with novel endophytes. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 878883.
90. Omacini, M.,, E. J. Chaneton,, C. M. Ghersa, and, C. B. Müller. 2001. Symbiotic fungal endophytes control insect host-parasite interaction webs. Nature 409: 7881.
91. Panaccione, D. G.,, R. D. Johnson,, J. Wang,, C. A. Young,, P. Damrongkool,, B. Scott, and, C. L. Schardl. 2001. Elimination of ergovaline from a grass- Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1282012825.
92. Parish, J. A.,, M. A. McCann,, R. H. Watson,, C. S. Hove-land,, L. L. Hawkins,, N. S. Hill, and, J. H. Bouton. 2003a. Use of nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes for alleviating tall fescue toxicosis in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 13161322.
93. Parish, J. A.,, M. A. McCann,, R. H. Watson,, N. N. Paiva,, C. S. Hoveland,, A. H. Parks,, B. L. Upchurch,, N. S. Hill, and, J. H. Bouton. 2003b. Use of nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes for alleviating tall fescue toxicosis in stocker cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 28562868.
94. Parker, E. J., and, D. B. Scott. 2004. Indole-diterpene biosynthesis in ascomycetous fungi, p. 405–426. In Z. An (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Mycology, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
95. Penn, J., and, P. G. Mantle. 1994. Biosynthetic intermediates of indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins from selected transformations at C-10 of paxilline. Phytochemistry 35: 921926.
96. Penn, J.,, I. Garthwaite,, M. J. Christensen,, C. M. Johnson, and, N. R. Towers. 1993. The importance of paxilline in screening for potentially tremorgenic Acremonium isolates, p. 88–92. In D. E. Hume,, G. C. M. Latch, and, H. S. Easton (ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions. AgResearch, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
97. Pfender, W. F., and, S. C. Alderman. 1999. Geographic distribution and incidence of orchardgrass choke, caused by Epichloe typhina, in Oregon. Plant Dis. 83: 754758.
98. Pfender, W. E., and, S. C. Alderman. 2006. Regional development of orchardgrass choke and estimation of seed yield loss. Plant Dis. 90: 240244.
99. Popay, A. J.,, R. A. Prestidge,, D. D. Rowan, and, J. J. Dy-mock. 1990. The role of Acremonium endophytes in insect resistance of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne), p. 44–48. In S. Quisenberry and, R. Joost (ed.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Louisiana Agricultural Experimental Station, Baton Rouge.
100. Prestidge, R. A.,, M. E. di Menna, and, S. van der Zujpp. 1985a. Minimum Acremonium loliae levels needed to maintain argentine stem weevil resistance in infected ryegrasses and in cultures, p. 332–337. In R. B. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Conference on Grasslands Invertebrate Ecology. Caxton Press, Lincoln College, Canterbury, New Zealand.
101. Prestidge, R.,, D. R. Lauren,, S. G. van der Zujpp, and, M. E. di Menna. 1985b. Isolation of feeding deterrents to Argentine stem weevil in cultures of endophytes of perennial rye-grass and tall fescue. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 28: 8792.
102. Proctor, R. H.,, D. W. Brown,, R. D. Plattner, and, A. E. Desjardins. 2003. Co-expression of 15 contiguous genes delineates a fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster in Gibberella moniliformis. Fungal Genet. Biol. 38: 237249.
103. Proctor, R. H.,, T. M. Hohn,, S. P. McCormick, and, A. E. Desjardins. 1995. Tri6 encodes an unusual zinc finger protein involved in regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 19231930.
104. Rao, S.,, S. C. Alderman,, J. Takeyasu, and, B. Matson. 2005. The Botanophila-Epichloë association in cultivated Festuca in Oregon: evidence of simple fungivory. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 115: 427433.
105. Reinholz, J., and, V. H. Paul. 2001. Toxin-free Neotyphodium- isolates achieved without genetic engineering—a possible strategy to avoid “ryegrass staggers,” p. 261–271. In V. H. Paul and, P. D. Dapprich (ed.), 4th International Neotyphodium/grass interactions Symposium. Universität Paderborn, Soest, Germany.
106. Rodriguez, R. J.,, J. Henson,, E. Van Volkenburgh,, M. Hoy,, L. Wright,, F. Beckwith,, Y. O. Kim, and, R. S. Redman. 2008. Stress tolerance in plants via habitat-adapted symbiosis. ISME J. 2: 404416.
107. Rodriguez, R., and, R. Redman. 2008. More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can’t make it on their own: plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis. J. Exp. Bot. 59: 11091114.
108. Rowan, D. D., and, G. C. M. Latch. 1994. Utilization of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrasses for increased insect resistance, p. 169–183. In C. W. Bacon and, J. F. White,, Jr. (ed.), Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
109. Rudgers, J. A.,, J. Holah,, S. P. Orr, and, K. Clay. 2007. Forest succession suppressed by an introduced plant-fungal symbiosis. Ecology 88: 1825.
110. Saikia, S.,, M. J. Nicholson,, C. Young,, E. J. Parker, and, B. Scott. 2008. The genetic basis for indole-diterpene chemical diversity in filamentous fungi. Mycol. Res. 112: 184199.
111. Saikia, S.,, E. J. Parker,, A. Koulman, and, B. Scott. 2006. Four gene products are required for the fungal synthesis of the indole-diterpene, paspaline. FEBS Lett. 580: 16251630.
112. Saikia, S.,, E. J. Parker,, A. Koulman, and, B. Scott. 2007. Defining paxilline biosynthesis in Penicillium paxilli: functional characterization of two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 1682916837.
113. Saikkonen, K.,, D. Ion, and, M. Gyllenberg. 2002. The persistence of vertically transmitted fungi in grass metapopulations. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269: 13971403.
114. Saikkonen, K.,, P. Wäli,, M. Helander, and, S. H. Faeth. 2004. Evolution of endophyte-plant symbioses. Trends Plant Sci. 9: 275280.
115. Schardl, C. L. 2001. Epichloë festucae and related mutualistic symbionts of grasses. Fungal Genet. Biol. 33: 6982.
116. Schardl, C. L., and, K. D. Craven. 2003. Interspecific hybridization in plant-associated fungi and oomycetes: a review. Mol. Ecol. 12: 28612873.
117. Schardl, C. L.,, K. D. Craven,, S. Speakman,, A. Stromberg,, A. Lindstrom, and, R. Yoshida. 2008. A novel test for host-symbiont codivergence indicates ancient origin of fungal endophytes in grasses. Syst. Biol. 57: 483498.
118. Schardl, C. L.,, R. B. Grossman,, P. Nagabhyru,, J. R. Faulkner, and, U. P. Mallik. 2007. Loline alkaloids: currencies of mutualism. Phytochemistry 68: 980996.
119. Schardl, C. L., and, A. Leuchtmann. 2005. The epichloë endophytes of grasses and the symbiotic continuum, p. 475–503. In J. Dighton,, J. F. White, and, P. Oudemans (ed.), The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
120. Schardl, C. L.,, A. Leuchtmann,, K.-R. Chung,, D. Penny, and, M. R. Siegel. 1997. Coevolution by common descent of fungal symbionts ( Epichloë spp.) and grass hosts. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14: 133143.
121. Schardl, C. L.,, B. Scott,, S. Florea, and, D. Zhang. 2009. Epichloë endophytes: clavicipitaceous symbionts of grasses, p. 273–304. In H. Deising (ed.), The Mycota. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
122. Schardl, C. L., and, H. H. Wilkinson. 2000. Hybridization and cospeciation hypotheses for the evolution of grass endophytes, p. 63–83. In C. W. Bacon and, J. F. White,, Jr. (ed.), Microbial Endophytes. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
123. Scott, B., and, C. J. Eaton. 2008. Role of reactive oxygen species in fungal cellular differentiations. Curr. Opin. Micro-biol. 11: 488493.
124. Scott, B.,, R. E. Wrenn,, K. J. May,, D. Takemoto,, C. A. Young,, A. Tanaka,, D. J. Fleetwood, and, R. D. Johnson. 2009. Regulation and functional analysis of bioprotective metabolite genes from the grass symbiont Epichloë festucae. In U. Gisi,, I. Chet,, M. L. Gullino, and, E. Y. Cheung (ed.), Plant Pathology in the 21st Century: Contributions to the 9th International Congress, vol. 1. Recent Developments in Disease Management.
125. Selker, E. U. 1990. Premeiotic instability of repeated sequences in Neurospora crassa. Annu. Rev. Genet. 24: 579613.
126. Siegel, M. R., and, L. P. Bush. 1997. Toxin production in grass/endophyte associations, p. 185–207. In Carroll and, Tudzynski (ed.), The Mycota V, part A. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
127. Siegel, M. R.,, G. C. M. Latch,, L. P. Bush,, F. F. Fannin,, D. D. Rowan,, B. A. Tapper,, C. W. Bacon, and, M. C. Johnson. 1990. Fungal endophyte-infected grasses: alkaloid accumulation and aphid response. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 33013315.
128. Sleper, D. A., and, C. P. West. 1996. Tall fescue, p. 475. In L. E. Moser,, D. R. Buxton, and, M. D. Casler (ed.), Cool-Season Forage Grasses. Agron. Monograph no. 34. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI.
129. Spatafora, J. W.,, G. H. Sung,, J. M. Sung,, N. L. Hywel-Jones, and, J. F. White,, Jr. 2007. Phylogenetic evidence for an animal pathogen origin of ergot and the grass endophytes. Mol. Ecol. 16: 17011711.
130. Spiering, M. J.,, G. A. Lane,, M. J. Christensen, and, J. Schmid. 2005a. Distribution of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii is not a major determinant of the distribution of fungal alkaloids in Lolium perenne plants. Phytochemistry 66: 195202.
131. Spiering, M. J.,, C. D. Moon,, H. H. Wilkinson, and, C. L. Schardl. 2005b. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum. Genetics 169: 14031414.
132. Spiering, M. J.,, H. H. Wilkinson,, J. D. Blankenship, and, C. L. Schardl. 2002. Expressed sequence tags and genes associated with loline alkaloid expression by the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium uncinatum. Fungal Genet. Biol. 36: 242254.
133. Stuedemann, J. A., and, C. S. Hoveland. 1988. Fescue endophyte: history and impact on animal agriculture. J. Prod. Agric. 1: 3944.
134. Takemoto, D.,, A. Tanaka, and, B. Scott. 2007. NADPH oxidases in fungi: diverse roles of reactive oxygen species in fungal cellular differentiation. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 10651076.
135. Takemoto, D.,, A. Tanaka, and, B. Scott. 2006. A p67 Phox-like regulator is recruited to control hyphal branching in a fungal-grass mutualistic symbiosis. Plant Cell 18: 28072821.
136. Tanaka, A.,, M. J. Christensen,, D. Takemoto,, P. Park, and, B. Scott. 2006. Reactive oxygen species play a role in regulating a fungus-perennial ryegrass mutualistic interaction. Plant Cell 18: 10521066.
137. Tanaka, A.,, D. Takemoto,, G. S. Hyon,, P. Park, and, B. Scott. 2008. NoxA activation by the small GTPase RacA is required to maintain a mutualistic symbiotic association between Epichloe festucae and perennial ryegrass. Mol. Micro-biol. 68: 11651178.
138. Tanaka, A.,, B. A. Tapper,, A. Popay,, E. J. Parker, and, B. Scott. 2005. A symbiosis expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from a mutualistic fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass confers protection to the symbiotum from insect herbivory. Mol. Microbiol. 57: 10361050.
139. Tapper, B. A., and, G. C. M. Latch. 1999. Selection against toxin production in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass, p. 107–111. In D. R. Woodfield and, C. Matthew (ed.), Ryegrass Endophyte: an Essential New Zealand Symbiosis. Grasslands Research and Practice Series No 7. New Zealand Grassland Association, Napier, New Zealand.
140. Thompson, F. N.,, J. A. Stuedemann, and, N. S. Hill. 2001. Anti-quality factors associated with alkaloids in eastern temperate pasture. J. Range Manage. 54: 474489.
141. Tsai, H.-F.,, H. Wang,, J. C. Gebler,, C. D. Poulter, and, C. L. Schardl. 1995. The Claviceps purpurea gene encoding dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, the committed step for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 216: 119125.
142. Tsai, H.-F.,, J.-S. Liu,, C. Staben,, M. J. Christensen,, G. C. M. Latch,, M. R. Siegel, and, C. L. Schardl. 1994. Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichloë species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 25422546.
143. Tudzynski, P.,, K. Hölter,, T. Correia,, C. Arntz,, N. Grammel, and, U. Keller. 1999. Evidence for an ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea. Mol. Gen. Genet. 261: 133141.
144. Van Santen, E., and, D. A. Sleper. 1996. Orchardgrass, p. 509–510. In L. E. Moser,, D. R. Buxton, and, M. D. Casler (ed.), Cool-Season Forage Grasses. Agron. Monograph no.34. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI.
145. Wang, J.,, C. Machado,, D. G. Panaccione,, H.-F. Tsai, and, C. L. Schardl. 2004. The determinant step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis by an endophyte of perennial ryegrass. Fungal Genet. Biol. 41: 189198.
146. Watson, R. H.,, M. A. McCann,, J. A. Parish,, C. S. Hoveland,, F. N. Thompson, and, J. H. Bouton. 2004. Productivity of cow-calf pairs grazing tall fescue pastures infected with either the wild-type endophyte or a nonergot alkaloid-producing endophyte strain, AR542. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 33883393.
147. Weedon, C. M., and, P. G. Mantle. 1987. Paxilline biosynthesis by Acremonium loliae; a step towards defining the origin of lolitrem neurotoxins. Phytochemistry 26: 969971.
148. Wilkinson, H. H., and, C. L. Schardl. 1997. The evolution of mutualism in grass-endophyte associations, p. 13–25. In C. W. Bacon and, N. S. Hill (ed.), Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
149. Wilkinson, H. H.,, A. Ramaswamy,, S. C. Sim, and, N. P. Keller. 2004. Increased conidiation associated with progression along the sterigmatocystin biosynthetic pathway. Mycologia 96: 11901198.
150. Wilkinson, H. H.,, M. R. Siegel,, J. D. Blankenship,, A. C. Mallory,, L. P. Bush, and, C. L. Schardl. 2000. Contribution of fungal loline alkaloids to protection from aphids in a grass-endophyte mutualism. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13: 10271033.
151. Woloshuk, C. P.,, K. R. Fount,, J. F. Brewer,, D. Bhatnagar,, T. E. Cleveland, and, G. A. Payne. 1994. Molecular char-acterisation of aflR, a regulatory locus for aflatoxin biosyn-thesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 24082414.
152. Yan, K.,, J. Yanling,, S. Xianghui,, Z. Lihui,, L. Wei,, Y. Hanshou, and, W. Zhiwei. 2009. Taxonomy of Neotyphodium endophytes of Chinese native Roegneria plants. Mycologia 101: 211219.
153. Young, C. A.,, L. McMillan,, E. Telfer, and, B. Scott. 2001. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of an indole-diterpene gene cluster from Penicillium paxilli. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 754764.
154. Young, C. A.,, B. A. Tapper,, K. May,, C. D. Moon,, C. L. Schardl, and, B. Scott. 2009. Indole-diterpene biosynthetic capability of epichloë endophytes as predicted by ltm gene analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 22002211.
155. Young, C. A.,, M. K. Bryant,, M. J. Christensen,, B. A. Tapper,, G. T. Bryan, and, B. Scott. 2005. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of a symbiosis-expressed gene cluster for lolitrem biosynthesis from a mutualistic endophyte of perennial ryegrass. Mol. Genet. Genomics 274: 1329.
156. Young, C. A.,, S. Felitti,, K. Shields,, G. Spangenberg,, R. D. Johnson,, G. T. Bryan,, S. Saikia, and, B. Scott. 2006. A complex gene cluster for indole-diterpene biosynthesis in the grass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43: 679693.
157. Zhang, N.,, V. Scott,, T. H. Al-Samarrai,, Y. Y. Tan,, M. J. Spiering,, L. K. McMillan,, G. A. Lane,, D. B. Scott,, M. J. Christensen, and, J. Schmid. 2006. Transformation of the ryegrass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii can alter its in planta mycelial morphology. Mycol. Res. 110: 601611.


Generic image for table

Characterization of epichloae

Citation: Young C, Wilkinson H. 2010. Epichloë Endophytes: Models of an Ecological Strategy, p 660-675. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch41

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error