Chapter 142 : Filarial Nematodes

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This chapter talks about three lymphatic-dwelling filarial parasites of humans: , , and . Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is associated with a variety of clinical manifestations. The four most common presentations are asymptomatic (or subclinical) microfilaremia, lymphedema, hydrocele, and acute attacks. Lymphedema most commonly affects the lower extremities but can also affect arms, breasts in females, and the scrotum in males. Diagnosis of bancroftian and brugian filarial infection can be made noninvasively in some cases by ultrasound. Recent developments in immunodiagnostic and molecular biology techniques give further options for diagnosis. The current global elimination campaign uses three drugs: DEC, ivermectin, and albendazol, in various combinations for mass treatment of communities where the parasites are endemic. Next, the chapter talks about . The major disease manifestations of onchocerciasis are localized to the skin, lymph nodes, and eyes. Finally, the chapter discusses , and infections. The adult worms of reside in the body cavities (pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal) as well as in the mesentery and the perirenal and retroperitoneal tissues. The major clinical manifestations of infections are related to the skin: pruritus, papular rashes, and pigmentation changes. For infections, diagnosis is made parasitologically by finding the microfilariae in the blood or in other body fluids. The diagnosis of streptocerciasis can be made by finding the characteristic microfilariae on skin-snip examination. The chapter describes treatment and prevention methods for , , and .

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142
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Image of FIGURE 1

Common microfilariae found in humans. Organisms are stained with hematoxylin. Magnification, ×325. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) .

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142
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Image of FIGURE 2

Diagrammatic representation of the anterior and posterior extremities of the common microfilariae found in humans. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) .

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142
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Filarial parasites of humans

Citation: Fink D, Nutman T. 2011. Filarial Nematodes , p 2212-2221. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch142

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