Chapter 22 : Group B Coxsackievirus Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Group B Coxsackievirus Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816698/9781555816032_Chap22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816698/9781555816032_Chap22-2.gif


Two groups of coxsackieviruses, A and B, were subsequently defined according to their pathogenicity in suckling mice: the group A coxsackieviruses caused generalized myositis, while the coxsackieviruses group B (CVB) resulted in multiorgan infections. This chapter focuses on CVB, because this group includes major human pathogens and because extensive pathogenesis studies have been carried out on a number of viruses in this group. The chapter reviews salient aspects of CVB pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent findings related to CVB4 and CVB3. Recent reviews have examined the cell's responses to CVB infection in depth. Given the distance that an RNA virus genome can randomly wander in sequence space in a short length of time, comparing contemporary strains in such studies may be necessary when mapping genetic determinants of virulence. A mechanism by which enteroviruses can persist at low levels has been identified by recent work in which enteroviral RNA with genomic terminal deletions was detected in naturally infected human heart as well as in an experimental murine model of chronic myocarditis. Evidence from a murine model of myocarditis as well as a human case of myocarditis shows that the form in which CVB persist in the heart is through selection of a defective form of the virus with 5'- terminal deletions.

Citation: Tracy S, Chapman N. 2010. Group B Coxsackievirus Diseases, p 353-368. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch22
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Adachi, K.,, A. Muriashi,, Y. Seki,, K. Yamaki, and, M. Yoshizuka. 1996. Coxsackievirus B3 genomes detected by polymerase chain reaction: evidence of latent persistency in the myocardium in experimental murine myocarditis. Histol. Histopathol. 11: 587596.
2. Akerblom, H. K.,, O. Vaarala,, H. Hyoty,, J. Ilonen, and, M. Knip. 2002. Environmental factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. Am. J. Med. Genet. 115: 1829.
3. Anderson, D.,, J. Wlison,, C. Carthy,, D. Yang,, R. Kandolf, and, B. McManus. 1996. Direct interactions of coxsackievirus B3 with immune cells in the splenic compartment of mice susceptible or resistant to myocarditis. J. Virol. 70: 46324645.
4. Antona, D.,, N. Leveque,, J. Chomel,, S. Dubrou,, D. Levy-Bruhl, and, B. Lina. 2007. Surveillance of enteroviruses in France, 2002-2004. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26: 403412.
5. Arnesjo, B.,, T. Eden,, I. Ihse,, E. Nordenfelt, and, B. Ursing. 1976. Enterovirus infections in acute pancreatitis: a possible etiological connection. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 645649.
6. Asher, D. R.,, A. M. Cerny, and, R. W. Finberg. 2005. The erythrocyte viral trap: transgenic expression of viral receptor on erythrocytes attenuates coxsackievirus B infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 1289712902.
7. Asher, D.,, A. Cerny,, S. Weiler,, J. Horner,, M. Keeler,, M. Neptune,, S. Jones,, R. Bronson,, R. Depinho, and, R. Finberg. 2005. Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor is essential for cardiomyocyte development. Genesis 42: 7785.
8. Atkinson, M. A., and, G. S. Eisenbarth. 2001. Type 1 diabetes: new perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet 358: 221229.
9. Ayach, B.,, K. Fuse,, T. Martino, and, P. Liu. 2003. Dissecting mechanisms of innate and acquired immunity in myocarditis. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 18: 175181.
10. Baboonian, C.,, M. Davies,, J. Booth, and, W. McKenna. 1997. Coxsackie B viruses and human heart disease. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223: 3152.
11. Badorff, C.,, G. H. Lee,, B. J. Lamphear,, M. E. Martone,, K. P. Campbell,, R. E. Rhoads, and, K. U. Knowlton. 1999. Enteroviral protease 2A cleaves dystrophin: evidence of cytoskeletal disruption in an acquired cardiomyopathy. Nat. Med. 5: 320326.
12. Baekkeskov, S., and, B. Hansen. 1991. Human diabetes: genetic, environmental, and autoimmune etiology. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 164: 143168.
13. Barnett, A. H.,, C. Eff,, R. Leslie, and, D. Pyke. 1981. Diabetes in identical twins. A study of 200 pairs. Diabetologia 20: 8793.
14. Bendinelli, M., and, H. Friedman. 1988. Coxsackieviruses: a General Update. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
15. Bergelson, J. M.,, J. A. Cunningham,, G. Droguett,, E. A. Kurt-Jones,, A. Krithivas,, J. S. Hong,, M. S. Horwitz,, R. L. Crowell, and, R. W. Finberg. 1997. Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 275: 13201323.
16. Bergelson, J. M.,, J. G. Mohanty,, R. L. Crowell,, N. F. St John,, D. F. Lublin, and, R. W. Finberg. 1995. Coxsackievirus B3 adapted to growth in RD cells binds to decay-accelerating factor (CD55). J. Virol. 69: 19031906.
17. Bonderoff, J. M., and, R. E. Lloyd. 2008. CVB translation: lessons from poliovirus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 123148.
18. Brunner, J. E.,, J. H. Nguyen,, H. H. Roehl,, T. V. Ho,, K. M. Swiderek, and, B. L. Semler. 2005. Functional interaction of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C with poliovirus RNA synthesis initiation complexes. J. Virol. 79: 32543266.
19. Cabrera-Rode, E.,, L. Sarmiento,, G. Molina,, C. Perez,, C. Arranz,, J. A. Galvan,, M. Prieto,, J. Barrios,, R. Palomera,, M. Fonseca,, P. Mas,, O. Diaz-Diaz, and, O. Diaz-Horta. 2005. Islet cell related antibodies and type 1 diabetes associated with echovirus 30 epidemic: a case report. J. Med. Virol. 76: 373377.
20. Cabrera-Rode, E.,, L. Sarmiento,, C. Tiberti,, G. Molina,, J. Barrios,, D. Hernandez,, O. Diaz-Horta, and, U. Di Mario. 2003. Type 1 diabetes islet associated antibodies in subjects infected by echovirus 16. Diabetologia 46: 13481353.
21. Caggana, M.,, P. Chan, and, A. L. Ramsingh. 1993. Identification of a single amino acid residue in the capsid protein VP1 of coxsackievirus B4 that determines the virulent phenotype. J. Virol. 67: 47974803.
22. Calabrese, F.,, A. Angelini,, G. Thiene,, C. Basso,, A. Nava, and, M. Valente. 2000. No detection of enteroviral genome in the myocardium of patients with arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J. Clin. Pathol. 53: 382387.
23. Calabrese, F.,, E. Rigo,, O. Milanesi,, G. Boffa,, A. Angelini,, M. Valente, and, G. Thiene. 2002. Molecular diagnosis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in children: clinicopatho-logic features and prognostic implications. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 11: 212221.
24. Carson, S.,, N. Chapman, and, S. Tracy. 1997. Purification of the putative coxsackievirus B receptor from HeLa cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 233: 325328.
25. Carturan, E.,, O. Milanesi,, Y. Kato,, C. Giacometti,, R. Biffanti,, G. Thiene, and, F. Calabrese. 2009. Viral detection and tumor necrosis factor alpha profile in tracheal aspirates from children with suspicion of myocarditis. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 17: 2127.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Enterovirus surveillance—United States, 2002-2004. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 153156.
27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Enterovirus surveillance—United States, 1997-1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 913916.
28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Increased detections and severe neonatal disease associated with coxsackievirus B1 infection—United States, 2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 553556.
29. Chapman, N.,, A. Ragland,, J. S. Leser,, K. Hofling,, S. Willian,, B. Semler, and, S. Tracy. 2000. A group B coxsackievirus/poliovirus 5′ nontranslated region chimera can act as an attenuated vaccine strain in mice. J. Virol. 74: 40474056.
30. Chapman, N.,, Z. Tu,, S. Tracy, and, C. Gauntt. 1994. An infectious cDNA copy of the genome of a non-cardiovirulent coxsackievirus B3 strain: its complete sequence analysis and comparison to the genomes of cardiovirulent coxsackieviruses. Arch. Virol. 135: 115130.
31. Chapman, N. M., and, K.-S. Kim. 2008. Persistent coxsackievirus infection: enterovirus persistence in chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 275292.
32. Chapman, N. M.,, K. S. Kim,, K. M. Drescher,, K. Oka, and, S. Tracy. 2008. 5′ terminal deletions in the genome of a coxsackievirus B2 strain occurred naturally in human heart. Virology 118: 20162024.
33. Chow, L.,, K. Beisel, and, B. McManus. 1992. Enteroviral infection of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency: evidence for direct viral pathogenesis of myocardial injury. Lab. Investig. 66: 2431.
34. Chow, L.,, C. Gauntt, and, B. McManus. 1991. Differential effects of myocarditic variants of coxsackievirus B3 in inbred mice. A pathologic characterization of heart tissue damage. Lab. Investig. 64: 5564.
35. Clemens, D. L., and, T. R. Jerrells. 2004. Ethanol consumption potentiates viral pancreatitis and may inhibit pancreas regeneration: preliminary findings. Alcohol 33: 183189.
36. Cole, C. N., and, D. Baltimore. 1973. Defective interfering particles of poliovirus. II. Nature of the defect. J. Mol. Biol. 76: 325343.
37. Craighead, J. E. 1975. The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of pancreatic disease and diabetes mellitus. Prog. Med. Virol. 19: 161214.
38. Crowell, R. L., and, B. J. Landau. 1997. A short history and introductory background on the coxsackieviruses of group B. Curr Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223: 111.
39. Dalldorf, G., and, G. Sickles. 1948. An unidentified, filtrable agent isolated from the feces of children with paralysis. Science 108: 6162.
40. Destombes, J.,, T. Couderc,, D. Thiesson,, S. Girard,, S. G. Wilt, and, B. Blondel. 1997. Persistent poliovirus infection in mouse motoneurons. J. Virol. 71: 16211628.
41. Diaz-Horta, O.,, M. Bello,, E. Cabrera-Rode,, J. Suarez,, P. Mas,, I. Garcia,, I. Abalos,, R. Jofra,, G. Molina,, O. Diaz-Diaz, and, U. Di Mario. 2001. Echovirus 4 and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Autoimmunity 34: 275281.
42. Dimmock, N. J. 1991. The biological significance of defective interfering viruses. Rev. Med. Virol. 1: 165176.
43. Disney, M. E.,, E. M. Howard, and, B. S. B. Wood. 1953. Myocarditis in children. Br. Med. J. I: 13511354.
44. Domingo, E.,, V. Martin,, C. Perales, and, C. Escarmis. 2008. Coxsackieviruses and quasispecies theory: evolution of enteroviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 332.
45. Domingo, E.,, V. Martin,, C. Perales,, A. Grande-Perez,, J. Garcia-Arriaza, and, A. Arias. 2006. Viruses as quasispecies: biological implications. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 299: 5182.
46. Dorner, A.,, F. Wegmann,, S. Butz,, K. Wolburg-Buchholz,, H. Wolburg,, A. Mack,, I. Nasdala, et al. 2005. Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for early embryonic development. J. Cell Sci. 118: 35093521.
47. Dotta, F.,, S. Censini,, A. G. van Halteren,, L. Marselli,, M. Ma-sini,, S. Dionisi,, F. Mosca,, U. Boggi,, A. O. Muda,, S. D. Prato,, J. F. Elliott,, A. Covacci,, R. Rappuoli,, B. O. Roep, and, P. Mar-chetti. 2007. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of beta cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 51155120.
48. Drescher, K. M.,, K. Kono,, S. Bopegamage,, S. D. Carson, and, S. Tracy. 2004. Coxsackievirus B3 infection and type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice: insulitis determines susceptibility of pancreatic islets to virus infection. Virology 329: 381394.
49. Drescher, K. M., and, S. Tracy. 2008. The CVB and etiology of type 1 diabetes. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 259274.
50. Duffy, D. 2007. Genetics determinants of diabetes are similarly associated with other immune-mediated diseases. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 7: 468474.
51. Dunn, G.,, S. Bradrick,, N. Chapman,, S. Tracy, and, J. Romero. 2003. The stem loop II within the 5′ nontranslated region of clinical coxsackievirus B3 genomes determines cardiovirulence phenotype in a murine model. J. Infect. Dis. 15: 15521561.
52. Dunn, J. J.,, N. M. Chapman,, S. Tracy, and, J. R. Romero. 2000. Natural genetics of cardiovirulence in coxsackievirus B3 clinical isolates: localization to the 5′ nontranslated region. J. Virol. 74: 47874794.
53. Eremenko, T.,, A. Benedetto, and, P. Volpe. 1972. Poliovirus replication during HeLa cell lifecycle. Nat. New Biol. 237: 114116.
54. Esfandiarei, M., and, B. McManus. 2008. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of viral myocarditis. Annu. Rev. Pathol. Mech. Dis. 3: 127155.
55. Fairweather, D.,, S. Frisancho-Kiss,, S. Gatewood,, D. Njoku,, R. Steele,, M. Barrett, and, N. R. Rose. 2004. Mast cells and innate cytokines are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune heart disease following coxsackievirus B3 infection. Autoimmunity 37: 131145.
56. Fairweather, D.,, S. Frisancho-Kiss, and, N. R. Rose. 2005. Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity: evidence from coxsack-ievirus-induced myocarditis. Rev. Med. Virol. 15: 1727.
57. Fairweather, D., and, N. R. Rose. 2007. Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis in mice: a model of autoimmune disease for studying immunotoxicity. Methods 41: 118122.
58. Fairweather, D.,, S. Yusung,, S. Frisancho,, M. Barrett,, S. Gatewood,, R. Steele, and, N. R. Rose. 2003. IL-12 receptor beta 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 increase IL-1 beta- and IL-18-associated myocarditis and coxsackievirus replication. J. Immunol. 170: 47314737.
59. Feuer, R.,, I. Mena,, R. Pagarigan,, M. Slifka, and, J. Whitton. 2002. Cell cycle status affects coxsackievirus replication, persistence, and reactivation in vitro. J. Virol. 76: 44304440.
60. Feuer, R., and, J. L. Whitton. 2008. Preferential coxsackievirus replication in proliferating/activated cells: implications for virus tropism, persistence, and pathogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 149173.
61. Filippi, C.,, E. Estes,, J. Oldham, and, M. von Herrath. 2009. Immunoregulatory mechanisms triggered by viral infections protect from type 1 diabetes in mice. J. Clin. Investig. 119: 15151523.
62. Freimuth, P.,, L. Philipson, and, S. D. Carson. 2008. The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 6788.
63. Frisancho-Kiss, S.,, M. Coronado,, S. Frisancho,, V. Lau,, N. R. Rose,, S. Klein, and, D. Fairweather. 2009. Gonadectomy of male BALB/c mice increases Tim-3 + alternatively activated M2 macrophages, Tim-3 + T cells, Th2 cells and Treg in the heart during acute coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis. Brain Behav. Immun. 23: 649657.
64. Frisancho-Kiss, S.,, J. Nyland,, S. Davis,, J. Frisanscho,, M. Barrett,, N. R. Rose, and, D. Fairweather. 2006. Sex differences in coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis: IL-12β1 signaling and IFN-γ increase inflammation in males independent from STAT-4. Brain Res. 1126: 139147.
65. Frossard, J.,, M. Steer, and, C. Pastor. 2008. Acute pancreatitis. Lancet 371: 143152.
66. Frustaci, A.,, C. Chimenti,, F. Calabrese,, M. Pieroni,, G. Thiene, and, A. Maseri. 2003. Immunosuppressive therapy for active lymphocytic myocarditis: virologic and immunologic profile of responders versus nonresponders. Circulation 107: 857863.
67. Fujioka, S.,, Y. Kitaura,, A. Ukimura,, H. Deguchi,, K. Kawamura,, T. Isomura,, H. Suma, and, A. Shimizu. 2000. Evaluation of viral infection in the myocardium of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 36: 19201926.
68. Gamble, D. R. 1976. A possible virus etiology for juvenile diabetes, p. 95–105. In W. Kreutzfeld,, J. Kobberling, and, J. Neel (ed.), The Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
69. Gauntt, C.,, M. Trousdale,, D. LaBadie,, R. E. Paque, and, T. Nealon. 1979. Properties of coxsackievirus B3 variants which are amyocarditic or myocarditic for mice. J. Med. Virol. 3: 207220.
70. Geller, T. J., and, D. Condie. 1995. A case of protracted coxsackievirus meningoencephalitis in a marginally immunodeficient child treated successfully with intravenous immunoglobulin. J. Neurol. Sci. 129: 131133.
71. Gluck, B.,, M. Schmidtke,, I. Merkle,, A. Stelzner, and, D. Gemsa. 2001. Persistent expression of cytokines in the chronic stage of CVB3-induced myocarditis in NMRI mice. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 33: 16151626.
72. Godeny, E., and, C. Gauntt. 1987. In situ immune autoradio-graphic identification of cells in heart tissues of mice with coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. Am. J. Pathol. 129: 267276.
73. Goodfellow, I.,, D. Kerrigan, and, D. Evans. 2003. Structure and function analysis of the poliovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE). RNA 9: 124137.
74. Grasso, M.,, E. Arbustini,, E. Silini,, M. Diegoli,, E. Percivalle,, G. Ratti,, M. Bramerio,, A. Gavazzi,, M. Vigano, and, G. Milanesi. 1992. Search for coxsackievirus B3 RNA in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy using gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Cardiol. 69: 658664.
75. Graves, P.,, J. Norris,, M. Hoffman,, L. Yu,, G. Eisenbarth, and, M. Rewers. 1999. Lack of association between early childhood immunizations and beta cell autoimmunity. Diabetes Care 22: 16941697.
76. Green, J.,, D. Casabonne, and, R. Newton. 2004. Coxsackie B virus serology and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of published case-control studies. Diabet. Med. 21: 507514.
77. Grist, N. R. 1972. Viruses and myocarditis. Postgrad. Med. J. 48: 750753.
78. Grun, K.,, B. Markova,, F. Bohmer,, A. Berndt,, H. Kosmehl, and, C. Leipner. 2005. Elevated expression of PDGF-C in coxsackievirus B3-induced chronic myocarditis. Eur. Heart J. 26: 728739.
79. Guarner, J.,, J. Bhatnagar,, W. Shieh,, K. Nolte,, D. Klein,, M. Gookin,, S. Penaranda,, M. S. Oberste,, T. Jones,, C. Smith,, M. A. Pallansch, and, S. Zaki. 2007. Histopathologic, immunohisto-chemical, and polymease chain reaction assays in the study of cases with fatal sporadic myocarditis. Hum. Pathol. 38: 14121419.
80. Hafenstein, S.,, V. Bowman,, P. Chipman,, C. Bator Kelly,, F. Lin,, M. Medof, and, M. G. Rossmann. 2007. Interaction of decay accelerating factor with coxsackievirus B3. J. Virol. 81: 1292712935.
81. Halim, S., and, A. I. Ramsingh. 2000. A point mutation in VP1 of coxsackievirus B4 alters antigenicity. Virology 269: 8694.
82. Haller, M. J.,, M. A. Atkinson, and, D. Schatz. 2005. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: etiology, presentation, and management. Pe-diatr. Clin. North Am. 52: 15531578.
83. Henke, A.,, S. Huber,, A. Stelzner, and, L. Whitton. 1995. The role of CD8 + T lymphocytes in coxsackievirus B3 induced myocarditis. J. Virol. 69: 67206728.
84. Hertel, N. T.,, F. K. Pedersen, and, C. Heilmann. 1989. Coxsackievirus B3 encephalitis in a patient with agammaglobulinemia. Eur. J. Pediatr. 148: 642643.
85. Hitman, G.,, J. Sachs,, P. Cassell,, J. Awad,, G. Bottazo,, A. Tarn,, G. Schwartz,, J. Monson, and, H. Festenstein. 1986. A DR3 related DXα gene polymorphism strongly associates with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Immunogenetics 23: 4751.
86. Holland, J. J. 1990. Defective viral genomes, p. 151–165. In B. N. Fields and, D. M. Knipe (ed.), Fields Virology, 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York, NY.
87. Huber, S. 1997. Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis is dependent on distinct immunopathogenic responses in different strains of mice. Lab. Investig. 76: 691701.
88. Huber, S. 2009. Depletion of γδ + T cells increases CD4 + FoxP3 (T regulatory) cell response in coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. Immunology 127: 567576.
89. Huber, S. 2008. Host immune responses to coxsackievirus B3. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 199223.
90. Huber, S.,, J. Polgar,, A. Moraska,, M. Cunningham,, P. L. Schwimmbeck, and, H. Schultheiss. 1993. T lymphocyte responses in CVB3-induced murine myocarditis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 88: 6778.
91. Huber, S. A., and, L. P. Job. 1983. Cellular immune mechanisms in coxsackievirus group B, type 3 induced myocarditis in BALB/c mice. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 161: 491508.
92. Hufnagel, G.,, N. Chapman, and, S. Tracy. 1995. A non-cardiovirulent strain of coxsackievirus B3 causes myocarditis in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. Eur. Heart J. 16: 1819.
93. Hviid, A.,, S. Wohlfahrt, and, M. Melbye. 2004. Childhood vaccination and type 1 diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 350: 13981404.
94. Imrie, C. W.,, J. Ferguson, and, R. Sommerville. 1977. Coxsackie and mumps virus infection in a prospective study of acute pancreatitis. Gut 18: 5356.
95. Jenson, A., and, H. Rosenberg. 1984. Multiple viruses in diabetes mellitus. Prog. Med. Virol. 29: 197217.
96. Jerrells, T. R.,, N. Chapman, and, D. Clemens. 2003. Animal model of alcoholic pancreatitis: role of viral infections. Pancreas 27: 301304.
97. Jerrells, T. R.,, D. Vidlak, and, J. Strachota. 2007. Alcoholic pancreatitis: mechanisms of viral infections as cofactors in the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis and fibrosis. J. Leukoc. Biol. 81: 430439.
98. Johnson, J.,, R. Yolken,, D. Goodman,, J. Winkelstein, and, J. Nagel. 1982. Prolonged excretion of group A coxsackievirus in an infant with agammaglobulinemia. J. Infect. Dis. 146: 712.
99. Kalleward, N.,, L. Zhang,, J. Chen,, M. Guttenberg,, M. Sanchez, and, J. Bergelson. 2009. Tissue-specific deletion of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor protects mice from virus-induced pancreatitis and myocarditis. Cell Host Microbe 6: 9198.
100. Kandolf, R., and, P. Hofschneider. 1985. Molecular cloning of the genome of a cardiotropic coxsackie B3 virus: full-length reverse-transcribed recombinant cDNA generates infectious virus in mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 48184822.
101. Kang, J.,, N. Chatterjee,, M. Nodwell, and, J. Yoon. 1994. Complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of coxsackie B4 virus of human origin that induces diabetes in mice and its comparison with nondiabetogenic coxsackie B4 JBV strain. J. Med. Virol. 44: 353361.
102. Kanno, T.,, K. Kim,, K. Kono,, K. M. Drescher,, N. M. Chapman, and, S. Tracy. 2006. Group B coxsackievirus diabetogenic phenotype correlates with replication efficiency. J. Virol. 80: 56375643.
103. Karvonen, M.,, J. Rusanen,, M. Sundberg,, E. Virtala,, A. Colxpaert,, A. Naukarinen, and, J. Tuomilehto. 1997. Regional differences in the incidence of childhood insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among children in Finland between 1987 to 1991. Ann. Med. 29: 297304.
104. Kawai, S. 1999. From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death. Circulation 99: 10911100.
105. Khetsuriani, N.,, A. Lamonte,, M. S. Oberste, and, M. A. Pallansch. 2006. Neonatal enterovirus infections reported to the national enterovirus surveillance system in the United States, 1983-2003. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 25: 889893.
106. Khetsuriani, N.,, A. Lamonte-Fowlkes,, S. Oberst, and, M. A. Pallansch. 2006. Enterovirus surveillance—United States 1970-2005. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 15: 120.
107. Kibrick, S., and, K. Benirschke. 1958. Severe generalized disease (encephalohepatomyocarditis) occurring in the newborn period and due to infection with coxsackie virus, group B. Pediatrics 22: 857875.
108. Kim, K. S.,, N. M. Chapman, and, S. Tracy. 2008. Replication of coxsackievirus B3 in primary cell cultures generates novel viral genome deletions. J. Virol. 82: 20332037.
109. Kim, K. S.,, S. Tracy,, W. Tapprich,, J. Bailey,, C. K. Lee,, K. Kim,, W. H. Barry, and, N. M. Chapman. 2005. 5′-terminal deletions occur in coxsackievirus B3 during replication in murine hearts and cardiac myocyte cultures and correlate with encapsidation of negative-strand viral RNA. J. Virol. 79: 70247041.
110. Kindermann, I.,, M. Kindermann,, R. Kandolf,, K. Klingel,, B. Bultmann,, T. Muller,, A. Lindinger, and, M. Bohm. 2008. Predictors of outcome in patients with suspected myocarditis. Circulation 118: 639648.
111. Klingel, K.,, C. Hohenadl,, A. Canu,, M. Albrecht,, M. Seemann,, G. Mall, and, R. Kandolf. 1992. Ongoing enterovirus-induced myocarditis is associated with persistent heart muscle infection: quantitative analysis of virus replication, tissue damage, and inflammation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 314318.
112. Klingel, K., and, R. Kandolf. 1996. Molecular in situ localization techniques in diagnosis and pathogenicity studies of enteroviral heart disease. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 5: 157166.
113. Klingel, K., and, R. Kandolf. 1993. The role of enterovirus replication in the development of acute and chronic heart muscle disease in different immunocompetent mouse strains. Scand. J Infect. Dis. Suppl. 88: 7985.
114. Klingel, K.,, S. Stephan,, M. Sauter,, R. Zell,, B. McManus,, B. Bultmann, and, R. Kandolf. 1996. Pathogenesis of murine enterovirus myocarditis: virus dissemination and immune cell targets. J. Virol. 70: 88888895.
115. Knip, M., and, H. K. Akerblom. 1999. Environmental factors in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 107 (Suppl. 3): S93S100.
116. Knowlton, K. 2008. CVB infection and mechanisms of viral cardiomyopathy. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 315336.
117. Knowlton, K.,, E. S. Jeon,, N. Berkley,, R. Wessely, and, S. Huber. 1996. A mutation in the puff region of VP2 attenuates the myocarditic phenotype of an infectious cDNA of the Woodruff variant of coxsackievirus B3. J. Virol. 70: 78117818.
118. Kolb, H., and, R. B. Elliott. 1994. Increasing incidence of IDDM a consequence of improved hygiene? Diabetologia 37: 729731.
119. Kuethe, F.,, H. Sigusch,, K. Hilbig,, C. Tresselt,, B. Gluck,, R. Egerer, and, H. Figulla. 2007. Detection of viral genome in the myocardium: lack of prognostic and functional relevance in patients with acute dilated cardiomyopathy. Am. J. Heart 153: 850858.
120. Lal, S.,, D. Fowler,, C. Losasso, and, G. Berg. 1988. Coxsackie virus-induced acute pancreatitis in a long-term dialysis patient. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 11: 434436.
121. Lee, C.-K.,, K. Kono,, E. Haas,, K.-S. Kim,, K. M. Drescher,, N. M. Chapman, and, S. Tracy. 2005. Characterization of an infectious cDNA copy of the genome of a naturally occurring, avirulent coxsackievirus B3 clinical isolate. J. Gen. Virol. 86: 197210.
122. Lee, C.,, E. Maull,, N. Chapman,, S. Tracy,, G. Wood, and, C. Gauntt. 1997. Generation of an infectious cDNA of a highly cardiovirulent coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3m) and comparison to other infectious CVB3 cDNAs. Virus Res. 50: 225235.
123. Leipner, C.,, K. Grun,, A. Muller,, E. Buchdunger,, L. Borsi,, H. Kosmehl,, A. Berndt,, T. Janik,, A. Uekcer,, M. Kiehntopf, and, F. Bohmer. 2008. Imatinib mesylate attenuates fibrosis in coxsackievirus B3-induced chronic myocarditis. Cardiovasc. Res. 79: 118126.
124. Leslie, K.,, R. Blay,, C. Haisch,, A. Lodge,, A. Weller, and, S. A. Huber. 1989. Clinical and experimental aspects of viral myocarditis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2: 191203.
125. Li, K.,, W. ZXu,, Q. Guo,, Z. Jiang,, P. Wang,, Y. Yue, and, S. Xiong. 2009. Differential macrophage polarization in male and female BALB/c mice infected with coxsackievirus B3 defines susceptibility to viral myocarditis. Circ. Res. 105: 353364.
126. Lodge, P.,, M. Herzum,, J. Olszewski, and, S. Huber. 1987. Coxsackievirus B-3 myocarditis. Acute and chronic forms of the disease caused by different immunopathogenic mechanisms. Am. J. Pathol. 128: 455463.
127. Longson, M.,, F. Cole, and, D. Davies. 1969. Isolation of a coxsackievirus group B, type 5, from the heart of a fatal case of myocarditis in an adult. J. Clin. Pathol. 22: 654658.
128. Lyons, T.,, K. Murray,, A. Roberts, and, D. Barton. 2001. Poliovirus 5′-terminal cloverleaf RNA is required in cis for VPg uridylylation and the initiation of negative-strand RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 75: 1069610678.
129. Mahon, N.,, B. Zal,, G. Arno,, P. Risley,, J. Pinto-Basto,, W. McKenna,, M. Davies, and, C. Baboonian. 2001. Absence of viral nucleic acids in early and late dilated cardiomyopathy. Heart 86: 687692.
130. Mantovani, N.,, A. Sica,, S. Sozzani,, P. Allavena,, A. Vecchi, and, M. Locati. 2004. The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol. 25: 677686.
131. Maria, H.,, A. Elshebani,, O. Anders,, T. Torsten, and, F. Gun. 2005. Simultaneous type 1 diabetes onset in mother and son coincident with an enteroviral infection. J. Clin. Virol. 33: 158167.
132. Medof, M.,, T. Kinoshita,, R. Silber, and, V. Nussenzweig. 1985. Amelioration of lytic abnormalities of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria with decay-accelerating factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 29802984.
133. Mena, I.,, C. Perry,, S. Harkins,, F. Rodriguez,, J. Gebhard, and, J. Whitton. 1999. The role of B lymphocytes in coxsackievirus B3 infection. Am. J. Pathol. 155: 12051215.
134. Minor, P. D. 1992. The molecular biology of poliovaccines. J. Gen. Virol. 73: 30653077.
135. Misbah, S.,, G. Spickett,, P. Ryba,, J. Hockaday,, J. Kroll,, C. Sherwood,, J. Kurtz,, E. Moxon, and, H. Chapel. 1992. Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemia: case report and literature review. J. Clin. Immunol. 12: 266270.
136. Mogensen, T. 2009. Pathogen recognition and inflammatory signaling in innate immune defenses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 22: 240273.
137. Morasco, B. J.,, N. Sharma,, J. Parilla, and, J. B. Flanegan. 2003. Poliovirus cre(2C)-dependent synthesis of VPgpUpU is required for positive- but not negative-strand RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 77: 51365144.
138. Moya-Suri, V.,, M. Schlosser,, K. Zimmermann,, I. Rjasanowski,, L. Gurtler, and, R. Mentel. 2005. Enterovirus RNA sequences in sera of schoolchildren in the general population and their association with type 1-diabetes-associated autoantibodies. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 879883.
139. Mucklebaur, J. K., and, M. G. Rossmann. 1997. The structure of coxsackievirus B3. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223: 191208.
140. Nairn, C.,, D. Galbraith,, K. Taylor, and, G. B. Clements. 1999. Enterovirus variants in the serum of children at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet. Med. 16: 509513.
141. Nathanson, N. 2008. The pathogenesis of poliomyelitis: what we don’t know. Adv. Virus Res. 71: 342.
142. Nathanson, N., and, J. Martin. 1979. The epidemiology of poliomyelitis: enigmas surrounding its appearance, epidemicity, and disappearance. Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 672692.
143. Negishi, H.,, T. Osawa,, K. Ogami,, X. Ouynag,, S. Sakaguchi,, R. Koshiba,, H. Yanai,, Y. Seko,, H. Shitara,, K. Bishop,, H. Yonekawa,, T. Tamura,, T. Kaisho,, C. Taya,, T. Taniguchi, and, K. Honda. 2008. A critical link between Toll-like receptor 3 and type II interferon signaling pathways in antiviral innate immunity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 2044620451.
144. Okuno, M.,, M. Nakagawa,, M. Shimada,, M. Saito,, S. Hishinuma, and, K. Yamauchi-Takihara. 2000. Expressional patterns of cytokines in a murine model of acute myocarditis: early expression of cardiotrophin-1. Lab. Investig. 80: 433440.
145. Opavsky, M. A.,, J. Penninger,, K. Aitken,, W. Wen,, F. Dawood,, T. Mak, and, P. Liu. 1999. Susceptibility to myocarditis is dependent on the response of the alpha beta T lymphocytes to coxsackieviral infection. Circ. Res. 85: 551558.
146. Ostrowski, S.,, A. Reilly,, D. Collins, and, A. I. Ramsingh. 2004. Progression or resolution of coxsackievirus B4 induced pancreatitis: a genomic analysis. J. Virol. 78: 82298237.
147. Otonkoski, T.,, M. Roivainen,, O. Vaarala,, B. Dinesen,, J. Lei-pala,, L. Hix, and, M. Knip. 2000. Neonatal type I diabetes associated with maternal echovirus 6 infection: a case report. Diabetologia 43: 12351238.
148. Ozsvar, Z.,, J. Deak, and, A. Pap. 1992. Possible role of coxsackie B virus infection in pancreatitis. Int. J. Pancreatol. 11: 105108.
149. Pallansch, M. 1997. Coxsackievirus B epidemiology and public health concerns. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223: 1330.
150. Pallansch, M. A., and, R. Roos. 2007. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses and newer enteroviruses, p. 839–893. In D. M. Knipe (ed.), Fields Virology, vol. 1. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, PA.
151. Parenti, D.,, W. Steinberg, and, P. Kang. 1996. Infectious causes of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 13: 356371.
152. Paul, A.,, J. Yin,, J. Mugavero,, E. Rieder,, Y. Liu, and, E. Wimmer. 2003. A “slide-back” mechanism for the initiation of protein-primed RNA synthesis by the RNA polymerase of poliovirus. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 4395143960.
153. Peng, T. L.,, Y., Y. Yang,, C. Niu,, P. Morgan-Capner,, L. C. Archard, and, H. Zhang. 2000. Characterization of entero-virus isolates from patients with heart muscle disease in a selenium-deficient area of China. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 35383543.
154. Rabausch-Stark, I.,, A. Schwaiger,, K. Grunewald,, H.-K. Muller-Hermelink, and, N. Neu. 1994. Persistence of virus and viral genome in myocardium after coxsackievirus B3 murine myocarditis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 96: 6974.
155. Racaniello, V. R. 2006. One hundred years of poliovirus pathogenesis. Virology 344: 916.
156. Ramsingh, A.,, A. Hixson,, B. Duceman, and, J. Slack. 1990. Evidence suggesting that virulence maps to the P1 region of the coxsackievirus B4 genome. J. Virol. 64: 30783081.
157. Ramsingh, A.,, J. Salck,, M. Silkworth, and, A. Hixson. 1989. Severity of disease induced by a pancreotropic coxsackie B4 virus correlates with the H2Kq locus of the major histocompatibility complex. Virus Res. 14: 347358.
158. Ramsingh, A. I. 1997. Coxsackievirus and pancreatitis. Front. Biosci. 2: 5362.
159. Ramsingh, A. I. 2008. CVB-induced pancreatitis and alterations in gene expression. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 241258.
160. Ravel, G.,, C. Liberge,, R. Burnett, and, J. Descotes. 2003. Effects of two pediatric vaccines on autoimmune diabetes in NOD female mice. Toxicol. Lett. 146: 93100.
161. Reetoo, K.,, S. Osman,, S. Illavia,, C. Cameron-Wilson,, J. Banatvala, and, P. Muir. 2000. Quantitative analysis of viral RNA kinetics in coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis: biphasic pattern of clearance following acute infection, with persistence of residual viral RNA throughout and beyond the inflammatory phase of disease. J. Gen. Virol. 81: 27552762.
162. Richardson, S.,, A. Willcox,, A. Bone,, A. Foulis, and, N. Morgan. 2009. The prevalence of enteroviral capsid protein VP1 immunostaining in pancreatic islets in human type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 52: 11431151.
163. Richer, M.,, D. Lavallee,, I. Shanina, and, M. Horwitz. 2009. Toll-like receptor 3 signaling on macrophages is required for survival following coxsackievirus B4 infection. PLos One 4: e4127.
164. Roep, B.,, M. A. Atkinson, and, M. G. von Herrath. 2004. Satisfaction (not) guaranteed: re-evaluating the use of animal models of type 1 diabetes. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4: 989997.
165. Roep, B. O. 2007. Are insights gained from NOD mice sufficient to guide clinical translation? Another inconvenient truth. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1103: 110.
166. Roivainen, M. 2006. Enteroviruses: new findings on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 38: 721725.
167. Romero, J.,, C. Price, and, J. Dunn. 1997. Genetic divergence among group B coxsackieviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223: 97152.
168. Romero, J. R. 2008. Pediatric group B coxsackievirus infections. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 223239.
169. Rose, N. R.,, D. A. Neumann, and, A. Herskowitz. 1988. Genetics of susceptibility to viral myocarditis in mice. Pathol. Immunopathol. Res. 7: 266278.
170. Rotter, J.,, C. Vadheim, and, D. Rimoin. 1990. Genetics of diabetes mellitus, p. 378–413. In H. Rifkin and, D. Porte (ed.), Diabetes Mellitus: Theory and Practice, 4th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
171. Sabin, A. B. 1955. Characteristics and genetic potentialities of experimentally produced and naturally occurring variants of poliomyelitis virus. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 61: 924939.
172. Satoh, M.,, T. Akatsu,, Y. Ishikawa,, Y. Minami,, Y. Takahashi, and, M. Nakamura. 2007. Association between toll-like receptor 8 expression and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with enterovirus-associated dilated cardiomyopathy. Am. Heart J. 154: 581588.
173. Schnurr, D. P., and, N. J. Schmidt. 1984. Coxsackievirus B3 persistence and myocarditis in NFR nu/nu and +/nu mice. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 173: 17.
174. Sean, P., and, B. Semler. 2008. Coxsackie B virus RNA replication: lessons from poliovirus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 89122.
175. Semler, B.,, V. Johnson, and, S. Tracy. 1986. A molecular recombinant plasmid from cDNA clones of poliovirus and coxsackievirus produces an infectious virus that is temperature sensitive. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 17771781.
176. Serreze, D. V.,, E. W. Ottendorfer,, T. M. Ellis,, C. J. Gauntt, and, M. A. Atkinson. 2000. Acceleration of type 1 diabetes by a coxsackievirus infection requires a preexisting critical mass of autoreactive T-cells in pancreatic islets. Diabetes 49: 708711.
177. Sharma, N.,, B. J. O’Donnell, and, J. B. Flanegan. 2005. 3′-terminal sequence in poliovirus negative-strand templates is the primary cis-acting element required for VPgpUpU-primed positive-strand initiation. J. Virol. 79: 35653577.
178. Sharma, N.,, S. Ogram,, B. Morasco,, A. Spear,, N. Chapman, and, J. B. Flanegan. 2009. Functional role of the 5′ terminal cloverleaf in coxsackievirus RNA replication. Virology 393: 238249.
179. Shen, Y.,, Y. Xu,, Y. Chu,, W. Y.,, Q. Liu, and, S. Xiong. 2004. Coxsackievirus group B type 3 infection upregulates expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in cardiac myocytes, which leads to enhanced migration of mononu-clear cells in viral myocarditis. J. Virol. 78: 1254812556.
180. Shi, Y.,, C. C.,, U. Lisewki,, U. Wrackmeyer,, M. Radke,, D. Westermann,, M. Sauter,, C. Tschoppe, et al. 2009. Cardiac deletion of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor abolishes coxsackievirus B3 infection and prevents myocarditis in vivo. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 53: 12191226.
181. Shi, Y.,, C. Chen,, U. Lisewski,, U. Wrackmeyer,, M. Radke,, D. Westermann,, M. Sauter,, C. Tschoppe,, W. Poller,, K. Klingel, and, M. Gotthardt. 2009. Cardiac deletion of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor abolishes coxsackievirus B3 infection and prevents myocarditis in vivo. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 53: 12191226.
182. Smith, C.,, G. Clements,, M. Riding,, P. Collins,, G. Bottazo, and, K. Taylor. 1998. Simultaneous onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in identical infant twins with enterovirus infection. Diabet. Med. 15: 515517.
183. Soonpaa, M., and, L. Field. 1998. Survey of studies examining mammalian cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis. Circ. Res. 83: 1526.
184. Suarez, M.,, G. Contreras, and, B. Fridlander. 1975. Multiplication of coxsackie B1 virus in synchronized HeLa cells. J. Virol. 16: 13371339.
185. Szalay, G.,, M. Sauter,, M. Haberland,, U. Zuegel,, A. Stein-meyer,, R. Kandolf, and, K. Klingel. 2009. Osteopontin: a fibrosis-related marker molecule in cardiac remodeling of enterovirus myocarditis in the susceptible host. Circ. Res. 104: 851859.
186. Szalay, G.,, M. Sauter,, J. Hald,, A. Weinzierl,, R. Kandolf, and, K. Klingel. 2006. Sustained nitric oxide synthesis contributes to immunopathology in ongoing myocarditis attributable to interleukin-10 disorders. Am. J. Pathol. 169: 20852093.
187. Tam, P. 2006. Coxsackievirus myocarditis: interplay between virus and host in the pathogenesis of heart disease. Viral Immunol. 19: 133146.
188. Tam, P., and, R. Messner. 1999. Molecular mechanisms of coxsackievirus persistence in chronic inflammatory myopathy: viral RNA persists through formation of a double-stranded complex without associated genomic mutations or evolution. J. Virol. 73: 1011310121.
189. Titchener, P. A.,, O. Jenkins,, T. M. Szopa,, K. W. Taylor, and, J. W. Almond. 1994. Complete nucleotide sequence of a beta-cell tropic variant of coxsackievirus B4. J. Med. Virol. 42: 369373.
190. Tomko, R.,, R. Xu, and, L. Philipson. 1997. HCAR and MCAR: the human and mouse cellular receptors for subgroup C adenoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 33523356.
191. Tracy, S.,, N. Chapman, and, B. Mahy. 1997. The coxsackie B viruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. vol. 223.
192. Tracy, S.,, N. Chapman, and, Z. Tu. 1992. Coxsackievirus B3 from an infectious cDNA copy of the genome is cardiovirulent in mice. Arch. Virol. 122: 399409.
193. Tracy, S.,, N. M. Chapman,, K. M. Drescher,, K. Kono, and, W. Tapprich. 2006. Evolution of virulence in picornaviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 299: 193210.
194. Tracy, S., and, K. M. Drescher. 2007. Coxsackievirus infections and NOD mice: relevant models of protection from, and induction of, type 1 diabetes. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1103: 143151.
195. Tracy, S., and, K. M. Drescher. 2010. Enteroviruses, type 1 diabetes, and hygiene: a complex relationship. Rev. Med. Virol. 20: 106116.
196. Tracy, S.,, K. M. Drescher,, N. M. Chapman,, K.-S. Kim,, S. D. Carson,, S. Pirruccello,, P. H. Lane,, J. R. Romero, and, J. S. Leser. 2002. Toward testing the hypothesis that group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) trigger insulin-dependent diabetes: inoculating nonobese diabetic mice with CVB markedly lowers diabetes incidence. J. Virol. 76: 1209712111.
197. Tracy, S., and, C. Gauntt. 2008. Group B coxsackievirus virulence. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 323: 4966.
198. Tracy, S.,, K. Hofling,, S. Pirruccello,, P. H. Lane,, S. M. Reyna, and, C. Gauntt. 2000. Group B coxsackievirus myocarditis and pancreatitis in mice: connection between viral virulence phenotypes. J. Med. Virol. 62: 7081.
199. Tracy, S.,, M. S. Oberste, and, K. M. Drescher. 2008. Group B coxsackieviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. vol. 323.
200. Tu, Z.,, N. Chapman,, G. Hufnagel,, S. Tracy,, J. R. Romero,, W. H. Barry,, K. Currey, and, B. Shapiro. 1995. The cardio-virulent phenotype of coxsackievirus B3 is determined at a single site in the genomic 5′ nontranslated region. J. Virol. 69: 46074618.
201. Ursing, B. 1973. Acute pancreatitis in coxsackie B infection. Br. Med. J. 3: 524525.
202. van Ooij, M. J.,, D. Vogt,, A. Paul,, C. Castro,, J. Kuijpers,, F. van Kuppeveld,, C. Cameron,, E. Wimmer,, R. Andino, and, W. Melchers. 2006. Structural and functional characterization of the coxsackievirus B3 CRE(2C): role of CRE(2C) in negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis. J. Gen. Virol. 87: 103113.
203. Verlinde, J.,, H. Van Tongeren, and, A. Kret. 1956. Myocarditis in newborns due to group B coxsackievirus: virus studies. Acta Pediatr. 187: 113118.
204. Viskari, H. R.,, P. Koskela,, M. Lonnrot,, S. Luonuansuu,, A. Reunanen,, M. Baer, and, H. Hyoty. 2000. Can enterovirus infections explain the increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes? Diabetes Care 23: 414416.
205. Vogel, S. N.,, K. A. Fitzgerald, and, M. J. Fenton. 2003. TLRs: differential adapter utilization by toll-like receptors mediates TLR-specific patterns of gene expression. Mol. Interv. 3: 466477.
206. von Herrath, M. G.,, R. S. Fujinami, and, J. Whitton. 2003. Microorganisms and autoimmunity: making the barren field fertile? Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 1: 151157.
207. Weinzierl, A.,, G. Szalay,, H. Wolburg,, M. Sauter,, H. Rammensee,, R. Kandolf,, S. Stevanovic, and, K. Klingel. 2008. Effective chemokine secretion by dendritic cells and expansion of cross-presenting CD4 -/CD8 + dendritic cells define a protective phenotype in the mouse model of coxsackievirus myocarditis. J. Virol. 82: 81498160.
208. Why, H.,, B. Meany,, P. Richardson,, E. Olsen,, N. Bowles,, M. Cunningham,, C. Freeke, and, L. Archard. 1994. Clinical and prognostic significance of detection of enteroviral RNA in the myocardium of patients with myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 89: 25822589.
209. Williams, C. H.,, S. Oikarinen,, S. Tauriainen,, K. Salminen,, H. Hyoty, and, G. Stanway. 2006. Molecular analysis of an echovirus 3 strain isolated from an individual concurrently with appearance of islet cell and IA-2 autoantibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 441448.
210. Willian, S.,, S. Tracy,, S. Leser,, J. Romero,, B. Shapiro, and, K. Currey. 2000. Mutations in a conserved enteroviral RNA oligonucleotide sequence affect positive strand viral RNA synthesis. Arch. Virol. 145: 20612086.
211. Wolfgram, L.,, K. Beisel,, A. Herskowitz, and, N. R. Rose. 1986. Variations in the susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis among different strains of mice. J. Immunol. 136: 18461852.
212. Woodruff, J. F. 1980. Viral myocarditis: a review. Am. J. Pathol. 101: 425484.
213. Xiong, D.,, T. Yajima,, B. K. Lim,, A. Stenbit,, A. Dublin,, N. D. Dalton,, D. Summers-Torres,, J. D. Molkentin,, H. Duplain,, R. Wessely,, J. Chen, and, K. U. Knowlton. 2007. Inducible cardiac-restricted expression of enteroviral protease 2A is sufficient to induce dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 115: 94102.
214. Yajima, T., and, K. R. Knowlton. 2009. Viral myocarditis from the perspective of the virus. Circulation 119: 26152624.
215. Yoon, J.,, M. Austin,, T. Onodera, and, A. Notkins. 1979. Isolation of a virus from the pancreas of a child with diabetic ketoacidosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 11731179.
216. Yuan, J.,, L. Liu,, T. Lim,, H. Zhang,, J. He,, E. Walker,, C. Shier, Wang,, Y. Su,, A. Sall,, B. McManus, and, D. Yang. 2009. CXCL10 inhibits viral replication through recruitment of natural killer cells in coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. Circ. Res. 104: 628638.
217. Zanone, M. M.,, E. Favaro,, P. G. Conaldi,, J. Greening,, A. Bottelli,, P. C. Perin,, N. J. Klein,, M. Peakman, and, G. Camussi. 2003. Persistent infection of human microvascular endothelial cells by coxsackie B viruses induces increased expression of adhesion molecules. J. Immunol. 171: 438446.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error