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The taxonomy of has been in flux, and this genus has now been subdivided into subgenera and sections. In practice, species are identified mainly on the basis of phenotypic characteristics of the anamorph. Early monographic treatments also included descriptions of the teleomorph. In general, colonies usually grow very rapidly, producing powdery white, green, yellowish, brown, or black colonies. Several species also produce mycotoxins which are harmful to humans and animals when ingested. still accounts for most cases of aspergillosis, with and being the other more common pathogenic species worldwide. There has also been an increase in reports demonstrating the recovery of previously recognized species, such as and , from human infections. Importantly, these species appear to have different in vitro susceptibility patterns and show differences in clinical disease. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactivity was reported for certain beta-lactam antibacterial agents and, more recently, for patients treated with piperacillintazobactam and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The ELISA reactivity observed in batches of these antibiotics might be due to the use of fungi for the production of the antibacterial agents. The internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA have been found to be more discriminatory than the 28S ribosomal subunit for identification of 13 clinically important species. PCR-based assays utilizing these sequences have also been developed. , a member of the subgenus , is considered as the only true pathogen.

Citation: Arunmozhi Balajee S, Brandt M. 2011. and , p 1836-1852. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch117
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Image of FIGURE 1

Key to representative species of (Reprinted from reference with permission from the publisher.)

Citation: Arunmozhi Balajee S, Brandt M. 2011. and , p 1836-1852. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch117
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Image of FIGURE 2

(A) Section of lung, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showing dichotomously branched hyphae of in invasive aspergillosis. (B) colony on potato dextrose agar. (C) colony on potato dextrose agar. (D) showing cleistothecia. (E) colony on malt extract agar. (F) showing biseriate head, brown stipe, and Hülle cells. (G) Colony of showing diffusing red pigment on Sabouraud dextrose agar after 7 days. Note that several species produce diffusible red pigments. (H) Compact biverticillate penicillus of .

Citation: Arunmozhi Balajee S, Brandt M. 2011. and , p 1836-1852. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch117
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Generic image for table

Classification of infection

Other fungi discussed in this chapter may present with similar clinical syndromes, and their structures in tissue may resemble those of species.

Citation: Arunmozhi Balajee S, Brandt M. 2011. and , p 1836-1852. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch117
Generic image for table

Characteristics of some medically important species grown on identification media

Modified from previous versions of this chapter.

Modern concepts have replaced group names with subgenera and sections.

Refer to “Taxonomy” and “Identification” in the section of this chapter for descriptions of terms.

Only species producing potent toxins are noted as toxigenic, but other species may produces toxins of lesser significance.

Citation: Arunmozhi Balajee S, Brandt M. 2011. and , p 1836-1852. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch117

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