Chapter 5 : Receptors

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Clathrin is critical for internalization of many viruses, yet no one would consider it a receptor; similarly, although encephalomyocarditis virus binds to glycophorin A on nonpermissive red blood cells, glycophorin is not expressed on most permissive cell lines and is unlikely to be the real receptor. The author suggests that a putative receptor molecule should fulfill two general criteria. First, the molecule must interact with virus at the cell surface. Second, interaction with the molecule must promote infection. The typical picornavirus capsid is an icosahedral structure constructed of 12 pentamers, with each pentamer composed of five copies of each of the four viral structural proteins, VP1 to -4. The first and simplest function of a receptor is to permit virus attachment and to concentrate the virus at the cell surface so that subsequent events in infection can occur. Unlike most enteroviruses, which have evolved to resist gastric acidity as they move through the enteric tract, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and some rhinoviruses are destabilized by acid. Virus receptors may also transmit intracellular signals that are important for infection. The same surface loop that displays the RGD motif is also a major site recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) functions in cell-cell adhesion, mediating both homotypic and heterotypic interactions. The murine CAR homolog is a functional coxsackie B viruses (CVB) receptor and is most likely responsible for the susceptibility of mice to CVB infection.

Citation: Bergelson J. 2010. Receptors, p 73-86. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch5
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Diverse structures of picornavirus receptor molecules. Important structural features of each receptor are indicated, with asterisks marking sites of virus attachment. PVR, ICAM-1, and CAR are members of the Ig superfamily. The hepatitis A virus receptor TIM-1 is composed of a single Ig domain atop a series of mucin-like repeats. DAF is linked to the membrane by a glycolipid (gpi) anchor; enterovirus 70 binds specifically to the N-terminal SCR domain, but other picornaviruses interact primarily with other SCRs. VLA-2 and αβ are integrins, which are heterodimers composed of α and β subunits: VLA-2 α includes an extra domain, the I-domain, which serves as the attachment site for EV1; αβ recognizes viral RGD peptides, which are bound at the interface between the two subunits. Members of the LDLR family are characterized by cysteine-rich N-terminal repeats, which are recognized by minor group HRVs. PSGL-1 is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed largely of mucin-like repeats; the projecting N-terminal peptide, which is characterized by sulfated tyrosine residues, is the attachment site for enterovirus 71. SCARB2 is a type III glycoprotein with two transmembrane segments; the structure of the virus-binding extracellular domain has not been determined.

Citation: Bergelson J. 2010. Receptors, p 73-86. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch5
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Picornavirus interaction with receptors. (A to E) Viruses that bind receptors within the canyon. (F to I) Viruses that bind receptors outside the canyon. (A) Structure of PV1 as determined by X-ray crystallography. The canyon surrounds a star-shaped prominence at the five-fold axis. (B) PV1 bound to soluble PVR, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction; the PVR N terminus is inserted in the canyon. (C) HRV16 bound to soluble ICAM-1. (D) CVB3 bound to CAR. (E) Model of receptor interaction with the canyon. ICAM-1 binds first to the south wall of the canyon ( ). Subsequent interaction with the north wall of the canyon leads to a conformational change in VP1, with displacement of the pocket factor ( ). Formation of a channel at the five-fold axis may permit exit of VP4, the VP1 N terminus, and RNA. (F) Structure of EV7 bound to DAF; DAF lies across the virus surface, near the two-fold axis of symmetry, but does not interact with the canyon. (G) HRV2 structure as determined by X-ray crystallography. (H) HRV2 bound to soluble fragments of the VLDLR. (I) Difference map showing VLDLR fragments forming a “crown” at the five-fold axis. (The model in panel A was provided by J.-Y. Sgro [http://virology.wisc.edu/virusworld]. Panels B and C are reprinted with permission from reference [copyright 2000, National Academy of Sciences, USA]. Panel D is reprinted with permission from reference [MacMillan Publishers Ltd., copyright 1999]. Panel E has been modified from a model reported in reference . Panel F is reprinted with permission from reference [copyright 2002, National Academy of Sciences, USA]. Panels G to I are reprinted with permission from reference [MacMillan Publishers Ltd., copyright 2000].)

Citation: Bergelson J. 2010. Receptors, p 73-86. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch5
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Generic image for table
Table 1.

Picornavirus receptors

Citation: Bergelson J. 2010. Receptors, p 73-86. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch5

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