Chapter 105 : Poxviruses

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This chapter deals with poxviruses belonging to the family and subfamily . The G+C contents of orthopoxviruses, yatapoxviruses, (MCV), and parapoxviruses are ~33, ~32, ~60, and ~63%, respectively. The zoonotic poxviruses include members of the genera (monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and the vaccinia virus subspecies, including buffalopox virus), (orf, pseudocowpox, sealpox, and papulosa stomatitis viruses), and (tanapox virus [TPV], Yaba monkey tumor virus [YMTV], and Yaba-like disease virus [YLDV]). Poxviruses produce inclusions that have characteristic appearances when stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin-eosin stains. Perinuclear basophilic or B-type cytoplasmic inclusions (virus factories or viroplasm) are observed with cells infected with any of the poxviruses and represent sites of virus replication. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is used by the WHO collaborating center (WHOCC) at the center for disease control (CDC) to detect poxvirus DNA in samples. Orthopoxviruses are the only human poxviruses that produce pocks on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of fertile chicken eggs; pock morphology is useful for biologic species and variant differentiation. Parapoxviruses, yatapoxviruses, and MCV do not form pocks on the CAM, although avipoxviruses, leporipoxviruses, and capripoxviruses do so. Serologic methods currently used to detect antibodies against human orthopoxviruses include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the virus neutralization test (NT), Western blotting, and hemagglutination inhibition. In the current state of bioterrorism response awareness, tests to evaluate residual protection from previous vaccination are being requested.

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Image of FIGURE 1

A negative-stain electron micrograph demonstrates the two forms of the brick-shaped monkeypox virus from a cell culture. The surfaces of M (mulberry) virions are covered with short, whorled filaments, while C (capsular)-form virions penetrated by stain present as a sharply defined, dense core surrounded by several laminated zones of differing densities. (Image 3945 from the CDC Public Health Image Library; courtesy of C. Goldsmith, I. Damon, and S. Zaki.)

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Image of FIGURE 2

Vaccinia virus (“Dryvax”) CPE in FHRK-4 cells. (A) Early CPE; (B) mature CPE. (Courtesy of V. Olson.)

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Image of FIGURE 3

Monkeypox virus (Congo Basin clade, v79-I-005) CPE in FRHK-4 cells. (A) Early CPE; (B) mature CPE with syncytia. (Courtesy of V. Olson.)

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Taxonomy of poxviruses that infect humans

Causes milker's nodule in humans.

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Diagnostic tests for poxviruses

Abbreviations: HP, histopathology; EM, electron microscopy; HA, hemagglutination; NAT, nucleic acid test. X's indicate the utility of the tests for the specified viruses.

Pock formation on CAM and tissue culture isolation are useful.

Isolation in tissue culture only; viruses do not produce pocks on CAM.

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Conventional PCR assays for orthopoxvirus detection

Amplicons are digested with specified restriction enzymes to distinguish different viruses.

To distinguish monkeypox, variola, and cowpox viruses.

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105
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Real-time PCR assays for poxvirus detection

Orthopoxvirus assays use the target's Vaccinia-Copenhagen nomenclature. YLDV, Yaba-like disease virus; YMTV, Yaba monkey tumor virus; nt, nucleotides.

Citation: Damon I. 2011. Poxviruses, p 1647-1658. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch105

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