Chapter 101 : Adenoviruses

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Adenoviruses are of considerable interest as vectors for gene delivery and as emerging human pathogens. Adenovirus infections are common and ubiquitous. Adenovirus infections can be epidemic, endemic, or sporadic, with the pattern of circulation, specific syndrome, and severity varying by serotype, population, and route of exposure. Adenoviruses are best detected from affected sites early in the course of illness. Adenovirus-infected cells can be visualized by light microscopy as “smudge cells” in hematoxylin-and-eosinor Wright-Giemsa-stained tissues, fluid sediments, or cultures. Antigen detection can be used for the rapid detection of adenoviruses in respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal tract specimens. Adenoviruses in virtually all specimen types have been detected by PCR or other molecular methods, so the appropriate specimen depends largely on the associated disease. Cultivation of enteric adenoviruses is most successful in Graham 293 cells. Adenoviruses can be isolated by conventional tube culture or shell vial centrifugation culture (SVCC). Enteric adenoviruses can be detected in SVCC if appropriate cells lines are used, but other approaches are more sensitive and convenient. Detection of nonenteric adenoviruses in stools of immunocompromised patients can be achieved by generic enzyme immunoassay (EIA), generic PCR, or culture. Detection of adenoviruses from sites other than the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts is more straightforward for interpretation because virus is infrequently detected in the absence of disease.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
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Image of FIGURE 1

Model of an adenovirus particle. (Top) Exterior; (bottom) interior.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
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Image of FIGURE 2

Ultrastructure of adenovirus particles. (A) Transmission EM of hepatocyte nucleus containing complete (dark) and empty (clear) adenovirus particles; (B) direct EM of a cluster of adenovirus particles in stool from a child with diarrhea. Bar = 100 nm.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
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Image of FIGURE 3

Adenovirus antigen demonstrated in two cells of a nasopharyngeal aspirate by direct IF using a rhodamineconjugated antibody (yellow). Bar 5 40 μm.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
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Image of FIGURE 4

Adenovirus CPE in A549 cells. (A) Uninfected cells; (B) advanced adenovirus CPE. Magnification, × 100.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
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Generic image for table

Properties of the 51 human adenovirus serotypes by species characteristics

Modified from reference with permission of the publisher. ND, not yet determined.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
Generic image for table

Adenovirus diseases, associated serotypes, hosts, and suitable specimens

Modified from reference with permission of the publisher.

URI, upper respiratory illness.

NP, nasopharyngeal.

LRI, lower respiratory illness.

IP, immunocompromised persons.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101
Generic image for table

Representative commercial products available in the U.S. for detection of adenovirus infection

In vitro diagnostic use.

Research use only.

Citation: Robinson C, Echavarria M. 2011. Adenoviruses, p 1600-1611. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch101

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